topANTIQUITIES--1

From the Creation to Isaac's death

Introduction

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Prologue: προοίμιον περὶ τῆς ὅλης πραγματείας .
Introduction concerning the whole work

Chapter 1: τοῦ κόσμου σύστασις καὶ διάταξις τῶν στοιχείων .
Creation of the World; First Parents

Chapter 2: περὶ τοῦ γένους Ἀδάμου καὶ τῶν ἀπ’ αὐτοῦ‎ δέκα γενεῶν τῶν μέχρι τοῦ ὡς .
Generations from Adam to Noah

Chapter 3: ὡς κατακλυσμὸς ἐγένετο καὶ ὃν τρόπον Νῶχος σωθεὶς ἐν λάρνακι μετὰ τῶν συγγενῶν κατῴκησεν ἐν τῷ Σινάρῳ πεδίῳ .
Noah's Ark. Settling in Shinar

Chapter 4: ὡς πύργος , ὃν οἱ παῖδες αὐτοῦ‎ ἐφ’ ὕβρει τοῦ θεοῦ ᾠκοδόμησαν , καὶ ὡς τὰς φωνὰς αὐτῶν μετέβαλε καὶ τόπος , ἐν τοῦτο γέγονε , Βαβυλὼν ἐκλήθη .
Tower of Babel; splitting of language

Chapter 5: ὡς οἱ Νώχου ἔγγονοι πᾶσαν τὴν οἰκουμένην ἐπῴκησαν .
Noah's progeny spread over the earth

Chapter 6: ὅτι τῶν ἐθνῶν ἕκαστον ἀπὸ τῶν οἰκισάντων προσηγορεύθη .
Nations named from the children of Noah

Chapter 7: ὅπως Ἅβραμος πρόγονος ἡμῶν ἐξελθὼν ἐκ τῆς Χαλδαίων γῆς κατέσχε τὴν τότε μὲν Χαναναίαν νῦν δὲ Ἰουδαίαν λεγομένην .
Abram to the land of Canaan; his monotheism

Chapter 8: ὅτι λιμοῦ τὴν Χαναναίαν καταλαβόντος εἰς Αἴγυπτον ἀπῆρε καὶ διατρίψας ἐν αὐτῇ τινα χρόνον ὑπέστρεψεν ὀπίσω .
Famine; Abram to Egypt and back to Canaan

Chapter 9: ἧττα Σοδομιτῶν Ἀσσυρίων αὐτοῖς ἐπιστρατευσάντων .
The Assyrians fight against Sodom

Chapter 10: ὡς Ἅβραμος ἐπὶ τοὺς Ἀσσυρίους ἐκστρατεύσας ἐνίκησε καὶ τοὺς αἰχμαλώτους τῶν Σοδομιτῶν ἔσωσε καὶ τὴν λείαν ἣν ἔλαβον ἀφείλετο .
Abram saves Lot; Melchisedek blesses him

Chapter 11: πῶς τὸ Σοδομιτῶν ἔθνος θεὸς κατεστρέψατο χολωθεὶς αὐτοῖς ἐφ’ οἷς ἡμάρτανον .
God punishes Sodom for its sins

Chapter 12: περὶ Ἰσμαήλου τοῦ Ἁβράμου καὶ τῶν ἐγγόνων αὐτοῦ‎ Ἀράβων .
Ishmael is born to Hagar

Chapter 13: περὶ Ἰσάκου , ὃς ἦν γνήσιος παῖς Ἁβράμου .
The sacrifice of Isaac; God's promise

Chapter 14: περὶ Σάρρας τῆς Ἁβράμου γυναικός , καὶ πῶς τὸν βίον κατέστρεψεν .
The death of Abraham's wife, Sarah

Chapter 15: ὡς ἐκ Κατούρης Ἁβράμῳ γαμηθείσης τὸ τῶν Τρωγλοδυτῶν Ἀράβων ἔθνος ἐγεννήθη .
Abraham fathers the Troglodytes1

1Although it means "cave-men," it does refer to the six sons of Keturah: Zimran, Jokshan, Medan, Midian, Ishbak, and Shuah (Gen. 25:2). And refers to an Ethiopian tribe.

Chapter 16: περὶ τῆς Ἁβράμῳ τελευτῆς .
Isaac meets and marries Rebecca

Chapter 17: περὶ τῆς Ἰσάκου παίδων Ἡσαῦ καὶ Ἰακώβου γενέσεως καὶ διατροφῆς .
The death and burial of Abraham

Chapter 18: Ἰακώβου φυγὴ εἰς τὴν Μεσοποταμίαν καὶ τὸν ἐκ τἀδελφοῦ φόβον , καὶ ὡς γήμας ἐκεῖ καὶ δώδεκα γεννήσας παῖδας πάλιν εἰς τὴν Χαναναίαν ἐπανῆλθεν .
Esau and Jacob, children of Isaac

Chapter 19: ὡς Ἴσακος τελευτήσας ἐτάφη ἐν Νεβρῶνι .
Jacob flees; marries Leah and Rachel

Chapter 20: περιέχει βίβλος χρόνον ἐτῶν ὡς Ἰώσηπος γη .
Jacob and Esau are reconciled

Chapter 21 Ἰάκωβος δὲ ἀφίκετο εἰς τὰς ἔτι νῦν Σκηνὰς λεγομένας , ὅθεν εἰς Σίκιμον παρῆν ·
Dinah's brothers take bloody revenge

Chapter 22 Παρῆν δ’ ἐντεῦθεν ἐπὶ Νεβρῶνα πόλιν ἐν Χαναναίοις κειμένην ·
Isaac's death; his burial in Hebron

Chapter & Paragraph numbers as in Whiston .
[Verse numbers] as in Niese's Greek edition.
Prologue
[vv 1-26]
[1] Τοῖς τὰς ἱστορίας συγγράφειν βουλομένοις οὐ μίαν οὐδὲ τὴν αὐτὴν ὁρῶ τῆς σπουδῆς γινομένην αἰτίαν , ἀλλὰ πολλὰς καὶ πλεῖστον ἀλλήλων διαφερούσας . 001I notice that people setting out to write histories do not always take up that work for one single reason, but for many and varied reasons.
[2] τινὲς μὲν γὰρ ἐπιδεικνύμενοι λόγων δεινότητα καὶ τὴν ἀπ’ αὐτῆς θηρευόμενοι δόξαν ἐπὶ τοῦτο τῆς παιδείας τὸ μέρος ὁρμῶσιν , ἄλλοι δὲ χάριν ἐκείνοις φέροντες , περὶ ὧν τὴν ἀναγραφὴν εἶναι συμβέβηκε , τὸν εἰς αὐτὴν πόνον καὶ παρὰ δύναμιν ὑπέστησαν · 002 Some apply themselves to this branch of learning in order to show off their writing skill and so gain fame for their erudition; others seek to gratify people who were involved in the events and try to achieve this, even when the project surpasses their abilities.
[3] εἰσὶ δ’ οἵτινες ἐβιάσθησαν ὑπ’ αὐτῆς τῆς τῶν πραγμάτων ἀνάγκης οἷς πραττομένοις παρέτυχον ταῦτα γραφῇ δηλούσῃ περιλαβεῖν · πολλοὺς δὲ χρησίμων μέγεθος πραγμάτων ἐν ἀγνοίᾳ κειμένων προύτρεψε τὴν περὶ αὐτῶν ἱστορίαν εἰς κοινὴν ὠφέλειαν ἐξενεγκεῖν . 003 Still others are driven by a sense of duty, for having taken part in the events they feel they must record them. For some, finally, it is greatness of the events that makes them wish to bring them from obscurity into the light, for the benefit of the public.

[4] τούτων δὴ τῶν προειρημένων αἰτιῶν αἱ τελευταῖαι δύο κἀμοὶ συμβεβήκασι · τὸν μὲν γὰρ πρὸς τοὺς Ῥωμαίους πόλεμον ἡμῖν τοῖς Ἰουδαίοις γενόμενον καὶ τὰς ἐν αὐτῷ πράξεις καὶ τὸ τέλος οἷον ἀπέβη πείρᾳ μαθὼν ἐβιάσθην ἐκδιηγήσασθαι διὰ τοὺς ἐν τῷ γράφειν λυμαινομένους τὴν ἀλήθειαν .
004 Of all these reasons for writing history, I am affected by the last two. For since I was myself involved in that war which we Jews fought against the Romans and have first hand knowledge of its details and its conclusion, I needed to write about it since others in their writings have distorted the truth about it.
[5] ταύτην δὲ τὴν ἐνεστῶσαν ἐγκεχείρισμαι πραγματείαν νομίζων ἅπασι φανεῖσθαι τοῖς Ἕλλησιν ἀξίαν σπουδῆς · μέλλει γὰρ περιέξειν ἅπασαν τὴν παρ’ ἡμῖν ἀρχαιολογίαν καὶ διάταξιν τοῦ πολιτεύματος ἐκ τῶν Ἑβραϊκῶν μεθηρμηνευμένην γραμμάτων . 005 I undertake the present work in the belief that all who know Greek will find it worthy of their attention. It will explain our past history and the constitution of our government, as interpreted from the Hebrew Scriptures.

[6] ἤδη μὲν οὖν καὶ πρότερον διενοήθην , ὅτε τὸν πόλεμον συνέγραφον , δηλῶσαι τίνες ὄντες ἐξ ἀρχῆς Ἰουδαῖοι καὶ τίσι χρησάμενοι τύχαις ὑφ’ οἵῳ τε παιδευθέντες νομοθέτῃ τὰ πρὸς εὐσέβειαν καὶ τὴν ἄλλην ἄσκησιν ἀρετῆς πόσους τε πολέμους ἐν μακροῖς πολεμήσαντες χρόνοις εἰς τὸν τελευταῖον ἄκοντες πρὸς Ῥωμαίους κατέστησαν .
006 It was my intention to explain in my earlier book, about the War, who the Jews originally were, the fortunes that came to them, the laws by which they were taught piety and the practice of other virtues, and also the wars they fought in ages past, before being unwillingly dragged into this recent war with the Romans.
[7] ἀλλ’ ἐπειδὴ μείζων ἦν ἡτοῦδε τοῦ λόγου περιβολή , κατ’ αὐτὸν ἐκεῖνον χωρίσας ταῖς ἰδίαις ἀρχαῖς αὐτοῦ‎ καὶ τῷ τέλει τὴν γραφὴν συνεμέτρησα ·
χρόνου δὲ προϊόντος , ὅπερ φιλεῖ τοῖς μεγάλων ἅπτεσθαι διανοουμένοις , ὄκνος μοι καὶ μέλλησις ἐγίνετο τηλικαύτην μετενεγκεῖν ὑπόθεσιν εἰς ἀλλοδαπὴν ἡμῖν καὶ ξένην διαλέκτου συνήθειαν .
007 But as that would have made that work too long, I set it aside to form a separate work, with its own proper beginning and ending.
However, in the course of time, as often happens when one undertakes so large a project, I grew weary and made slow progress, since it is a major and toilsome task to interpret our history into a foreign, to us unfamiliar, tongue.
[8] ἦσαν δέ τινες , οἳ πόθῳ τῆς ἱστορίας ἐπ’ αὐτήν με προύτρεπον , καὶ μάλιστα δὴ πάντων Ἐπαφρόδιτος ἀνὴρ ἅπασαν μὲν ἰδέαν παιδείας ἠγαπηκώς , διαφερόντως δὲ χαίρων ἐμπειρίαις πραγμάτων , ἅτε δὴ μεγάλοις μὲν αὐτὸς ὁμιλήσας πράγμασι καὶ τύχαις πολυτρόποις , ἐν ἅπασι δὲ θαυμαστὴν φύσεως ἐπιδειξάμενος ἰσχὺν καὶ προαίρεσιν ἀρετῆς ἀμετακίνητον . 008 And yet some who wanted to know this history urged me to go on with it, and I yielded mainly to the persuasion of Epaphroditus, who loves learning of all kinds, but especially the knowledge of history, since he himself was involved in important events and in various turns of fortune, and has shown admirable firmness of character and a steadfast resolve through them all.
[9] τούτῳ δὴ πειθόμενος ὡς αἰεὶ τοῖς χρήσιμον καλόν τι πράττειν δυναμένοις συμφιλοκαλοῦντι καὶ ἐμαυτὸν αἰσχυνόμενος , εἰδόξαιμι ῥαθυμίᾳ πλέον τῷ περὶ τὰ κάλλιστα χαίρειν πόνῳ , προθυμότερον ἐπερρώσθην , ἔτι κἀκεῖνα πρὸς τοῖς εἰρημένοις λογισάμενος οὐ παρέργως , περί τετῶν ἡμετέρων προγόνων εἰ μεταδιδόναι τῶν τοιούτων ἤθελον , καὶ περὶ τῶν Ἑλλήνων εἴ τινες αὐτῶν γνῶναι τὰ παρ’ ἡμῖν ἐσπούδασαν . 009 He is always motivating people of ability towards whatever is useful and beneficial, to join their efforts to his own. So I was ashamed to let any laziness of disposition get the better of me, instead of devoting myself to what is worthwhile, and went on more cheerfully with my work. Besides these motives, I had others to think about: whether our ancestors wanted to share our knowledge, and whether any of the Greeks were eager to learn the story of our nation .
[10] Εὗρον τοίνυν , ὅτι Πτολεμαίων μὲν δεύτερος μάλιστα δὴ βασιλεὺς περὶ παιδείαν καὶ βιβλίων συναγωγὴν σπουδάσας ἐξαιρέτως ἐφιλοτιμήθη τὸν ἡμέτερον νόμον καὶ τὴν κατ’ αὐτὸν διάταξιν τῆς πολιτείας εἰς τὴν Ἑλλάδα φωνὴν μεταβαλεῖν , 010 I discovered that the second of the Ptolemy kings was deeply interested in learning and a collector of books. He was particularly eager to have our law and how we are ruled translated into Greek.
[11] δὲ τῶν παρ’ ἡμῖν ἀρχιερέων οὐδενὸς ἀρετῇ δεύτερος Ἐλεάζαρος τῷ προειρημένῳ βασιλεῖ ταύτης ἀπολαῦσαι τῆς ὠφελείας οὐκ ἐφθόνησε πάντως ἀντειπὼν ἄν , εἰ μὴ πάτριον ἦν ἡμῖν τὸ μηδὲν ἔχειν τῶν καλῶν ἀπόρρητον . 011 Our high priest Eleazar, who was second to none in virtue, did not refuse that king this favour, which he certainly would have done except for our ancestral custom of hiding nothing that is good.
[12] κἀμαυτῷ δὴ πρέπειν ἐνόμισα τὸ μὲν τοῦ ἀρχιερέως μιμήσασθαι μεγαλόψυχον , τῷ βασιλεῖ δὲ πολλοὺς ὁμοίως ὑπολαβεῖν καὶ νῦν εἶναι φιλομαθεῖς · οὐδὲ γὰρ πᾶσαν ἐκεῖνος ἔφθη λαβεῖν τὴν ἀναγραφήν , ἀλλὰ μόνα τὰ τοῦ νόμου παρέδοσαν οἱ πεμφθέντες ἐπὶ τὴν ἐξήγησιν εἰς τὴν Ἀλεξάνδρειαν · 012 So I thought that I should imitate our high priest's generosity and assume that today there are still many lovers of learning like the king. Yet even he did not receive not all of our writings, since those who were sent to Alexandria as interpreters gave him only the books of the Law.
[13] μυρία δ’ ἐστὶ τὰ δηλούμενα διὰ τῶν ἱερῶν γραμμάτων , ἅτε δὴ πεντακισχιλίων ἐτῶν ἱστορίας ἐναὐτοῖς ἐμπεριειλημμένης , καὶ παντοῖαι μέν εἰσι παράλογοι περιπέτειαι , πολλαὶ δὲ τύχαι πολέμων καὶ στρατηγῶν ἀνδραγαθίαι καὶ πολιτευμάτων μεταβολαί . 013 Countless matters are reported in our sacred books, for they contain the history of five thousand years and include many strange events, many hazards of war and great deeds of leaders, as well as changes in how we were ruled .
[14] τὸ σύνολον δὲ μάλιστά τις ἂν ἐκ ταύτης μάθοι τῆς ἱστορίας ἐθελήσας αὐτὴν διελθεῖν , ὅτι τοῖς μὲν θεοῦ γνώμῃ κατακολουθοῦσι καὶ τὰ καλῶς νομοθετηθέντα μὴ τολμῶσι παραβαίνειν πάντα κατορθοῦται πέρα πίστεως καὶ γέρας εὐδαιμονία πρόκειται παρὰ θεοῦ · καθ’ ὅσον δ’ ἂν ἀποστῶσι τῆς τούτων ἀκριβοῦς ἐπιμελείας , ἄπορα μὲν γίνεται τὰ πόριμα , τρέπεται δὲ εἰς συμφορὰς ἀνηκέστους τι ποτ’ ἂν ὡς ἀγαθὸν δρᾶν σπουδάσωσιν , 014Speaking generally, whoever reads this history can learn above all that things turn out well, even beyond expectation, for those who follow God's will and do not dare to break his excellent laws, and that the reward of happiness is promised by God; but when people turn aside in any way from their strict observance, what before was possible becomes impossible and any project they set about turns into an absolute disaster.

[15] ἤδη τοίνυν τοὺς ἐντευξομένους τοῖς βιβλίοις παρακαλῶ τὴν γνώμην θεῷ προσανέχειν καὶ δοκιμάζειν τὸν ἡμέτερον νομοθέτην , εἰ τήν τε φύσιν ἀξίως αὐτοῦ‎ κατενόησε καὶ τῇ δυνάμει πρεπούσας ἀεὶ τὰς πράξεις ἀνατέθεικε πάσης καθαρὸν τὸν περὶ αὐτοῦ‎ φυλάξας λόγον τῆς παρ’ ἄλλοις ἀσχήμονος μυθολογίας ·
015So now I urge all who read these books to apply their minds to God and to consider whether our Legislator has properly understood His nature and attributed to Him only such acts as become His power, and kept his words about Him unstained by those indecent myths current among others, even though, dealing with matters of so long ago, he might have allowed himself the use of such fictions.
[16] καίτοι γε ὅσον ἐπὶ μήκει χρόνου καὶ παλαιότητι πολλὴν εἶχεν χρόνου ψευδῶν πλασμάτων · γέγονε γὰρ πρὸ ἐτῶν δισχιλίων , ἐφ’ ὅσον πλῆθος αἰῶνος οὐδ’ αὐτῶν οἱ ποιηταὶ τὰς ἀκριβείας τῶν θεῶν , μήτι γε τὰς τῶν ἀνθρώπων πράξεις τοὺς νόμους ἀνενεγκεῖν ἐτόλμησαν . 016For he was born two thousand years ago, even farther back in time than the poets dare to set as the birth of their gods, much less the actions or the laws of human beings.
[17] τὰ μὲν οὖν ἀκριβῆ τῶν ἐν ταῖς ἀναγραφαῖς προϊὼν λόγος κατὰ τὴν οἰκείαν τάξιν σημανεῖ · τοῦτο γὰρ διὰ ταύτης ποιήσειν τῆς πραγματείας ἐπηγγειλάμην οὐδὲν προσθεὶς οὐδ’ αὖ παραλιπών . 017I will proceed, therefore, to describe in detail and in order what is contained in our records. For that is the procedure I have promised to follow throughout this work, without adding or omitting anything .
[18] Ἐπειδὴ δὲ πάντα σχεδὸν ἐκ τῆς τοῦ νομοθέτου σοφίας ἡμῖν ἀνήρτηται Μωυσέος , ἀνάγκη μοι βραχέα περὶ ἐκείνου προειπεῖν , ὅπως μή τινες τῶν ἀναγνωσομένων διαπορῶσι , πόθεν ἡμῖν λόγος περὶ νόμων καὶ πράξεων ἔχων τὴν ἀναγραφὴν ἐπὶ τοσοῦτον φυσιολογίας κεκοινώνηκεν . 018But as almost everything in it depends on the wisdom of Moses our Legislator, I must first briefly say something about him, or otherwise those who read my book may wonder how it is that my discourse about laws and historical events, enters so much into philosophy.
[19] ἰστέον οὖν , ὅτι πάντων ἐκεῖνος ἀναγκαιότατον ἡγήσατο τῷ καὶ τὸν ἑαυτοῦ μέλλοντι βίον οἰκονομήσειν καλῶς καὶ τοῖς ἄλλοις νομοθετεῖν θεοῦ πρῶτον φύσιν κατανοῆσαι καὶ τῶν ἔργων τῶν ἐκείνου θεατὴν τῷ νῷ γενόμενον οὕτως παράδειγμα τὸ πάντων ἄριστον μιμεῖσθαι καθ’ ὅσον οἷόν τε καὶ πειρᾶσθαι κατακολουθεῖν . 019The reader must realise that Moses deemed it vital that one who would live his own life well and give laws to others, must in the first place consider the divine nature, and contemplate God's actions so as to imitate the best of all patterns, so far as is possible for human nature, and try to persevere in it.
[20] οὔτε γὰρ αὐτῷ ποτ’ ἂν γενέσθαι νοῦν ἀγαθὸν τῷ νομοθέτῃ ταύτης ἀπολειπομένῳ τῆς θέας , οὔτε τῶν γραφησομένων εἰς ἀρετῆς λόγον οὐδὲν ἀποβήσεσθαι τοῖς λαβοῦσιν , εἰ μὴ πρὸπαντὸς ἄλλου διδαχθεῖεν , ὅτι πάντων πατήρ τε καὶ δεσπότης θεὸς ὢν καὶ πάντα ἐπιβλέπων τοῖς μὲν ἑπομένοις αὐτῷ δίδωσιν εὐδαίμονα βίον , τοὺς ἔξω δὲ βαίνοντας ἀρετῆς μεγάλαις περιβάλλει συμφοραῖς . 020Without such contemplation the Legislator himself could not be in the right frame mind, nor would what he wrote go to promote virtue in his readers. I mean, they must be taught first of all that God is the Father and Lord of all things, who sees all things, and that He grants a happy life to those who follow Him, but plunges into inevitable misery those who do not walk in the paths of virtue.
[21] τοῦτο δὴ παιδεῦσαι βουληθεὶς Μωυσῆς τὸ παίδευμα τοὺς ἑαυτοῦ πολίτας τῆς τῶν νόμων θέσεως οὐκ ἀπὸ συμβολαίων καὶ τῶν πρὸς ἀλλήλους δικαίων ἤρξατο τοῖς ἄλλοις παραπλησίως , ἀλλ’ ἐπὶ τὸν θεὸν καὶ τὴν τοῦ κόσμου κατασκευὴν τὰς γνώμας αὐτῶν ἀναγαγὼν καὶ πείσας , ὅτι τῶν ἐπὶ γῆς ἔργων τοῦ θεοῦ κάλλιστόν ἐσμεν ἄνθρωποι , ὅτε πρὸς τὴν εὐσέβειαν ἔσχεν ὑπακούοντας , ῥᾳδίως ἤδη περὶ πάντων ἔπειθεν . 021When Moses wished to teach his countrymen this lesson, he did not begin establishing his laws in the same way that other legislators do, based on contracts and rights between one man and another, but by raising their minds towards God and his creation of the world, and by persuading them that we humans are God's most excellent creatures upon earth. Once they obeyed God, they were easily persuaded in all things.
[22] οἱ μὲν γὰρ ἄλλοι νομοθέται τοῖς μύθοις ἐξακολουθήσαντες τῶν ἀνθρωπίνων ἁμαρτημάτων εἰς τοὺς θεοὺς τῷ λόγῳ τὴν αἰσχύνην μετέθεσαν καὶ πολλὴν καὶ πολλὴν ὑποτίμησιν τοῖς πονηροῖς ἔδωκαν · 022Other legislators promoted fables and in their words attributed the most shameful of human vices to the gods and provided bad men with the most plausible excuses for their crimes,
[23] δ’ ἡμέτερος νομοθέτης ἀκραιφνῆτὴν ἀρετὴν ἔχοντα τὸν θεὸν ἀποφήνας ᾠήθη δεῖν τοὺς ἀνθρώπους ἐκείνης πειρᾶσθαι μεταλαμβάνειν καὶ τοὺς μὴ ταῦτα φρονοῦντας μηδὲ μὴν πιστεύοντας ἀπαραιτήτως ἐκόλασε . 023while our Legislator, having once shown God as perfect in virtue, believed that men should strive to share in this, and severely reproached those who did not so hold and believe .
[24] πρὸς ταύτην οὖν τὴν ὑπόθεσιν ποιεῖσθαι τὴν ἐξέτασιντοὺς ἀναγνωσομένους παρακαλῶ · φανεῖται γὰρ σκοπουμένοις οὕτως οὐδὲν οὔτ’ ἄλογον αὐτοῖς οὔτε πρὸς τὴν μεγαλειότητα τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ τὴν φιλανθρωπίαν ἀνάρμοστον · πάντα γὰρ τῇ τῶν ὅλων φύσει σύμφωνον ἔχει τὴν διάθεσιν , τὰ μὲν αἰνιττομένου τοῦ νομοθέτου δεξιῶς , τὰ δ’ ἀλληγοροῦντος μετὰ σεμνότητος , ὅσα δ’ ἐξ εὐθείας λέγεσθαι συνέφερε , ταῦτα ῥητῶς ἐμφανίζοντος . 024I beg my readers then, to examine this whole undertaking from that viewpoint. Then they will see that there is nothing in it against either the majesty of God, or his love towards mankind, for all things here have a reference to the nature of the universe. Our Legislator speaks wisely, but sometimes enigmatically and in devtional allegory, but he speaks plainly and explicitly when necessary.

[25] τοῖς μέντοι βουλομένοις καὶ τὰς αἰτίας ἑκάστου σκοπεῖν πολλὴ γένοιτ’ ἂν θεωρία καὶ λίαν φιλόσοφος , ἣν ἐγὼ νῦν μὲν ὑπερβάλλομαι , θεοῦ δὲ διδόντος ἡμῖν χρόνον πειράσομαι μετὰ ταύτην γράψαι τὴν πραγματείαν .
025However, those who desire to know the reasons of everything, may find here a very curious philosophical theory, which I refrain from explaining here and now, but if God gives me time I will write it when I have finished the present work.
[26] τρέψομαι δὲ ἐπὶ τὴν ἀφήγησιν ἤδη τῶν πραγμάτων μνησθεὶς πρότερον ὧν περὶ τῆς τοῦ κόσμου κατασκευῆς εἶπε Μωυσῆς · ταῦτα δ’ ἐν ταῖς ἱεραῖς βίβλοις εὗρον ἀναγεγραμμένα . ἔχει δὲ οὕτως · 026I shall set myself to the history before me, after first mentioning what Moses says about the creation of the world, as I find it described in the sacred books .

Chapter 1
[vv 27-51]
God’s Creation. Adam and Eve
[27] Ἐν ἀρχῇ ἔκτισεν θεὸς τὸν οὐρανὸν καὶ τὴν γῆν . ταύτης δ’ ὑπ’ ὄψιν οὐκ ἐρχομένης , ἀλλὰ βαθεῖ μὲν κρυπτομένης σκότει , πνεύματος δ’ αὐτὴν ἄνωθεν ἐπιθέοντος , γενέσθαι φῶς ἐκέλευσεν θεός . 027In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. While this lay invisible in thick darkness, with a wind moving across its surface, God commaned that there should be light.
[28] καὶ γενομένου τούτου κατανοήσας τὴν ὅλην ὕλην διεχώρισε τό τε φῶς καὶ τὸ σκότος καὶ τῷ μὲν ὄνομα ἔθετο νύκτα , τὸ δὲ ἡμέραν ἐκάλεσεν ἑσπέραν τε καὶ ὄρθρον τὴν ἀρχὴν τοῦ φωτὸς καὶ τὴν ἀνάπαυσιν προσαγορεύσας . 028When this was made, he looked on the entire mass and separated light from darkness, and named them Night and Day, giving the name Evening to the time of rest and Morning to the dawning of light.
[29] καὶ αὕτη μὲν ἂν εἴη πρώτη ἡμέρα , Μωυσῆς δ’ αὐτὴν μίαν εἶπε · τὴν δὲ αἰτίαν ἱκανὸς μέν εἰμι ἀποδοῦναι καὶ νῦν , ἐπεὶ δ’ ὑπέσχημαι τὴν αἰτιολογίαν πάντων ἰδίᾳ συγγραψάμενος παραδώσειν , εἰς τότε καὶ τὴν περὶ αὐτῆς ἑρμηνείαν ἀναβάλλομαι . 029This was to be the first day, for Moses called it "day one ." I could give the reason for this now, but as I have promised to give the causes for everything in a separate treatise, I shall postpone its explanation until then .
[30] μετὰ δὴ τοῦτο τῇ δευτέρᾳ τῶν ἡμερῶν τὸν οὐρανὸν τοῖς ὅλοις ἐπιτίθησιν , ὅτ’ αὐτὸν ἀπὸ τῶν ἄλλων διακρίνας κατ’ αὐτὸν ἠξίωσε τετάχθαι , κρύσταλλόν τε περιπήξας αὐτῷ καὶ νότιον αὐτὸν καὶ ὑετώδη πρὸς τὴν ἀπὸ τῶν δρόσων ὠφέλειαν ἁρμοδίως τῇ γῇ μηχανησάμενος . 030After that, on the second day, he placed the heaven above the whole world, deciding that it should stand apart, and placing a firmament around it he arranged it in harmony with the earth, to supply moisture and rain and dews according to need.
[31] τῇ δὲ τρίτῃ ἵστησι τὴν γῆν ἀναχέας περὶ αὐτὴν τὴν θάλασσαν · κατ’ αὐτὴν δὲ ταύτην τὴν ἡμέραν εὐθὺς φυτά τε καὶ σπέρματα γῆθεν ἀνέτειλε . τῇ τετάρτῃ δὲ διακοσμεῖ τὸν οὐρανὸν ἡλίῳ καὶ σελήνῃ καὶ τοῖς ἄλλοις ἄστροις κινήσεις αὐτοῖς ἐπιστείλας καὶ δρόμους , οἷς ἂν αἱ τῶν ὡρῶν περιφοραὶ σημαίνοιντο . 031On the third day he made dry land appear, and around it the sea. That same day he made the plants and the seeds spring up from the earth. On the fourth day he adorned the heaven with the sun, the moon and the other stars and set them in their motions and orbits, to mark the changes of the seasons.
[32] πέμπτῃ ἡμέρᾳ ζῷά τε κατ’ αὐτὴν νηκτὰ καὶ μετάρσια τὰ μὲν κατὰ βάθους τὰ δὲ δι’ ἀέρος ἀνῆκε συνδησάμενος αὐτὰ κοινωνίᾳ καὶ μίξει γονῆς ἕνεκα καὶ τοῦ συναύξεσθαι καὶ πλεονάζειν αὐτῶν τὴν φύσιν . τῇ δὲ ἕκτῃ ἡμέρᾳ δημιουργεῖ τὸ τῶν τετραπόδων γένος ἄρρεν τε καὶ θῆλυ ποιήσας · ἐν ταύτῃ δὲ καὶ τὸν ἄνθρωπον ἔπλασε . 032On the fifth day he made living creatures, both those that swim and those that fly, in the sea and in the air. He arranged their intercourse and coupling for procreation, so that their kind might increase and multiply. On the sixth day he created four-footed beasts, making them male and female and on the same day he formed humankind.
[33] καὶ τὸν κόσμον ἓξ ταῖς πάσαις ἡμέραις Μωυσῆς καὶ πάντα τὰ ἐν αὐτῷ φησὶ γενέσθαι , τῇ δὲ ἑβδόμῃ ἀναπαύσασθαι καὶ λαβεῖν ἀπὸ τῶν ἔργων ἐκεχειρίαν , ὅθεν καὶ ἡμεῖς σχολὴν ἀπὸ τῶν πόνων κατὰ ταύτην ἄγομεν τὴν ἡμέραν προσαγορεύοντες αὐτὴν σάββατα · δηλοῖ δὲ ἀνάπαυσιν κατὰ τὴν Ἑβραίων διάλεκτον τοὔνομα . 033So Moses says that in just six days the world and all that is in it was made, and that the seventh day he rested and took repose from labour. That is why we celebrate a rest from our labours on that day and call it the Sabbath, a word which in Hebrew means Rest.
[34] Καὶ δὴ καὶ φυσιολογεῖν Μωυσῆς μετὰ τὴν ἑβδόμην ἤρξατο περὶ τῆς τἀνθρώπου κατασκευῆς λέγων οὕτως · ἔπλασεν θεὸς τὸν ἄνθρωπον χοῦν ἀπὸ τῆς γῆς λαβών , καὶ πνεῦμα ἐνῆκεν αὐτῷ καὶ ψυχήν . δ’ ἄνθρωπος οὗτος Ἄδαμος ἐκλήθη · σημαίνει δὲ τοῦτο κατὰ γλῶτταν τὴν Ἑβραίων πυρρόν , ἐπειδήπερ ἀπὸ τῆς πυρρᾶς γῆς φυραθείσης ἐγεγόνει · τοιαύτη γάρ ἐστιν παρθένος γῆ καὶ ἀληθινή . 034Then after the seventh day, Moses begins to treat of nature, telling about the formation of man, how God took dust from the ground and formed man and placed within him spirit and soul. This man was called Adam, which in the Hebrew tongue means Red, as he was formed from red earth, for virgin and true earth is of that colour.
[35] παρίστησι δὲ θεὸς τῷ Ἀδάμῳ κατὰ γένη τὰ ζῷα θῆλύ τε καὶ ἄρρεν ἀποδειξάμενος καὶ τούτοις ὀνόματα τίθησιν , οἷς ἔτι καὶ νῦν καλοῦνται . βλέπων δὲ τὸν Ἄδαμον οὐκ ἔχοντα κοινωνίαν πρὸς τὸ θῆλυ καὶ συνδιαίτησιν , οὐδὲ γὰρ ἦν , ξενιζόμενον δ’ ἐπὶ τοῖς ἄλλοις ζῴοις οὕτως ἔχουσι , μίαν αὐτοῦ‎ κοιμωμένου πλευρὰν ἐξελὼν ἐξ αὐτῆς ἔπλασε γυναῖκα . 035Then God presented to Adam the living creatures, male and female, which he had made according to their kinds, and he gave them the names by which they are still called. When He saw how Adam had no female for companionship, for there was none, and noticed how the other animals had this, He put him to sleep and took one of his ribs and from it formed a woman.
[36] καὶ Ἄδαμος προσαχθεῖσαν αὐτὴν ἐγνώρισεν ἐξ αὑτοῦ γενομένην . ἔσσα δὲ καθ’ Ἑβραίων διάλεκτον καλεῖται γυνή , τὸ δ’ ἐκείνης ὄνομα τῆς γυναικὸς Εὔα ἦν · σημαίνει δὲ τοῦτο πάντων μητέρα . 036When she was brought to him Adam recognised her as made from himself. In the Hebrew tongue a woman is called Issha, but the name of this woman was Eva, which means the mother of all living .
[37] Φησὶ δὲ τὸν θεὸν καὶ παράδεισον πρὸς τὴν ἀνατολὴν καταφυτεῦσαι παντοίῳ τεθηλότα φυτῷ · ἐν τούτοις δ’ εἶναι καὶ τῆς ζωῆς τὸ φυτὸν καὶ ἄλλο τὸ τῆς φρονήσεως , διεγινώσκετο τί εἴη τὸ ἀγαθὸν καὶ τί τὸ κακόν . 037He says that God planted a paradise in the east, with abundant plants of all sorts, and that among them was the plant of life and another of knowledge, for distinguishing good and evil.
[38] εἰς τοῦτον δὲ τὸν κῆπον εἰσαγαγόντα τόν τε Ἄδαμον καὶ τὴν γυναῖκα κελεῦσαι τῶν φυτῶν ἐπιμελεῖσθαι . ἄρδεται δ’ οὗτος κῆπος ὑπὸ ἑνὸς ποταμοῦ πᾶσαν ἐν κύκλῳ τὴν γῆν περιρρέοντος , ὃς εἰς τέσσαρα μέρη σχίζεται . καὶ Φεισὼν μέν , σημαίνει δὲ πληθὺν τοὔνομα , ἐπὶ τὴν Ἰνδικὴν φερόμενος ἐκδίδωσιν εἰς τὸ πέλαγος ὑφ’ Ἑλλήνων Γάγγης λεγόμενος , 038When He brought Adam and his wife into this garden, He told them to care for the plants. The garden was watered by one river, which ran round the whole earth and was divided into four sections: Phison, which denotes a large number, flows into India and into the sea and is called Ganges by the Greeks.
[39] Εὐφράτης δὲ καὶ Τίγρις ἐπὶ τὴν Ἐρυθρὰν ἀπίασι θάλασσαν · καλεῖται δὲ μὲν Εὐφράτης Φοράς , σημαίνει δὲ ἤτοι σκεδασμὸν ἄνθος , Τίγρις δὲ Διγλάθ , ἐξ οὗ φράζεται τὸ μετὰ στενότητος ὀξύ · Γηὼν δὲ διὰ τῆς Αἰγύπτου ῥέων δηλοῖ τὸν ἀπὸ τῆς ἐναντίας ἀναδιδόμενον ἡμῖν , ὃν δὴ Νεῖλον Ἕλληνες προσαγορεύουσιν . 039The Euphrates and the Tigris flow into the Red Sea. The name Euphrates, or Phoras, means either a dispersion or a flower, whereas Tigris, or Diglath, means what runs swiftly in a narrow channel. Geon which runs through Egypt means what rises on the other side from us, and the Greeks call it the Nile.
[40] δὴ τοίνυν θεὸς τὸν Ἄδαμον καὶ τὴν γυναῖκα τῶν μὲν ἄλλων φυτῶν ἐκέλευε γεύεσθαι , τοῦ δὲ τῆς φρονήσεως ἀπέχεσθαι , προειπὼν ἁψαμένοις ἀπ’ αὐτοῦ‎ ὄλεθρον γενησόμενον . [040] God told Adam and his wife to eat of all the rest of the plants, but to abstain from the tree of knowledge, and warned them that if they touched it, it would become their ruin.
[41] ὁμοφωνούντων δὲ κατ’ ἐκεῖνο καιροῦ τῶν ζῴων ἁπάντων ὄφις συνδιαιτώμενος τῷ τε Ἀδάμῳ καὶ τῇ γυναικὶ φθονερῶς μὲν εἶχεν ἐφ’ οἷς αὐτοὺς εὐδαιμονήσειν ᾤετο πεπεισμένους τοῖς τοῦ θεοῦ παραγγέλμασιν , 041While all living creatures at that time spoke the same language, the snake that lived alongside Adam and his wife envied them the happiness they would have if they were obedient to God's commands.
[42] οἰόμενος δὲ συμφορᾷ περιπεσεῖσθαι παρακούσαντας ἀναπείθει κακοήθως τὴν γυναῖκα γεύσασθαι τοῦ φυτοῦ τῆς φρονήσεως ἐν αὐτῷ λέγων εἶναι τήν τε τἀγαθοῦ καὶ τοῦ κακοῦ διάγνωσιν , ἧς γενομένης αὐτοῖς μακάριον καὶ μηδὲν ἀπολείποντα τοῦ θείου διάξειν βίον . 042Thinking that if they were to disobey they would fall into misfortune, he maliciously persuaded the woman to taste of the tree of knowledge, saying that in it lay the discernment of good and evil, and if they took possession of it they would lead a happy life no less than the Divinity.
[43] καὶ παρακρούεται μὲν οὕτω τὴν γυναῖκα τῆς ἐντολῆς τοῦ θεοῦ καταφρονῆσαι · γευσαμένη δὲ τοῦ φυτοῦ καὶ ἡσθεῖσα τῷ ἐδέσματι καὶ τὸν Ἄδαμον ἀνέπεισεν αὐτῷ χρήσασθαι . 043In this way he misled the woman to despise the command of God, and once she had tasted of the plant and liked it, she persuaded Adam to share it too.
[44] καὶ συνίεσάν τε αὑτῶν ἤδη γεγυμνωμένων καὶ τὴν αἰσχύνην ὕπαιθρον ἔχοντες σκέπην αὑτοῖς ἐπενόουν · τὸ γὰρ φυτὸν ὀξύτητος καὶ διανοίας ὑπῆρχε . φύλλοις οὖν ἑαυτοὺς συκῆς ἐσκέπασαν καὶ ταῦτα πρὸ τῆς αἰδοῦς προβαλόμενοι μᾶλλον ἐδόκουν εὐδαιμονεῖν ὡς ὧν πρότερον ἐσπάνιζον εὑρόντες . 044Then they found that they were naked to each other, and feeling ashamed to be so in public thought of some covering. The plant had sharpened their minds, so that they covered themselves with fig-leaves, and tying these in front for modesty's sake, they felt somewhat better, finding it what they previously lacked.
[45] τοῦ θεοῦ δ’ εἰς τὸν κῆπον ἐλθόντος μὲν Ἄδαμος πρότερον εἰς ὁμιλίαν αὐτῷ φοιτῶν συνειδὼς αὑτῷ τὴν ἀδικίαν ὑπεχώρει , τὸν δὲ θεὸν ἐξένιζε τὸ πραττόμενον καὶ τὴν αἰτίαν ἐπυνθάνετο , δι’ ἣν πρότερον ἡδόμενος τῇ πρὸς αὐτὸν ὁμιλίᾳ νῦν φεύγει ταύτην καὶ περιίσταται . 045When God came into the garden, Adam, who previously used to accompany Him, kept out of His way, conscious of his crime. God found this strange and asked the reason for it, and why he who previously enjoyed His company, now shunned and avoided it.
[46] τοῦ δὲ μηδὲν φθεγγομένου διὰ τὸ συγγινώσκειν ἑαυτῷ παραβάντι τὴν τοῦ θεοῦ πρόσταξινἀλλ’ ἐμοὶ μέν , εἶπεν θεός , ἔγνωστο περὶ ὑμῶν , ὅπως βίον εὐδαίμονα καὶ κακοῦ παντὸς ἀπαθῆ βιώσετε μηδεμιᾷ ξαινόμενοι τὴν ψυχὴν φροντίδι , πάντων δ’ ὑμῖν αὐτομάτων ὅσα πρὸς ἀπόλαυσιν καὶ ἡδονὴν συντελεῖ κατὰ τὴν ἐμὴν ἀνιόντων πρόνοιαν χωρὶς ὑμετέρου πόνου καὶ ταλαιπωρίας , ὧν παρόντων γῆράς τε θᾶττον οὐκ ἂν ἐπέλθοι καὶ τὸ ζῆν ὑμῖν μακρὸν γένοιτο . 046Knowing that he had disobeyed God's command, he said nothing, but God said, "I had planned for you to lead a happy life, with no hardship or care or worry of soul, with all things needed for your enjoyment and pleasure growing of their own accord by my providence, without your labour and toil, since a life of labour and toil would soon bring on old age, and death would not be far away.
[47] νῦν δ’ εἰς ταύτην μου τὴν γνώμην ἐνύβρισας παρακούσας τῶν ἐμῶν ἐντολῶν · οὐ γὰρ ἐπ’ ἀρετῇ τὴν σιωπὴν ἄγεις , ἀλλ’ ἐπὶ συνειδότι πονηρῷ.’ 047But now that you have spurned my will and disobeyed my commands, your silence does not spring from virtue but from a guilty conscience."
[48] Ἄδαμος δὲ παρῃτεῖτο τῆς ἁμαρτίας αὑτὸν καὶ παρεκάλει τὸν θεὸν μὴ χαλεπαίνειν αὐτῷ τὴν γυναῖκα τοῦ γεγονότος αἰτιώμενος καὶ λέγων ὑπ’ αὐτῆς ἐξαπατηθεὶς ἁμαρτεῖν , δ’ αὖ κατηγόρει τοῦ ὄφεως . 048Adam sought to excuse his sin and begged God not to be angry with him. He blamed his wife for the affair, saying that she had misled him into committing the offence, while she accused the snake .
[49] δὲ θεὸς ἥττονα γυναικείας συμβουλίας αὐτὸν γενόμενον ὑπετίθει τιμωρίᾳ , τὴν γῆν οὐκέτι μὲν οὐδὲν αὐτοῖς ἀναδώσειν αὐτομάτως εἰπών , πονοῦσι δὲ καὶ τοῖς ἔργοις τριβομένοις τὰ μὲν παρέξειν , τῶν δ’ οὐκ ἀξιώσειν . Εὔαν δὲ τοκετοῖς καὶ ταῖς ἐξ ὠδίνων ἀλγηδόσιν ἐκόλαζεν , ὅτι τὸν Ἄδαμον οἷς αὐτὴν ὄφις ἐξηπάτησε τούτοις παρακρουσαμένη συμφοραῖς περιέβαλεν . 049But God imposed a penalty on him for submitting to female advice, saying that the earth would no longer produce of its own accord, but would yield some of its fruits only under stress from their toil, and others it would not give at all. He subjected Eve to childbearing and the pains of birth because she misled Adam just as the snake had persuaded her, and so caused disaster.
[50] ἀφείλετο δὲ καὶ τὸν ὄφιν τὴν φωνὴν ὀργισθεὶς ἐπὶ τῇ κακοηθείᾳ τῇ πρὸς τὸν Ἄδαμον καὶ ἰὸν ἐντίθησιν ὑπὸ τὴν γλῶτταν αὐτῷ πολέμιον ἀποδείξας ἀνθρώποις καὶ ὑποθέμενος κατὰ τῆς κεφαλῆς φέρειν τὰς πληγάς , ὡς ἐν ἐκείνῃ τοῦ τε κακοῦ τοῦ πρὸς ἀνθρώπους κειμένου καὶ τῆς τελευτῆς ῥᾴστης τοῖς ἀμυνομένοις ἐσομένης , ποδῶν τε αὐτὸν ἀποστερήσας σύρεσθαι κατὰ τῆς γῆς ἰλυσπώμενον ἐποίησε . 050He deprived the snake of speech, angry at his malice towards Adam, putting poison under his tongue and making him an enemy to humans, which is why they aimed blows at his head, the place of his malice towards men, as the easiest way to take revenge on him. By depriving the snake of the use of his feet, He made him to crawl and wriggle along the ground.
[51] καὶ μὲν θεὸς ταῦτα προστάξας αὐτοῖς πάσχειν μετοικίζει τὸν Ἄδαμον καὶ τὴν Εὔαν ἐκ τοῦ κήπου εἰς ἕτερον χωρίον . 051Having set these penalties for them, God exiled Adam and Eve from the garden to another place.

Chapter 2
[vv 52-71]
From Adam to Noah
[52] Γίνονται δὲ αὐτοῖς παῖδες ἄρρενες δύο · προσηγορεύετο δὲ αὐτῶν μὲν πρῶτος Κάις , κτίσιν δὲ σημαίνει τοῦτο μεθερμηνευόμενον τοὔνομα , Ἄβελος δὲ δεύτερος , σημαίνει δὲ οὐθὲν τοῦτο · 52They had two male children of whom the elder was called Cain, which means "aquiring," and the younger was called Abel, which means "nothing," and they also had daughters.
[53] γίνονται δὲ αὐτοῖς καὶ θυγατέρες . οἱ μὲν οὖν ἀδελφοὶ διαφόροις ἔχαιρον ἐπιτηδεύμασιν · Ἄβελος μὲν γὰρ νεώτερος δικαιοσύνης ἐπεμελεῖτο καὶ πᾶσι τοῖς ὑπ’ αὐτοῦ‎ πραττομένοις παρεῖναι τὸν θεὸν νομίζων ἀρετῆς προενόει , ποιμενικὸς δ’ ἦν βίος αὐτῷ · Κάις δὲ τά τε ἄλλα πονηρότατος ἦν καὶ πρὸς τὸ κερδαίνειν μόνον ἀποβλέπων γῆν τε ἀροῦν ἐπενόησε πρῶτος καὶ κτείνει δὲ τὸν ἀδελφὸν ἐκ τοιαύτης αἰτίας · 053Now the two brothers chose different lifestyles. Abel, the younger, devoted himself to righteousness, and believing that God was present in all that he did, attended to virtue and lived the life of a shepherd. But Cain was very evil and in particular cared about profit, and it was he who first thought of ploughing the ground. He killed his brother for the following reason.
[54] θῦσαι τῷ θεῷ δόξαν αὐτοῖς μὲν Κάις τοὺς ἀπὸ τῆς γεωργίας καὶ φυτῶν καρποὺς ἐπήνεγκεν , Ἄβελος δὲ γάλα καὶ τὰ πρωτότοκα τῶν βοσκημάτων . δὲ θεὸς ταύτῃ μᾶλλον ἥδεται τῇ θυσίᾳ τοῖς αὐτομάτοις καὶ κατὰ φύσιν γεγονόσι τιμώμενος , ἀλλ’ οὐχὶ τοῖς κατ’ ἐπίνοιαν ἀνθρώπου πλεονέκτου βίᾳ πεφυκόσιν . 054They decided to sacrifice to God and Cain brought the fruits of the earth and of his farming, but Abel brought milk and the first-fruits of his flocks. God favoured this offering, preferring to be honoured by what grew naturally on its own than by what a covetous man had forced from the ground.
[55] ἔνθεν Κάις παροξυνθεὶς ἐπὶ τῷ προτετιμῆσθαι τὸν Ἄβελον ὑπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ κτείνει τὸν ἀδελφὸν καὶ τὸν νεκρὸν αὐτοῦ‎ ποιήσας ἀφανῆ λήσειν ὑπέλαβεν . δὲ θεὸς συνεὶς τὸ ἔργον ἧκε πρὸς τὸν Κάιν περὶ τἀδελφοῦ πυνθανόμενος , ποῖ ποτ’ εἴη · πολλῶν γὰρ αὐτὸν οὐκ ἰδεῖν ἡμερῶν τὸν ἄλλον χρόνον πάντα μετ’ αὐτοῦ‎ βλέπων αὐτὸν ἀναστρεφόμενον . 055Cain was furious that God preferred Abel over him, so he killed his brother and hid his corpse, thinking to be undetected. But God knew if it, so he came to Cain and asked what had become of his brother, since for many days he had not seen him and he used to see them together in company.
[56] δὲ Κάις ἀπορούμενος καὶ οὐκ ἔχων τι λέγοι πρὸς τὸν θεὸν ἀμηχανεῖν μὲν καὶ αὐτὸς ἔφασκε τὸ πρῶτον ἐπὶ τἀδελφῷ μὴ βλεπομένῳ , παροξυνθεὶς δὲ τοῦ θεοῦ λιπαρῶς ἐγκειμένου καὶ πολυπραγμονοῦντος οὐκ εἶναι παιδαγωγὸς καὶ φύλαξ αὐτοῦ‎ καὶ τῶν ὑπ’ αὐτοῦ‎ πραττομένων ἔλεγεν . 056Cain was at a loss and did not know what to say to God. First he declared that he knew nothing about his brother's disappearance, but then, angered by God's insistent questioning, he replied that he was not his brother's tutor or guardian, and had not noticed what he was doing .
[57] δὲ θεὸς τοὐντεῦθεν ἤλεγχεν ἤδη τὸν Κάιν φονέα τἀδελφοῦ γενόμενον καίθαυμάζω , φησίν , εἰ περὶ ἀνδρὸς ἀγνοεῖς εἰπεῖν τί γέγονεν , ὃν αὐτὸς ἀπολώλεκας .’ 057But God condemned Cain for his brother's murder, saying: "I am surprised that you do not know what has become of a man whom you killed yourself."
[58] τῆς μὲν οὖν ἐπὶ τῷ φόνῳ τιμωρίας αὐτὸν ἠφίει θυσίαν ἐπιτελέσαντα καὶ δι’ αὐτῆς ἱκετεύσαντα μὴ λαβεῖν ὀργὴν αὐτῷ χαλεπωτέραν , ἐπάρατον δ’ αὐτὸν ἐτίθει καὶ τοὺς ἐγγόνους αὐτοῦ‎ τιμωρήσεσθαι κατὰ τὴν ἑβδόμην ἠπείλησε γενεάν , καὶ τῆς γῆς αὐτὸν ἐκείνης ἐκβάλλει σὺν τῇ γυναικί . 058Yet God did not punish him with death, because he offered sacrifice and implored him not to be severely angry, yet he made him accursed and warned his descendants to the seventh generation, and expelled him and his wife from that land.
[59] τοῦ δὲ μὴ θηρίοις ἀλώμενος περιπέσῃ δεδιότος καὶ τοῦτον ἀπόληται τὸν τρόπον , ἐκέλευε μηδὲν ὑφορᾶσθαι σκυθρωπὸν ἀπὸ τοιαύτης αἰτίας , ἀλλ’ ἕνεκα τοῦ μηδὲν αὐτῷ ἐκ θηρίων γενέσθαι δεινὸν διὰ πάσης ἀδεῶς χωρεῖν γῆς · καὶ σημεῖον ἐπιβαλών , γνώριμος ἂν εἴη , προσέταξεν ἀπιέναι . 059As he was afraid that in his wanderings he might fall victim to wild beasts and be killed, He bade him not to be depressed for such reason, but to travel all over the earth without fearing any harm from wild beasts. Then he set a recognisable mark upon him and told him to leave .
[60] Πολλὴν δ’ ἐπελθὼν γῆν ἱδρύεται μετὰ τῆς γυναικὸς Κάις Ναΐδα τόπον οὕτω καλούμενον καὶ αὐτόθι ποιεῖται τὴν κατοίκησιν , ἔνθ’ αὐτῷ καὶ παῖδες ἐγένοντο · οὐκ ἐπὶ νουθεσίᾳ δὲ τὴν κόλασιν ἔλαβεν , ἀλλ’ ἐπ’ αὐξήσει τῆς κακίας , ἡδονὴν μὲν πᾶσαν ἐκπορίζων αὐτοῦ‎ τῷ σώματι , κἂν μεθ’ ὕβρεως τῶν συνόντων δέῃ ταύτην ἔχειν · 060After many travels Cain and his wife built a city called Nais, and settled and had children there. He did not accept his punishment in a good spirit but rather grew more wicked, for all he wanted was what served his bodily pleasure, even if this drove him to encroach upon his neighbours.
[61] αὔξων δὲ τὸν οἶκον πλήθει χρημάτων ἐξ ἁρπαγῆς καὶ βίας πρὸς ἡδονὴν καὶ λῃστείαν τοὺς ἐντυγχάνοντας παρακαλῶν διδάσκαλος αὐτοῖς ὑπῆρχε πονηρῶν ἐπιτηδευμάτων , καὶ τὴν ἀπραγμοσύνην , πρότερον συνέζων οἱ ἄνθρωποι , μέτρων ἐπινοίᾳ καὶ σταθμῶν μετεστήσατο ἀκέραιον αὐτοῖς ὄντα τὸν βίον ἐκ τῆς τούτων ἀμαθίας καὶ μεγαλόψυχον εἰς πανουργίαν περιαγαγών , 061Through robbery and violence he increased the wealth of his household, and urged those he met to win pleasure and loot by robbery, instructing them in it, whereas up to then people had lived simply, in community. He was the author of measures and weights, which changed the former innocent way of life towards cunning and craftiness.
[62] ὅρους τε γῆς πρῶτος ἔθετο καὶ πόλιν ἐδείματο καὶ τείχεσιν ὠχύρωσεν εἰς ταὐτὸν συνελθεῖν τοὺς οἰκείους καταναγκάσας . καὶ τὴν πόλιν δὲ ταύτην ἀπὸ Ἀνώχου τοῦ πρεσβυτάτου παιδὸς Ἄνωχαν ἐκάλεσεν . 062He was also the first to fence lands in, and built a city and fortified it with walls and forced his family to come and live in it, and called that city Anocha, after his eldest son Anoch.
[63] Ἀνώχου δὲ Ἰαράδης Ναχώρης ἦν , ἐκ δὲ τούτου Μαρουῆλος , οὗ γίνεται παῖς Μαθουσάλας , τοῦ δὲ Λάμεχος , παῖδες ὑπῆρξαν ἑπτὰ καὶ ἑβδομήκοντα ἐκ δύο γυναικῶν αὐτῷ φύντες Σελλᾶς καὶ Ἄδας . 063Anoch had a son named Jarad, whose son was Malaliel, whose son was Mathousalas, whose son was Lamech, who had seventy seven children by two wives, Sella and Ada.
[64] τούτων Ἰώβηλος μὲν ἐξ Ἄδας γεγονὼς σκηνὰς ἐπήξατο καὶ προβατείαν ἠγάπησεν , Ἰούβαλος δέ , ὁμομήτριος δ’ ἦν αὐτῷ , μουσικὴν ἤσκησε καὶ ψαλτήρια καὶ κιθάρας ἐπενόησεν , Ἰουβῆλος δὲ τῶν ἐκ τῆς ἑτέρας γεγονότων ἰσχύι πάντας ὑπερβαλὼν τὰ πολεμικὰ διαπρεπῶς μετῆλθεν ἐκ τούτων καὶ τὰ πρὸς ἡδονὴν τοῦ σώματος ἐκπορίζων , χαλκείαν τε πρῶτος ἐπενόησεν . 064Of those children by Ada, one was Jobel, who built tents and loved the pasturing of sheep. Youbal, who was born of the same mother as him, devoted himself to music, and invented harps and lutes, while one of his children by the other wife, Tubal, surpassed everyone in strength and was famous for warlike activities, through which he won all he needed for his bodily pleasure; and he was first to invent the forging of brass.
[65] πατὴρ δὲ θυγατρὸς γενόμενος Λάμεχος Νοεμᾶς ὄνομα , ἐπεὶ τὰ θεῖα σαφῶς ἐξεπιστάμενος ἑώρα δίκην αὑτὸν ὑφέξοντα τῆς Κάιος ἀδελφοκτονίας μείζονα , τοῦτο ταῖς ἑαυτοῦ γυναιξὶν ἐποίησε φανερόν . 065Lamech had a daughter called Naamah, and because he was so skilled in divine matters that he knew he would pay a special penalty for Cain's murder of his brother, he told it to his wives.
[66] ἔτι δὲ ζῶντος Ἀδάμου Κάιος τοὺς ἐγγόνους πονηροτάτους συνέβη γενέσθαι κατὰ διαδοχὴν καὶ μίμησιν ἄλλον ἄλλου χείρονα τελευτῶντα · πρός τε γὰρ πολέμους εἶχον ἀκρατῶς καὶ πρὸς λῃστείαν ὡρμήκεσαν , ἄλλος δ’ εἴ τις ὀκνηρὸς ἦν πρὸς τὸ φονεύειν , ἄλλην ἀπόνοιαν ἦν θράσους ὑβρίζων καὶ πλεονεκτῶν . 066Already in Adam's lifetime, Cain's descendants became very wicked, each of them turning out worse than his predecessor. They were fierce in war and plunged into robbing, and any of them who was hesitant to murder was still bold in insolence and greed.
[67] Ἄδαμος δὲ πρῶτος ἐκ γῆς γενόμενος , ἀπαιτεῖ γὰρ διήγησις τὸν περὶ αὐτοῦ‎ λόγον , Ἀβέλου μὲν ἐσφαγμένου , Κάιος δὲ διὰ τὸν ἐκείνου φόνον πεφευγότος , παιδοποιίας ἐφρόντιζε , καὶ δεινὸς εἶχεν αὐτὸν γενέσεως ἔρως ἔτη τριάκοντ’ ἤδη καὶ διακόσια ἠνυκότα τοῦ βίου , πρὸς οἷς ἕτερα ζήσας ἑπτακόσια τελευτᾷ . 067We must say something more about Adam, who was the first man and made from the earth. After Abel was killed and Cain fled due to his murder, Adam longed for children and had a great desire to beget them, though he was two hundred and thirty years old, to which he added another seven hundred years before he died.
[68] γίνονται μὲν οὖν αὐτῷ παῖδες ἄλλοι τε πλείους καὶ Σῆθος · ἀλλὰ περὶ μὲν τῶν ἄλλων μακρὸν ἂν εἴη λέγειν , πειράσομαι δὲ μόνα τὰ τῶν ἀπὸ Σήθου διελθεῖν · τραφεὶς γὰρ οὗτος καὶ παρελθὼν εἰς ἡλικίαν ἤδη καλὰ κρίνειν δυναμένην καὶ γενόμενος αὐτὸς ἄριστος μιμητὰς τῶν αὐτῶν τοὺς ἀπογόνους κατέλιπεν . 068He did indeed have many other children, including Seth. It would take long to name the others, so I will only try to give an account of the descendants of Seth. When he was reared to the age of discretion he became a virtuous man, and with his excellent character he left behind him children who followed his footsteps.
[69] οἱ δὲ πάντες ἀγαθοὶ φύντες γῆν τε τὴν αὐτὴν ἀστασίαστοι κατῴκησαν εὐδαιμονήσαντες μηδενὸς αὐτοῖς ἄχρι καὶ τελευτῆς δυσκόλου προσπεσόντος , σοφίαν τε τὴν περὶ τὰ οὐράνια καὶ τὴν τούτων διακόσμησιν ἐπενόησαν . 069All of them were of good character and they lived happily all their lives in the same land, without strife or severe incidents, and were the founders of of the science of the ordered beauty of the heavenly bodies.
[70] ὑπὲρ δὲ τοῦ μὴ διαφυγεῖν τοὺς ἀνθρώπους τὰ ηὑρημένα μηδὲ πρὶν εἰς γνῶσιν ἐλθεῖν φθαρῆναι , προειρηκότος ἀφανισμὸν Ἀδάμου τῶν ὅλων ἔσεσθαι τὸν μὲν κατ’ ἰσχὺν πυρὸς τὸν ἕτερον δὲ κατὰ βίαν καὶ πλῆθος ὕδατος , στήλας δύο ποιησάμενοι τὴν μὲν ἐκ πλίνθου τὴν ἑτέραν δὲ ἐκ λίθων ἀμφοτέραις ἐνέγραψαν τὰ εὑρημένα , 070So that their discoveries might not be lost to humanity before being properly known, as Adam had predicted that the world would at some stage be destroyed by the fire and again by a flood of water, they made two pillars, one of brick and the other of stone, on which they inscribed their discoveries,
[71] ἵνα καὶ τῆς πλινθίνης ἀφανισθείσης ὑπὸ τῆς ἐπομβρίας λιθίνη μείνασα παράσχῃ μαθεῖν τοῖς ἀνθρώποις τὰ ἐγγεγραμμένα δηλοῦσα καὶ πλινθίνην ὑπ’ αὐτῶν ἀνατεθῆναι . μένει δ’ ἄχρι δεῦρο κατὰ γῆν τὴν Σειρίδα . 071so that if the pillar of brick were ever ruined by a flood, the pillar of stone would remain to teach mankind what was inscribed on it, and that they had built another pillar of brick. This remains in the land of Seiris to this day .

Chapter 3
[vv 72-108]
Noah's Ark to the Plains of Shinar

[72] Καὶ οὗτοι μὲν ἑπτὰ γενεὰς διέμειναν θεὸν ἡγούμενοι δεσπότην εἶναι τῶν ὅλων καὶ πάντα πρὸς ἀρετὴν ἀποβλέποντες , εἶτα προϊόντος χρόνου μεταβάλλονται πρὸς τὸ χεῖρον ἐκ τῶν πατρίων ἐθισμῶν μήτε τὰς νενομισμένας τιμὰς ἔτι τῷ θεῷ παρέχοντες μήτε τοῦ πρὸς ἀνθρώπους δικαίου ποιούμενοι λόγον , ἀλλ’ ἣν πρότερον εἶχον τῆς ἀρετῆς ζήλωσιν διπλασίονα τῆς κακίας τότ’ ἐπιδεικνύμενοι δι’ ὧν ἔπραττον · ἔνθεν ἑαυτοῖς τὸν θεὸν ἐξεπολέμωσαν .
072For seven generations these people continued to follow God as the Lord of the universe and to follow the guidance of virtue, but in the course of time they were perverted and abandoned the customs of their fathers, not paying due honour to God or caring about justice to others. Their former zeal for virtue was now replaced in double measure with evil, as though they were at war with God.
[73] πολλοὶ γὰρ ἄγγελοι θεοῦ γυναιξὶ συνιόντες ὑβριστὰς ἐγέννησαν παῖδας καὶ παντὸς ὑπερόπτας καλοῦ διὰ τὴν ἐπὶ τῇ δυνάμει πεποίθησιν · ὅμοια τοῖς ὑπὸ γιγάντων τετολμῆσθαι λεγομένοις ὑφ’ Ἑλλήνων καὶ οὗτοι δράσαι παραδίδονται . 073Many angels of God now went in to women and had sons who proved arrogant and, trusting in their own strength, despised all that was good. Our tradition says that these men acted audaciously, like those whom the Greeks call giants.
[74] Νῶχος δὲ τοῖς πραττομένοις ὑπ’ αὐτῶν δυσχεραίνων καὶ τοῖς βουλεύμασιν ἀηδῶς ἔχων ἔπειθεν ἐπὶ τὸ κρεῖττον τὴν διάνοιαν αὐτοὺς καὶ τὰς πράξεις μεταφέρειν , ὁρῶν δ’ οὐκ ἐνδιδόντας , ἀλλ’ ἰσχυρῶς ὑπὸ τῆς ἡδονῆς τῶν κακῶν κεκρατημένους , δείσας μὴ καὶ φονεύσωσιν αὐτὸν μετὰ γυναικῶν καὶ τέκνων καὶ τῶν τούτοις συνοικουσῶν ἐξεχώρησε τῆς γῆς . 074Noah, indignant at their conduct and displeased at their scheming, urged them to mend their outlook and actions for the better. But seeing them so enslaved to their wickedness and pleasure that they would not yield to him and afraid that they would kill him with his wife and children and their spouses, he emigrated from the land .
[75] δὲ θεὸς τοῦτον μὲν τῆς δικαιοσύνης ἠγάπησε , κατεδίκαζε δ’ οὐκ ἐκείνων μόνων τῆς κακίας , ἀλλὰ καὶ πᾶν ὅσον ἦν ἀνθρώπινον τότε δόξαν αὐτῷ διαφθεῖραι καὶ ποιῆσαι γένος ἕτερον πονηρίας καθαρόν , ἐπιτεμόμενος αὐτῶν τὸν βίον καὶ ποιήσας ἐτῶν οὐχ ὅσα πρότερον ἔζων , ἀλλ’ ἑκατὸν εἴκοσιν , εἰς θάλασσαν τὴν ἤπειρον μετέβαλε . 075God loved this man for his righteousness, but not only did he condemn the wickedness of the others, he decided to destroy all of mankind and make another race pure from evil, and shortening their lives and reducing the number of their years to one hundred and twenty, he turned the dry land into sea.
[76] καὶ οἱ μὲν οὕτως ἀφανίζονται πάντες , Νῶχος δὲ σώζεται μόνος ὑποθεμένου μηχανὴν αὐτῷ καὶ πόρον πρὸς σωτηρίαν τοῦ θεοῦ τοιαύτην · 076So all the others were killed and Noah alone was saved, for God put into his mind this plan as a means of survival.
[77] λάρνακα τετράστεγον κατασκευάσας πηχῶν τὸ μῆκος τριακοσίων πεντήκοντα δὲ τὸ πλάτος καὶ τριάκοντα τὸ βάθος , εἰς ταύτην σὺν τῇ μητρὶ τῶν παίδων καὶ ταῖς τούτων γυναιξὶν ἀνέβη , τά τε ἄλλα ὅσα πρὸς τὰς χρείας ἐπικουρήσειν αὐτοῖς ἔμελλεν ἐνθέμενος , ζῷά τε παντοῖα πρὸς διατήρησιν τοῦ γένους αὐτῶν ἄρρενάς τε καὶ θηλείας συνεισβαλόμενος ἄλλα τε τούτων ἑπταπλασίονα τὸν ἀριθμόν . 077He made a four storey-high ark, three hundred feet long, fifty feet broad and thirty feet high, and entering that ark with his wife and sons and their wives, he brought into it provisions to support their needs, and all sorts of living creatures, male and female, to preserve their kinds, some of them numbered in sevens.
[78] ἦν δ’ λάρναξ τούς τε τοίχους καρτερὰ καὶ τὸν ὄροφον , ὡς μηδαμόθεν ἐπικλύζεσθαι μηδ’ ἡττᾶσθαι τῆς τοῦ ὕδατος βίας . καὶ Νῶχος μὲν οὕτως μετὰ τῶν οἰκείων διασώζεται . 078The sides and roof of the ark were so strong that it could not be sunk or swamped by the violence of the water, and by it Noah and his family were saved.
[79] ἦν δ’ αὐτὸς μὲν ἀπὸ Ἀδάμου δέκατος · Λαμέχου γάρ ἐστιν υἱός , οὗ πατὴρ ἦν Μαθουσάλας , οὗτος δὲ ἦν τοῦ Ἀνώχου τοῦ Ἰαρέδου , Μαλαήλου δὲ Ἰάρεδος ἐγεγόνει , ὃς ἐκ Καϊνᾶ τεκνοῦται τοῦ Ἀνώσου σὺν ἀδελφαῖς πλείοσιν , Ἄνωσος δὲ Σήθου Ναχώρης ἦν τοῦ Ἀδάμου · 079He was the tenth in the line of Adam, being the son of Lamech, whose father was Mathuselah, son of Anoch, son of Jared, son of Malaleel, who, along with many of his sisters, were the children of Cain, son of Anos who was the son of Seth, son of Adam .
[80] Συνέβη δὲ τοῦτο τὸ πάθος κατὰ τὸ ἑξακοσιοστὸν ἔτος ἤδη Νώχου τῆς ἀρχῆς , ἐν μηνὶ δευτέρῳ Δίῳ μὲν ὑπὸ Μακεδόνων λεγομένῳ , Μαρσουάνῃ δ’ ὑπὸ Ἑβραίων · οὕτω γὰρ ἐν Αἰγύπτῳ τὸν ἐνιαυτὸν ἦσαν διατεταχότες . 080This sorrow came on them in the six hundredth year of Noah's rule, in the second month, called Dius by the Macedonians, and Marsuan by the Hebrews, for that is how they arranged their calendar in Egypt.
[81] Μωυσῆς δὲ τὸν Νισᾶν , ὅς ἐστι Ξανθικός , μῆνα πρῶτον ἐπὶ ταῖς ἑορταῖς ὥρισε κατὰ τοῦτον ἐξ Αἰγύπτου τοὺς Ἑβραίους προαγαγών · οὗτος δ’ αὐτῷ καὶ πρὸς ἁπάσας τὰς εἰς τὸ θεῖον τιμὰς ἦρχεν , ἐπὶ μέντοι γε πράσεις καὶ ὠνὰς καὶ τὴν ἄλλην διοίκησιν τὸν πρῶτον κόσμον διεφύλαξε · τὴν δ’ ἐπομβρίαν ἄρξασθαί φησιν ἑβδόμῃ τοῦ προειρημένου μηνὸς καὶ εἰκάδι . 081Moses appointed Nisan, or Xanthicus, as the first month for their festivals, because in that month he brought them out of Egypt. He counted this month as starting the year regarding divine worship, though he kept the original sequence for selling and buying and other ordinary affairs. He says that this flood began on the twenty-seventh day of that month.
[82] χρόνος δὲ οὗτος ἀπὸ Ἀδάμου τοῦ πρώτου γεγονότος ἐτῶν ὑπῆρχε δισχιλίων διακοσίων ἑξηκονταδύο . ἀναγέγραπται δὲ χρόνος ἐν ταῖς ἱεραῖς βίβλοις σημειουμένων μετὰ πολλῆς ἀκριβείας τῶν τότε καὶ τὰς ἀκριβείας τῶν ἐπιφανῶν ἀνδρῶν καὶ τὰς τελευτάς . 082This was two thousand six hundred and fifty six years from Adam, the first man, for the time is written down in our sacred books, since those who lived then noted most carefully both the births and deaths of prominent men .
[83] Ἀδάμῳ μὲν τριακοστῷ ἤδη καὶ διακοσιοστῷ ἔτει γεγονότι παῖς Σῆθος γίνεται , ὃς ἐνακόσια καὶ τριάκοντα ἔτη ἐβίωσε . Σῆθος δὲ κατὰ πέμπτον καὶ διακοσιοστὸν ἔτος ἐγέννησεν Ἄνωσον , ὃς πέντε ζήσας ἔτη καὶ ἐνακόσια Καϊνᾷ τῷ παιδὶ τὴν τῶν πραγμάτων ἐπιμέλειαν δίδωσι τεκνώσας αὐτὸν περὶ ἐνενηκοστὸν καὶ ἑκατοστὸν ἔτος · οὗτος ἐβίωσεν ἔτη δώδεκα πρὸς τοῖς ἐνακοσίοις . 083Seth was born when Adam was in his two hundred and thirtieth year, and he lived nine hundred and thirty years. Seth begot Anos in his two hundred and fifth year, and after living for nine hundred and twelve years, he passed on the leadership to Caina his son, whom he begot in his hundred and ninetieth year. His span of life was nine hundred and twelve years.
[84] Καϊνᾶς δὲ βιοὺς δέκα καὶ ἐνακόσια Μαλαῆλον υἱὸν ἔσχεν ἔτει γενόμενον ἑβδομηκοστῷ καὶ ἑκατοστῷ . οὗτος Μαλαῆλος ζήσας πέντε καὶ ἐνενήκοντα καὶ ὀκτακόσια ἔτη ἐτελεύτησεν Ἰάρεδον καταλιπὼν υἱόν , ὃν ἔτος πέμπτον ἑξηκοστὸν καὶ ἑκατοστὸν γενόμενος ἐγέννησε . 084Caina who lived nine hundred and ten years, had a son, Malaleel, in his hundred and seventieth year. This Malaleel lived eight hundred and ninety five years and died, leaving his son Jared, whom he begot when he was in his hundred and sixty fifth year.
[85] τοῦτον εἰς ἐννέα καὶ ἑξήκοντα πρὸς τοῖς ἐνακοσίοις βιώσαντας Ἄνωχος Ναχώρης διαδέχεται γεννηθεὶς περὶ ἔτη δύο καὶ ἑξήκοντα καὶ ἑκατὸν τοῦ πατρὸς αὐτῷ τυγχάνοντος . οὗτος ζήσας πέντε καὶ ἑξήκοντα πρὸς τοῖς τριακοσίοις ἀνεχώρησε πρὸς τὸ θεῖον , ὅθεν οὐδὲ τελευτὴν αὐτοῦ‎ ἀναγεγράφασι . 085He lived for nine hundred and sixty nine years and his son Anoch succeeded him, born when his father was a hundred and sixty two. He, after living for three hundred and sixty five years, left to go to God, which is why there is no written account of his death.
[86] Μαθουσάλας δὲ Ἀνώχου παῖς κατὰ ἔτος αὐτῷ γεγονὼς πέμπτον καὶ ἑξηκοστὸν καὶ ἑκατοστὸν Λάμεχον υἱὸν ἔσχε περὶ ἔτη γεγονὼς ἑπτὰ καὶ ὀγδοήκοντα καὶ ἑκατόν , τὴν ἀρχὴν παρέδωκεν αὐτὸς αὐτὴν κατασχὼν ἐννέα καὶ ἑξήκοντα καὶ ἐνακοσίοις . 086Mathuselah was born to Anoch when he was a hundred and sixty five years old, and at the age of a hundred and eighty seven he had Lamech, to whom he handed over the leadership, having held it for nine hundred and sixty nine years.
[87] Λάμεχος δὲ ἄρξας ἑπτὰ καὶ ἑπτακοσίοις ἔτεσι Νῶχον τῶν πραγμάτων ἀποδείκνυσι προστάτην υἱόν , ὃς Λαμέχῳ γενόμενος ὄγδοον καὶ ὀγδοηκοστὸν καὶ ἑκατοστὸν ἔτος ἠνυκότι πεντήκοντα καὶ ἐνακοσίοις ἔτεσιν ἦρξε τῶν πραγμάτων . 087When Lamech had ruled for seven hundred and seventy seven years, he put his son Noah in charge of affairs, who was born when Lamech was aged a hundred and eighty eight years; and he ruled affairs for nine hundred and fifty years.
[88] ταῦτα συναγόμενα τὰ ἔτη τὸν προαναγεγραμμένον πληροῖ χρόνον . ἐξεταζέτω δὲ μηδεὶς τὰς τελευτὰς τῶν ἀνδρῶν , τοῖς γὰρ αὐτῶν παισὶ καὶ τοῖς ἐκείνων ἀπογόνοις παρεξέτεινον τὸν βίον , ἀλλὰ τὰς ἀκριβείας αὐτῶν μόνον ὁράτω . 088All together, these add up to the above-named sum of years. One should not focus on these men's date of death, for their lifetimes reached into those of their children and grandchildren, but rather pay attention to their dates of birth .
[89] Ἐπισημήναντος δὲ τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ ὕειν ἀρξαμένου τὸ ὕδωρ ἡμέραις τεσσαράκοντα ὅλαις κατεφέρετο , ὡς ἐπὶ πήχεις πεντεκαίδεκα τὴν γῆν ὑπερέχειν . καὶ τοῦτο ἦν τὸ αἴτιον τοῦ μὴ διασωθῆναι πλείονας φυγῆς ἀφορμὴν οὐκ ἔχοντας . 089When God gave the sign and it began to rain, it poured for all of forty days, until the water rose fifteen feet above the earth. This was why so few survived, as they had nowhere to take refuge.
[90] παυσαμένου δὲ τοῦ ὑετοῦ μόλις ἤρξατο ὑποβαίνειν τὸ ὕδωρ ἐφ’ ἡμέρας ἑκατὸν καὶ πεντήκοντα , ὡς μηνὶ ἑβδόμῳ , ἱσταμένου δὲ ἦν ἱσταμένου , κατ’ ὀλίγον ὑπονοστεῖν ἀπολήγοντος . ἔπειτα τῆς λάρνακος περὶ ἄκραν τινὰ ὄρους σταθείσης κατὰ τὴν Ἀρμενίαν συνεὶς Νῶχος ἀνοίγει τ’ αὐτὴν καὶ θεασάμενος γῆν βραχεῖαν περὶ αὐτὴν ἐπὶ χρηστοτέρας ἤδη γεγονὼς ἐλπίδος ἠρέμει . 090When the rain ceased, the water only began to abate after a hundred and fifty days, on the seventeenth day of the seventh month, when it gradually began to subside. The ark came to rest on top of a mountain in Armenia and on noting this, Noah opened it up, saw a small piece of land around it and remained calm, with his hopes revived.
[91] ὀλίγαις δ’ ὕστερον ἡμέραις μᾶλλον ὑποχωροῦντος τοῦ ὕδατος μεθίησι κόρακα βουλόμενος μαθεῖν , εἴ τι καὶ ἄλλο τῆς γῆς ἐκλελειμμένον ὑπὸ τοῦ ὕδατος ἀσφαλές ἐστιν ἤδη πρὸς ἔκβασιν · δὲ πᾶσαν εὑρὼν ἔτι λιμναζομένην πρὸς Νῶχον ἐπανῆλθε . μετὰ δὲ ἡμέρας ἑπτὰ περιστερὰν ἐπὶ τῷ γνῶναι τὰ περὶ τὴν γῆν προύπεμψεν · 091Some days later, when the water had receded still more, he sent out a raven, to learn if any other part of the earth were left dry by the water and whether he might safely leave the ark. But the raven, finding all the land still flooded, returned to Noah. After seven days he sent out a dove, to learn the state of the ground.
[92] ἐπανελθούσης δὲ πεπηλωμένης ἅμα καὶ θαλλὸν ἐλαίας κομιζούσης , μαθὼν τὴν γῆν ἀπηλλαγμένην τοῦ κατακλυσμοῦ μείνας ἄλλας ἑπτὰ ἡμέρας τά τε ζῷα τῆς λάρνακος ἐξαφίησιν αὐτός τε μετὰ τῆς γενεᾶς προελθὼν καὶ θύσας τῷ θεῷ συνευωχεῖτο τοῖς οἰκείοις . ἀποβατήριον μέντοι τὸν τόπον τοῦτον Ἀρμένιοι καλοῦσιν · ἐκεῖ γὰρ ἀνασωθείσης τῆς λάρνακος ἔτι νῦν αὐτῆς τὰ λείψανα ἐπιδεικνύουσι . 092It returned to him covered in mud and bringing an olive branch, by which he knew that the earth was now cleared of the cataclysm. After another seven days he sent the living creatures out of the ark, and emerged with his family and sacrificed to God and feasted with his household. The Armenians call this place the Landing Place for the ark landed safely there, and its remains are shown there by the inhabitants to this day.
[93] Τοῦ δὲ κατακλυσμοῦ τούτου καὶ τῆς λάρνακος μέμνηνται πάντες οἱ τὰς βαρβαρικὰς ἱστορίας ἀναγεγραφότες , ὧν ἐστι Βηρωσὸς Χαλδαῖος · διηγούμενος γὰρ τὰ περὶ τὸν κατακλυσμὸν οὕτως που διέξεισι · ‘ λέγεται δὲ καὶ τοῦ πλοίου ἐν τῇ Ἀρμενίᾳ πρὸς τῷ ὄρει τῶν Κορδυαίων ἔτι μέρος τι εἶναι καὶ κομίζειν τινὰς τῆς ἀσφάλτου ἀφαιροῦντας · χρῶνται δ’ οἱ ἄνθρωποι τῷ κομιζομένῳ πρὸς τοὺς ἀποτροπιασμούς .’ 093All the barbarian history writers mention this flood and this ark; among whom is Berosus the Chaldean. For when describing the circumstances of the flood, he goes on: "It is said there is still some part of this ship in Armenia, at the mountain of the Cordyaeans, and that some people carry off pieces of the asphalt, to use as amulets for averting harm."
[94] μέμνηται δὲ τούτων καὶ Ἱερώνυμος Αἰγύπτιος τὴν ἀρχαιολογίαν τὴν Φοινικικὴν συγγραψάμενος καὶ Μνασέας δὲ καὶ ἄλλοι πλείους , καὶ Νικόλαος δὲ Δαμασκηνὸς ἐν τῇ ἐνενηκοστῇ καὶ ἕκτῃ βίβλῳ ἱστορεῖ περὶ αὐτῶν λέγων οὕτως · 094It is also mentioned by Hieronymus the Egyptian, who wrote the Phoenician Antiquities and Mnaseas, and by many others. Nicholas of Damascus, in his ninety-sixth book, tells of it in this way:
[95]ἔστιν ὑπὲρ τὴν Μινυάδα μέγα ὄρος κατὰ τὴν Ἀρμενίαν Βάρις λεγόμενον , εἰς πολλοὺς συμφυγόντας ἐπὶ τοῦ κατακλυσμοῦ λόγος ἔχει περισωθῆναι καί τινα ἐπὶ λάρνακος ὀχούμενον ἐπὶ τὴν ἀκρώρειαν ὀκεῖλαι καὶ τὰ λείψανα τῶν ξύλων ἐπὶ πολὺ σωθῆναι . γένοιτο δ’ ἂν οὗτος , ὅντινα καὶ Μωυσῆς ἀνέγραψεν Ἰουδαίων νομοθέτης .’ 095"Above Minyas in Armenia there is a large mountain called Baris, where many are said to have found safety at the time of the Deluge, and that one man landed on its summit, carried in an ark, the remnants of whose timber were preserved for a long time. He may be the one of whom Moses the Jewish Legislator wrote."
[96] Νῶχος δὲ φοβούμενος , μὴ καθ’ ἕκαστον ἔτος ἐπικλύζῃ τὴν γῆν θεὸς φθορὰν ἀνθρώπων καταψηφισάμενος , ἱερὰ καύσας ἐδεῖτο τὸν θεὸν τοῦ λοιποῦ ἐπὶ τῆς πρώτης μένειν εὐταξίας καὶ μηδὲν ἔτι τοιοῦτον ἐπενεγκεῖν πάθος , ὑφ’ οὗ κινδυνεύσει πᾶν ἀπολέσθαι τὸ τῶν ζῴων γένος , ἀλλὰ τετιμωρημένον τοὺς πονηροὺς φειδὼ ποιεῖσθαι τῶν διὰ χρηστότητα περιλειφθέντων καὶ τὸ δεινὸν διαφυγεῖν κεκριμένων · 096Noah was afraid that since God had sentenced mankind to destruction, the earth might be flooded every year, so he offered burned-sacrifice and begged God to let nature later follow its former orderly course and never again inflict such a penalty as would endanger all living things; and having punished the wicked, to spare those who for their merits had been spared from the disaster.
[97] κακοδαιμονεστέρους γὰρ ἐκείνων ἔσεσθαι καὶ χείρω κακίαν καταδικασθέντας , εἰ μὴ πρὸς τὸ παντελὲς εἶεν σεσωσμένοι , τηρηθεῖεν δ’ ἑτέρῳ κατακλυσμῷ , τοῦ μὲν πρώτου τὸν φόβον καὶ τὴν ἱστορίαν μαθόντες τοῦ δευτέρου δὲ τὴν ἀπώλειαν . 097If they were not fully saved, these would be worse off than the others and suffer a worse condemnation, if they were spared only to suffer another deluge. After bearing the terrible sight of the first deluge, must they also be ruined by a second?
[98] εὐμενῶς τε οὖν αὐτὸν προσδέχεσθαι τὴν θυσίαν παρεκάλει καὶ μηδεμίαν ὀργὴν ἐπὶ τὴν γῆν ὁμοίαν βαλεῖν , ὅπως ἔργοις τε τοῖς ταύτης προσλιπαροῦντες καὶ πόλεις ἀναστήσαντες εὐδαιμόνως ζῆν ἔχοιεν καὶ μηδενὸς ὧν καὶ πρὸ τῆς ἐπομβρίας ἀπέλαυον ὑστερῶσιν ἀγαθῶν , εἰς μακρὸν αὐτῶν γῆρας καὶ βίου μῆκος ὅμοιον τοῖς τάχιον ἐπερχομένων . 098So he begged Him to accept his sacrifice, that the earth may never again suffer similar effects of his anger, but to let people go on cultivating it, building cities and living happily in them, not lacking any of those good things that they enjoyed before the Flood, and reach a good, ripe old age, like the people of old .
[99] Νώχου δὲ ταύτας ποιησαμένου τὰς ἱκετείας θεὸς ἐπὶ δικαιοσύνῃ τὸν ἄνδρα ἀγαπῶν ἐπένευεν αὐτῷ τὰς εὐχὰς εἰς τέλος ἄξειν , οὔτε τοὺς διεφθαρμένους λέγων αὐτὸς ἀπολέσαι , κακίᾳ δὲ τῇ οἰκείᾳ ταύτην αὐτοὺς ὑποσχεῖν τὴν δίκην , οὔτ’ ἄν , εἰ γενομένους ἀνθρώπους ἀφανίσαι διεγνώκει , παραγαγεῖν αὐτοὺς εἰς τὸν βίον , 099As Noah made these petitions, God loved him for his righteousness, and granted all his prayers, saying that it was not He who had brought destruction on the world, but those who had suffered this just vengeance.
[100] σῶφρον γὰρ εἶναι τὴν ἀρχὴν αὐτοῖς μηδὲ χαρίσασθαι τὸ ζῆν δόντα τοῦτο διαφθείρειν · ἀλλ’ οἷς ἐξύβριζον εἰς τὴν ἐμὴν εὐσέβειαν καὶ ἀρετήν , τούτοις ἐξεβιάσαντό με ταύτην αὐτοῖς ἐπιθεῖναι τὴν δίκην . 100He would not have brought men into the world had he meant to destroy them, since it would show greater wisdom not to have given them life at all than to destroy them, after it was given. "But their outrages to my sanctity and goodness," he said, "forced me to inflict this punishment on them.
[101] παύσομαι δὲ τοῦ λοιποῦ μετὰ τοσαύτης ὀργῆς τὰς τιμωρίας ἐπὶ τοῖς ἀδικήμασιν εἰσπραττόμενος καὶ πολὺ μᾶλλον σοῦ παρακαλοῦντος . εἰ δ’ ἐπὶ πλέον ποτὲ χειμάσαιμι , μὴ δείσητε τῶν ὄμβρων τὸ μέγεθος · οὐ γὰρ ἔτι τὴν γῆν ἐπικλύσει τὸ ὕδωρ . 101However in future I will not so angrily punish their misdeeds, especially due to your prayers. If at any time I send unusually bad weather, do not fear the size of the downpours, for the water shall never again swamp the earth.
[102] παραινῶ μέντοι σφαγῆς ἀνθρωπίνης ἀπέχεσθαι καὶ καθαρεύειν φόνου τοὺς δράσαντάς τι τοιοῦτον κολάζοντας , χρῆσθαι δὲ τοῖς ἄλλοις ζῴοις ἅπασι πρὸς βούλεσθε καὶ τὰς ὀρέξεις ἔχετε . δεσπότας γὰρ ἁπάντων ὑμᾶς εἶναι πεποίηκα τῶν τε χερσαίων καὶ νηκτῶν καὶ ὅσα τὴν μετάρσιον αἰώραν ἔχει καὶ φοράν , χωρὶς αἵματος · ἐν τούτῳ γάρ ἐστιν ψυχή . 102You are to refrain from shedding human blood and from murder and punish those who do any such thing. I allow you to use all other animals to satisfy your needs and appetites, for I have made you masters of all that walk on the land and swim in the waters and fly in the air, except for their blood, for in it is the life.
[103] σημανῶ δὲ ὑμῖν παῦλαν ἐσομένην τοξείᾳ τῇ ἐμῇ τὴν ἶριν ἀποσημαίνων · τόξον γὰρ εἶναι τοῦ θεοῦ παρὰ τοῖς ἐκεῖ νενόμισται . καὶ μὲν θεὸς ταῦτ’ εἰπὼν καὶ ὑποσχόμενος ἀπαλλάσσεται . 103And by my bow (meaning the rainbow, which they call the bow of God) I will give you a sign that I have set aside my anger. When God had said and promised this, he went away .
[104] Νῶχος δὲ βιοὺς μετὰ τὴν ἐπομβρίαν πεντήκοντα καὶ τριακόσια ἔτη καὶ πάντα τὸν χρόνον τοῦτον εὐδαιμόνως διαγαγὼν τελευτᾷ ζήσας ἐτῶν ἀριθμὸν ἐνακοσίων καὶ πεντήκοντα . 104When Noah had lived three hundred and fifty years after the Flood and all that time happily, he died, having lived for nine hundred and fifty years.
[105] μηδεὶς δὲ πρὸς τὸν νῦν βίον καὶ τὴν βραχύτητα τῶν ἐτῶν ζῶμεν συμβαλὼν τὸν τῶν παλαιῶν ψευδῆ νομιζέτω τὰ περὶ ἐκείνων λεγόμενα τῷ μηδένα νῦν τοσοῦτον ἐν τῷ βίῳ παρατείνειν χρόνον τεκμαιρόμενος μηδ’ ἐκείνους εἰς ἐκεῖνο τὸ μῆκος τῆς ζωῆς ἀφῖχθαι . 105But let no one, comparing the lives of the ancients with our own and the brevity of its years, think that what is said of them is false; or make the shortness of our present lives an argument, that could not reach so long a lifespan either.
[106] οἱ μὲν γὰρ θεοφιλεῖς ὄντες καὶ ὑπ’ αὐτοῦ‎ τοῦ θεοῦ γενόμενοι καὶ διὰ τὰς τροφὰς ἐπιτηδειοτέρας πρὸς πλείονα χρόνον οὔσας εἰκότως ἔζων πλῆθος τοσοῦτον ἐτῶν · ἔπειτα καὶ δι’ ἀρετὴν καὶ τὴν εὐχρηστίαν ὧν ἐπενόουν ἀστρονομίας καὶ γεωμετρίας πλεῖον ζῆν τὸν θεὸν αὐτοῖς παρασχεῖν , ἅπερ οὐκ ἦν ἀσφαλῶς αὐτοῖς προειπεῖν μὴ ζήσασιν ἑξακοσίους ἐνιαυτούς · διὰ τοσούτων γὰρ μέγας ἐνιαυτὸς πληροῦται . 106For they were beloved by God and had come from God himself, and as their diet then was more conducive to longevity, they could well live so long. Besides, God gave them longer life on account of their virtue and their useful astronomical and geometrical discoveries, for they could not have foretold anything with security unless they lived in least six hundred years, or the full cyclic year.
[107] μαρτυροῦσι δέ μου τῷ λόγῳ πάντες οἱ παρ’ Ἕλλησι καὶ βαρβάροις συγγραψάμενοι τὰς ἀρχαιολογίας · καὶ γὰρ καὶ Μανέθων τὴν Αἰγυπτίων ποιησάμενος ἀναγραφὴν καὶ Βηρωσὸς τὰ Χαλδαϊκὰ συναγαγὼν καὶ Μῶχός τε καὶ Ἑστιαῖος καὶ πρὸς τούτοις Αἰγύπτιος Ἱερώνυμος οἱ τὰ Φοινικικὰ συγγραψάμενοι συμφωνοῦσι τοῖς ὑπ’ ἐμοῦ λεγομένοις , 107All who have written about ancient times, whether Greeks or barbarians, confirm the truth of this. For Manetho, who wrote the history of Egypt and Berosus who did so for the Chaldeans and Mochus and Hestieus, and, besides these, Hieronymus the Egyptian and those who wrote the history of the Phoenicians, agree to what I say here.
[108] Ἡσίοδός τε καὶ Ἑκαταῖος καὶ Ἑλλάνικος καὶ Ἀκουσίλαος καὶ πρὸς τούτοις Ἔφορος καὶ Νικόλαος ἱστοροῦσι τοὺς ἀρχαίους ζήσαντας ἔτη χίλια . περὶ μὲν τούτων , ὡς ἂν ἑκάστοις φίλον , οὕτω σκοπείτωσαν . 108Hesiod too and Hecataeus, Hellanicus and Acusilaus, as well as Ephorus and Nicholas tell how the ancients lived a thousand years. But let each one judge these things as he thinks fit.
Chapter 4
[109-119]
The Tower of Babel and the splitting of human language
[109] Οἱ δὲ Νώχου παῖδες τρεῖς ὄντες Σημᾶς καὶ Ἰαφθᾶς καὶ Χαμᾶς ἔτεσιν ἑκατὸν ἔμπροσθεν τῆς ἐπομβρίας γεγονότες , πρῶτοι κατελθόντες ἀπὸ τῶν ὀρῶν εἰς τὰ πεδία τὴν ἐν τούτοις οἴκησιν ἐποιήσαντο , καὶ τοὺς ἄλλους σφόδρα δεδιότας διὰ τὸν κατακλυσμὸν τὰ πεδία καὶ ὀκνηρῶς ἔχοντας πρὸς τὴν ἀπὸ τῶν ὑψηλῶν τόπων κατάβασιν ἔπεισαν θαρσήσαντας μιμητὰς αὐτῶν γενέσθαι . 109Noah had three sons, Shem, Japhet and Ham, born a hundred years before the Deluge. First, these men descended from the mountains into the plains and lived there, and persuaded others who because of the flood were much afraid of the lower ground and reluctant to come down from the heights, to dare to follow their example.
[110] καὶ τὸ μὲν πεδίον , εἰς πρῶτον αὐτοὺς κατῴκισαν , καλεῖται Σεναάρ · τοῦ δὲ θεοῦ κελεύσαντος αὐτοὺς διὰ πολυανθρωπίαν στέλλειν ἀποικίας , ἵνα μὴ στασιάζοιεν πρὸς ἀλλήλους , ἀλλὰ γῆν πολλὴν γεωργοῦντες ἀφθονίας ἀπολαύοιεν τῶν καρπῶν , ὑπὸ ἀμαθίας παρήκουσαν τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ διὰ τοῦτο συμφοραῖς περιπεσόντες ᾔσθοντο τῆς ἁμαρτίας · 110The plain where they first lived was called Senaar. God told them to send out colonies to fully populate of the earth, and not to quarrel among themselves, but to cultivate much of the earth and enjoy its plentiful fruits. But in their foolishness they disobeyed God, and therefore fell into disasters which made them experience the error of their ways.
[111] ἐπεὶ γὰρ ἤνθουν νεότητος πλήθει , πάλιν θεὸς αὐτοῖς συνεβούλευσε ποιεῖσθαι τὴν ἀποικίαν · οἱ δὲ οὐ κατὰ τὴν εὐμένειαν τὴν ἐκείνου νομίζοντες ἔχειν τὰ ἀγαθά , τὴν δ’ ἰσχὺν αὐτοῖς τὴν οἰκείαν αἰτίαν τῆς εὐπορίας ὑπολαμβάνοντες οὐκ ἐπείθοντο . 111For when they were flourishing with a large young population God again advised them to send out colonies, but they did not obey, imagining their prosperity was due not to God's favour but their own innate strength.
[112] προσετίθεσαν δὲ τῷ παρακούειν τῆς τοῦ θεοῦ γνώμης καὶ τὸ κατ’ ἐπιβουλὴν ὑπονοεῖν εἰς ἀποικίαν αὐτοὺς παρορμᾶν , ἵνα διαιρεθέντες εὐεπιχειρητότεροι γένωνται . 112Along with disobeying the divine will, they suspected that He had ordered them to go out in colonies merely so that they would be easier to overcome, being isolated from each other.
[113] Ἐξῆρέ τε αὐτοὺς πρός τε ὕβριν τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ καταφρόνησιν Ναβρώδης , ὃς υἱωνὸς μὲν ἦν Χάμου τοῦ Νώχου , τολμηρὸς δὲ καὶ κατὰ χεῖρα γενναῖος · ἔπειθεν οὖν αὐτοὺς μὴ τῷ θεῷ διδόναι τὸ δι’ ἐκεῖνον εὐδαιμονεῖν , ἀλλὰ τὴν ἰδίαν ἀρετὴν ταῦτα παρέχειν αὐτοῖς ἡγεῖσθαι , 113It was Nabrod who provoked them to such an insult and contempt of God. He was the grandson of Ham, son of Noah, a bold man of great strength, who persuaded them to attribute their prosperity not to God, but to their own courage.
[114] καὶ περιίστα δὲ κατ’ ὀλίγον εἰς τυραννίδα τὰ πράγματα μόνως οὕτως νομίζων ἀποστήσειν τοὺς ἀνθρώπους τοῦ φόβου τοῦ παρὰ τοῦ θεοῦ , εἰ χρώμενοι τῇ αὐτοῦ‎ δυνάμει διατελοῖεν , ἀμυνεῖσθαί τε τὸν θεὸν πάλιν ἠπείλει τὴν γῆν ἐπικλύσαι θελήσαντα · πύργον γὰρ οἰκοδομήσειν ὑψηλότερον τὸ ὕδωρ ἀναβῆναι δυνηθείη , μετελεύσεσθαι δὲ καὶ τῆς τῶν προγόνων ἀπωλείας . 114He gradually brought matters under a tyranny, seeing that the only way to turn people from the fear of God was to keep them dependent on his own power, and that to defend them, in case God should ever again want to drown the world, he threatened to build a tower too high for the waters to reach, and so avenge the ruin of their ancestors.
[115] Τὸ δὲ πλῆθος πρόθυμον ἦν τοῖς Ναβρώδου ἕπεσθαι δόγμασι δουλείαν ἡγούμενοι τὸ εἴκειν τῷ θεῷ , καὶ τὸν πύργον ᾠκοδόμουν οὐδὲν ἀπολείποντες σπουδῆς οὐδὲ πρὸς τὸ ἔργον ὀκνηρῶς ἔχοντες · ἐλάμβανε δὲ θᾶττον ὕψος προσεδόκησεν ἄν τις ὑπὸ πολυχειρίας . 115The populace readily followed Nabrod's view and reckoned it a slavery to submit to God, so they built a tower, sparing no effort and not delaying in the work. With so many working on it, it rose up more quickly than anyone would have expected.
[116] τὸ μέντοι πάχος ἦν ἰσχυρὸν τοσοῦτον , ὥσθ’ ὑπ’ αὐτοῦ‎ μειοῦσθαι τοῖς ὁρῶσι τὸ μῆκος . ᾠκοδομεῖτο δὲ ἐκ πλίνθου ὀπτῆς ἀσφάλτῳ συνδεδεμένης , ὡς ἂν μὴ περιρρέοι . 116It was so stout and strongly built that it appeared less than its great height, and was built of baked bricks, cemented with asphalt so as to be watertight.
[117] οὕτως δὲ μεμηνότας αὐτοὺς ὁρῶν θεὸς ἀφανίσαι μὲν ἐκ παντὸς οὐκ ἔκρινεν , ὅτι μηδ’ ὑπὸ τῶν πρώτων ἀπολωλότων σωφρονισθεῖεν , εἰς στάσιν δὲ αὐτοὺς ἐνέβαλεν ἀλλογλώσσους ἀπεργασάμενος καὶ ὑπὸ πολυφωνίας ποιήσας ἑαυτῶν ἀσυνέτους εἶναι .
δὲ τόπος ἐν τὸν πύργον ᾠκοδόμησαν νῦν Βαβυλὼν καλεῖται διὰ τὴν σύγχυσιν τοῦ περὶ τὴν διάλεκτον πρῶτον ἐναργοῦς · Ἑβραῖοι γὰρ τὴν σύγχυσιν βαβὲλ Βαβὲλ καλοῦσι .
117When God saw them acting in this mad way, he did not decide to utterly destroy them, since even the destruction of the previous sinners had not taught them wisdom, but he put them in turmoil by making them speak different tongues, so that they could not understand each other.
The place where they built the tower is called Babylon nowadays, after the confusion of that original language once understood by all, for in Hebrew Babel means confusion.
[118] περὶ δὲ τοῦ πύργου τούτου καὶ τῆς ἀλλοφωνίας τῶν ἀνθρώπων μέμνηται καὶ Σίβυλλα λέγουσα οὕτως · ‘ πάντων ὁμοφώνων ὄντων τῶν ἀνθρώπων πύργον ᾠκοδόμησάν τινες ὑψηλότατον ὡς ἐπὶ τὸν οὐρανὸν ἀναβησόμενοι δι’ αὐτοῦ‎ . οἱ δὲ θεοὶ ἀνέμους ἐπιπέμψαντες ἀνέτρεψαν τὸν πύργον καὶ ἰδίαν ἑκάστῳ φωνὴν ἔδωκαν · καὶ διὰ τοῦτο Βαβυλῶνα συνέβη κληθῆναι τὴν πόλιν .’ 118The Sibyl also mentions this tower and the confusion of human language, when she says, "When all people were of one language, some of them built a high tower as if by it they could climb up to heaven; but the gods sent windstorms and destroyed the tower and gave each one his own language, and for this reason the city was called Babylon."
[119] περὶ δὲ τοῦ πεδίου τοῦ λεγομένου Σεναὰρ ἐν τῇ Βαβυλωνίᾳ χώρᾳ μνημονεύει Ἑστιαῖος λέγων οὕτως · ‘τῶν δὲ ἱερέων τοὺς διασωθέντας τὰ τοῦ Ἐνυαλίου Διὸς ἱερώματα λαβόντας εἰς Σεναὰρ τῆς Βαβυλωνίας ἐλθεῖν.’ 119Hestiaeus mentions the plan of Senaar in the district of Babylonia, as follows: "The priests who survived took the sacred vessels of Zeus Enyalius and came to Senaar of Babylonia."
Chapter 5
[120-121]
Noah's progeny spread out over the earth
[120] Σκίδνανται δὴ τὸ λοιπὸν ἐντεῦθεν ὑπὸ τῆς ἀλλογλωσσίας τὰς ἀποικίας ποιησάμενοι πανταχοῦ , καὶ γῆν ἕκαστοι κατελάμβανον τὴν ἐντυχοῦσαν καὶ εἰς ἣν αὐτοὺς ἦγεν θεός , ὡς πληρωθῆναι πᾶσαν αὐτῶν ἤπειρον μεσόγεών τε καὶ παράλιον · εἰσὶ δ’ οἳ καὶ περαιωσάμενοι ναυσὶ τὰς νήσους κατῴκησαν . 120They were scattered then, due to their variety of languages, and formed colonies everywhere and each colony took possession of the land they found and to which God led them, so that they filled the whole earth, both the inland and the coastland, and some crossed the sea in ships and inhabited the islands.
[121] καὶ τῶν ἐθνῶν ἔνια μὲν διασώζει τὰς ὑπὸ τῶν κτισάντων κειμένας προσηγορίας , ἔνια δὲ καὶ μετέβαλεν , οἱ δὲ καὶ πρὸς τὸ σαφέστερον εἶναι δοκοῦν τοῖς παροικοῦσι τροπὴν ἔλαβον . Ἕλληνες δ’ εἰσὶν οἱ τούτου καταστάντες αἴτιοι · ἰσχύσαντες γὰρ ἐν τοῖς ὕστερον ἰδίαν ἐποιήσαντο καὶ τὴν πάλαι δόξαν καλλωπίσαντες τὰ ἔθνη τοῖς ὀνόμασι πρὸς τὸ συνετὸν αὐτοῖς καὶ κόσμον θέμενοι πολιτείας ὡς ἀφ’ αὑτῶν γεγονόσιν . 121Some of those nations retain the names their founders gave them, but some were changed so as to be more intelligible to the inhabitants. It was the Greeks who did this, for when they grew powerful in later ages, they claimed the glory of the past and gave to the nations names they could understand, and imposed their form of culture on them, as if they had founded them .
Chapter 6
[122-153]
Nations named after the children of Noah
[122] Ἦσαν δὲ τῶν Νώχου παίδων υἱοί , ὧν ἐπὶ τιμῇ τοῖς ἔθνεσι τὰ ὀνόματα ἐπετίθεσαν οἱ γῆν τινα καταλαβόντες . Ἰαφθᾶ μὲν οὖν τοῦ Νώχου παιδὸς ἦσαν ἑπτὰ υἱοί . κατοικοῦσι δὲ οὗτοι ἀπὸ Ταύρου καὶ Ἀμάνου τῶν ὀρῶν ἀρξάμενοι καὶ προῆλθον ἐπὶ μὲν τῆς Ἀσίας ἄχρι ποταμοῦ Τανάιδος , ἐπὶ δὲ τῆς Εὐρώπης ἕως Γαδείρων γῆν ἣν ἔτυχον καταλαμβάνοντες , καὶ μηδενὸς προκατῳκηκότος τὰ ἔθνη τοῖς αὑτῶν ἐκάλουν ὀνόμασιν . 122Noah's children had sons in whose honour the nations were named by their first occupants. Noah's son Japhet had seven sons, who occupied first the mountains of Taurus and Amanus and proceeded through Asia as far as the river Tanais and across Europe as far as Gadeira, settling the lands they encountered where none had lived before, and calling the nations by their own names.
[123] τοὺς γὰρ νῦν ὑφ’ Ἑλλήνων Γαλάτας καλουμένους , Γομαρεῖς δὲ λεγομένους , Γόμαρος ἔκτισε . Μαγώγης δὲ τοὺς ἀπ’ αὐτοῦ‎ Μαγώγας ὀνομασθέντας ᾤκισεν , Σκύθας δὲ ὑπ’ αὐτῶν προσαγορευομένους . 123Gomer founded those whom the Greeks now call Galatians, but were then called Gomerites and Magog founded the Magogites after himself, whom they call Scythians.
[124] τῶν δὲ Ἰαφθᾶ παίδων Ἰαυάνου καὶ Μάδου ἀπὸ μὲν τούτου Μαδαῖοι γίνονται ἔθνος , οἳ πρὸς Ἑλλήνων Μῆδοι κέκληνται , ἀπὸ δὲ Ἰαυάνου Ἰωνία καὶ πάντες Ἕλληνες γεγόνασι . κατοικίζει δὲ καὶ Θεοβήλους Θεόβηλος , οἵτινες ἐν τοῖς νῦν Ἴβηρες καλοῦνται . 124The sons of Japhet, Javan and Mados, were also founders of nations: from Mados came the Madaeans, whom the Greeks call Medes, and from Javan are descended Ionia and all the Greeks. Theobel founded the Theobelites, who are now called Iberes.
[125] καὶ Μεσχῆνοι δὲ ὑπὸ Μέσχου κτισθέντες Καππάδοκες μὲν ἄρτι κέκληνται , τῆς δὲ ἀρχαίας αὐτῶν προσηγορίας σημεῖον δείκνυται · πόλις γάρ ἐστι παρ’ αὐτοῖς ἔτι καὶ νῦν Μάζακα , δηλοῦσα τοῖς συνιέναι δυναμένοις οὕτως ποτὲ προσαγορευθὲν πᾶν τὸ ἔθνος . Θείρης δὲ Θείρας μὲν ἐκάλεσεν ὧν ἦρξεν , Ἕλληνες δὲ Θρᾷκας αὐτοὺς μετωνόμασαν . 125The Mescheni were founded by Meschos and are now called Cappadocians, though a trace of their ancient name is still visible, for there is still among them a city called Mazaca, an indication to those who understand such things that this was once the name of the whole nation. Thiras called his subjects Thirasians, but the Greeks changed the name into Thracians.
[126] καὶ τοσαῦτα μὲν ἔθνη ὑπὸ τῶν Ἰαφέθου παίδων κατοικεῖται · Γομάρου δὲ τριῶν υἱῶν γενομένων Ἀσχανάξης μὲν Ἀσχανάξους ᾤκισεν , οἳ νῦν Ῥήγινες ὑπὸ τῶν Ἑλλήνων καλοῦνται , Ῥιφάθης δὲ Ῥιφαθαίους τοὺς Παφλαγόνας λεγομένους , Θυγράμης δὲ Θυγραμαίους , οἳ δόξαν Ἕλλησι Φρύγες ὠνομάσθησαν . 126These were the countries occupied by the children of Japhet. Of the three sons of Gomer, Aschanaxes founded the Aschanaxans, who are now called by the Greeks Rheginians; and Riphath founded the Ripheans, now called Paphlagonians, and Thygrames the Thygrameans, whom the Greeks called Phrygians.
[127] Ἰαυάνου δὲ τοῦ Ἰάφθου τριῶν καὶ αὐτοῦ‎ παίδων γενομένων Ἁλισᾶς μὲν Ἁλισαίους ἐκάλεσεν ὧν ἦρχεν , Αἰολεῖς δὲ νῦν εἰσι , Θάρσος δὲ Θαρσεῖς · οὕτως γὰρ ἐκαλεῖτο τὸ παλαιὸν Κιλικία . σημεῖον δέ · Ταρσὸς γὰρ παρ’ αὐτοῖς τῶν πόλεων ἀξιολογωτάτη καλεῖται μητρόπολις οὖσα τὸ ταῦ πρὸς τὴν κλῆσιν ἀντὶ τοῦ θῆτα μεταβαλόντων . 127Of the three sons of Javan, son of Japhet, Halisa named the Haliseans whom he ruled, who are now the Aeolians; and Tharsus named the Tharsians, the former name of Cilicia, in sign of which their noblest city and metropolis Tarsus, the tau having replaced the theta.
[128] Χέθιμος δὲ Χέθιμα τὴν νῆσον ἔσχε , Κύπρος αὕτη νῦν καλεῖται , καὶ ἀπ’ αὐτῆς νῆσοί τε πᾶσαι καὶ τὰ πλείω τῶν παρὰ θάλατταν Χέθη ὑπὸ Ἑβραίων ὀνομάζεται · μάρτυς δέ μου τῷ λόγῳ μία τῶν ἐν Κύπρῳ πόλεων ἰσχύσασα τὴν προσηγορίαν φυλάξαι · Κίτιον γὰρ ὑπὸ τῶν ἐξελληνισάντων αὐτὴν καλεῖται μηδ’ οὕτως διαφυγοῦσα τοῦ Χεθίμου τὸ ὄνομα . Ἰαφθᾶ μὲν δὴ παῖδές τε καὶ υἱωνοὶ τοσαῦτα ἔσχον ἔθνη . 128Cethimus occuped the island of Cethima, now called Cyprus, from which all islands and most of the sea-coasts are called by the Hebrews Cethim, a sign of which is that one city in Cyprus has kept that name. It is called Citius by those who use the Greek language, not far removed from the name Cethim. These were the nations occupied by the children and grandchildren of Japhet.
[129] δ’ ἴσως ὑφ’ Ἑλλήνων ἀγνοεῖται , τοῦτο προειπὼν τρέψομαι πρὸς τὴν ἀφήγησιν ὧν κατέλιπον . τὰ γὰρ ὀνόματα διὰ τὸ τῆς γραφῆς εὐπρεπὲς ἡλλήνισται πρὸς ἡδονὴν τῶν ἐντευξομένων · οὐ γὰρ ἐπιχώριος ἡμῖν τοιοῦτος αὐτῶν τύπος , ἀλλ’ ἕν τε αὐτῶν σχῆμα καὶ τελευτὴ μία , Νῶχός τέ τοι Νῶε καλεῖται καὶ τοῦτον τὸν τύπον ἐπὶ παντὸς τηρεῖ σχήματος . 129After noting something that the Greeks probably do not know, I will return to explain what I have omitted. To please my readers the names are here rendered in the Greek style, as our native language does not pronounce them like that, for we retain the form and termination of names and for us, Noah is Nochas, and his name retains this form in all cases .
[130] Οἱ δὲ Χάμου παῖδες τὴν ἀπὸ Συρίας καὶ Ἀμάνου καὶ Λιβάνου τῶν ὀρῶν γῆν κατέσχον , ὅσα πρὸς θάλασσαν αὐτῆς ἐτέτραπτο καταλαβόντες καὶ τὰ μέχρι τοῦ ὠκεανοῦ ἐξιδιωσάμενοι · αἱ μέντοι προσηγορίαι τῶν μὲν καὶ παντελῶς ἐξίτηλοι γεγόνασιν , ἐνίων δὲ μεταβαλοῦσαι καὶ μεταρρυθμισθεῖσαι πρὸς ἑτέρας δύσγνωστοι τυγχάνουσιν , ὀλίγοι δὲ οἱ φυλάξαντες ἀκεραίους τὰς προσηγορίας ὑπάρχουσι . 130The children of Ham held the land from Syria and Amanus and the mountains of Libanus; taking all its sea-coast as far as the ocean and making it their own. Some of its names have vanished utterly while others have changed in pronunciation, and so are hard to identify, though a few have kept their names intact.
[131] τεσσάρων γὰρ Χάμου παίδων γενομένων Χουσαῖον μὲν οὐδὲν ὑπάρχουσι χρόνος · Αἰθίοπες γὰρ ὧν ἦρξεν ἔτι καὶ νῦν ὑπὸ ἑαυτῶν τε καὶ τῶν ἐν τῇ Ἀσίᾳ πάντων Χουσαῖοι καλοῦνται . 131Of the four sons of Ham, time has no way changed the name of Chus, for his Ethiopian descendants are even to this day called Chusites, both by themselves and by everyone in Asia.
[132] ἐτηρήθη δὲ καὶ Μερσαίοις κατὰ τὴν προσηγορίαν μνήμη · τὴν γὰρ Αἴγυπτον Μέρσην καὶ Μερσαίους τοὺς Αἰγυπτίους ἅπαντες οἱ ταύτῃ καλοῦμεν . ἔκτισε δὲ καὶ Φούδης τὴν Λιβύην Φούτους ἀπ’ αὐτοῦ‎ καλέσας τοὺς ἐπιχωρίους . 132The memory of the Mesraites is preserved in their name, for all of us living here call Egypt Merse and the Egyptians Merseans. Phut was the founder of Libya and called the inhabitants Phutites, after himself.
[133] ἔστι δὲ καὶ ποταμὸς ἐν τῇ Μαύρων χώρᾳ τοῦτο ἔχων τὸ ὄνομα , ὅθεν καὶ τοὺς πλείστους τῶν Ἑλληνικῶν ἱστοριογράφων ἔστιν ἰδεῖν μεμνημένους τοῦ ποταμοῦ καὶ τῆς παρακειμένης αὐτῷ χώρας Φούτης λεγομένης . μετέβαλε δὲ νῦν αὐτῇ ἐστιν ὄνομα ἀπὸ τῶν Μεσράμου υἱῶν Λίβυος λεγομένου · μετ’ οὐ πολὺ δ’ ἐροῦμεν τὴν αἰτίαν , δι’ ἣν αὐτὴν καὶ Ἀφρικὴν προσαγορεύεσθαι συμβέβηκε . 133There is even a river in the land of the Moors bearing that name, which is why one sees most of the Greek historiographers mentioning that river and the adjoining area under the name of Phut, which was changed and is now called after Libyos, one of the sons of Mesraim. We will soon report what caused it to be also called Africa.
[134] Χαναναῖος δὲ τέταρτος ὢν Χάμου παῖς τὴν νῦν Ἰουδαίαν καλουμένην οἰκίσας ἀπ’ αὐτοῦ‎ Χαναναίαν προσηγόρευσεν . γίνονται δὲ παῖδες ἐξ αὐτῶν Χούσου μὲν ἕξ , ὧν Σάβας μὲν Σαβαίους , Εὐίλας δὲ Εὐιλαίους ἔκτισεν , οἳ νῦν Γαιτοῦλοι λέγονται , Σαβάθης δὲ Σαβαθηνούς , ὀνομάζονται δὲ Ἀστάβαροι παρ’ Ἕλλησιν · 134Canaan, the fourth son of Ham, lived in the country now called Judea and called it by his own name Canaan. The children of these were: Sabas, who founded the Sabeans, Evilas, who founded the Evileans, now called Getuli, and Sabathes the Sabathens, whom the Greeks call Astaborans.
[135] οἰκίζει δὲ καὶ Σαβάκτας Σαβακτηνούς · Ῥάμος δὲ Ῥαμαίους ᾤκισε καὶ δύο παῖδας ἔσχεν , ὧν Ἰουδάδας μὲν Ἰουδαδαίους Αἰθιοπικὸν ἔθνος τῶν ἑσπερίων οἰκίσας ἐπωνύμους αὐτῷ κατέλιπε , Σαβαίους δὲ Σαβαῖος · Ναβρώδης δὲ Χούσου Ναχώρης ὑπομείνας παρὰ Βαβυλωνίοις ἐτυράννησεν , ὡς καὶ πρότερόν μοι δεδήλωται . 135Sabactas founded the Sabactenians, Ragmus the Ragmeans, and he had two sons, one of whom, Judadas, settled the Judadeans, a nation of the western Ethiopians and left them his name; as did Sabas to the Sabeans. But Nabrod, son of Chus, stayed and was tyrant in Babylon, as already said.
[136] τῶν δὲ Μεσραίου παίδων ὀκτὼ γενομένων οἱ πάντες τὴν ἀπὸ Γάζης ἕως Αἰγύπτου γῆν κατέσχον , μόνου δὲ Φυλιστίνου τὴν ἐπωνυμίαν χώρα διεφύλαξε · Παλαιστίνην γὰρ οἱ Ἕλληνες αὐτοῦ‎ τὴν μοῖραν καλοῦσι . 136The eight children of Mesraim possessed the country from Gaza to Egypt, though it kept the name of only one, Philistinos, and the Greeks name his country Palestine.
[137] τῶν δὲ ἄλλων , Λουμαίου καὶ Ἀναμία καὶ Λαβίμου τοῦ μόνου κατοικήσαντος ἐν Λιβύῃ καὶ ὧδε τὴν χώραν ἀπ’ αὐτοῦ‎ καλέσαντος , Νεδέμου τε καὶ Πεθρωσίμου καὶ Χεσλοίμου καὶ Χεφθώμου πέρα τῶν ὀνομάτων οὐδὲν ἴσμεν · γὰρ Αἰθιοπικὸς πόλεμος , περὶ οὗ δηλώσομεν ὕστερον , ἀναστάτους αὐτῶν τὰς πόλεις ἐποίησεν . 137The others were Lumaeus and Anamia and Labimos, who settled alone in Libya and called the country after himself. Of Nedim and Pethrosim and Chesloim and Cephthomos we know nothing except their names, for the Ethiopian war which we shall later describe destroyed those cities.
[138] ἐγένοντο δὲ καὶ Χαναναίου παῖδες , Σιδώνιος , ὃς καὶ πόλιν ἐπώνυμον ἔκτισεν ἐν τῇ Φοινίκῃ , Σιδὼν δ’ ὑφ’ Ἑλλήνων καλεῖται · Ἀμαθοῦς δὲ Ἀμάθουν κατῴκισεν , ἥτις ἔστι καὶ νῦν ὑπὸ μὲν τῶν ἐπιχωρίων Ἀμάθη καλουμένη , Μακεδόνες δ’ αὐτὴν Ἐπιφάνειαν ἀφ’ ἑνὸς τῶν ἐπιγόνων ἐπωνόμασαν · Ἀρουδαῖος δὲ Ἄραδον τὴν νῆσον ἔσχεν · Ἀρουκαῖος δὲ Ἄρκην τὴν ἐν τῷ Λιβάνῳ . 138The sons of Canaan were: Sidonius, who built a city of the same name, called by the Greeks Sidon; Amathus who lived in Amathine, which the locals even now call Amathe, though from one of his descendants the Macedonians gave it the name Epiphania. Arudaeus took the island of Aradus and Arucaeus took Arce in Libanus.
[139] τῶν δὲ ἄλλων ἑπτά , Εὐαίου Χετταίου Ἰεβουσαίου Ἀμορραίου Γεργεσαίου Σειναίου Σαμαραίου , πλὴν τῶν ὀνομάτων ἐν ταῖς ἱεραῖς βίβλοις οὐδὲν ἔχομεν · Ἑβραῖοι γὰρ αὐτῶν ἀνέστησαν τὰς πόλεις ἐκ τοιαύτης αἰτίας ἐν συμφορᾷ γενομένας · 139Of the seven others, Euaeus, Chetteus, Jebuseus, Amorreus, Gergesus, Eudeus, Sineus and Samareus, we have nothing from the sacred books except their names, for the Hebrews destroyed their cities, a fate that befell them for the reason I shall explain.
[140] Νῶχος μετὰ τὴν ἐπομβρίαν τῆς γῆς κατασταθείσης εἰς τὴν αὐτῆς φύσιν ἐπ’ ἔργα χωρεῖ καὶ καταφυτεύσας αὐτὴν ἀμπέλοις , ἡνίκα τοῦ καρποῦ τελεσφορηθέντος καθ’ ὥραν ἐτρύγησε καὶ παρῆν εἰς χρῆσιν οἶνος , θύσας ἐν εὐωχίαις ἦν . 140When the earth was restored to its former condition after the deluge, Noah set to planting it with vines, and when he gathered the grapes in due season and the wine was ready for use, he offered sacrifice and held a feast.
[141] μεθυσθεὶς δὲ εἰς ὕπνον καταφέρεται καὶ γεγυμνωμένος παρακόσμως ἔκειτο . θεασάμενος δὲ αὐτὸν νεώτατος τῶν παίδων τοῖς ἀδελφοῖς ἐπιγελῶν δείκνυσιν · οἱ δὲ περιστέλλουσι τὸν πατέρα . 141When he was drunk he fell asleep and lay there indecently naked; and as his youngest son saw him he laughingly pointed it out to his brothers, who covered up their father.
[142] καὶ Νῶχος αἰσθόμενος τοῖς μὲν ἄλλοις παισὶν εὐδαιμονίαν εὔχεται , τῷ δὲ Χαμᾷ διὰ τὴν συγγένειαν αὐτῷ μὲν οὐ κατηράσατο , τοῖς δ’ ἐγγόνοις αὐτοῦ‎ · καὶ τῶν ἄλλων διαπεφευγότων τὴν ἀρὰν τοὺς Χαναναίου παῖδας μέτεισιν θεός . καὶ περὶ μὲν τούτων ἐν τοῖς ἑξῆς ἐροῦμεν . 142When Noah learned what had happened, he prayed that his other sons might prosper though he did not curse Ham because he was his son, but he cursed his offspring; and while the rest of them escaped God's curse, it fell on the children of Canaan. About this we shall say more later.
[143] Σημᾷ δὲ τῷ τρίτῳ τῶν Νώχου υἱῶν πέντε γίνονται παῖδες , οἳ τὴν μέχρι τοῦ κατ’ Ἰνδίαν ὠκεανοῦ κατοικοῦσιν Ἀσίαν ἀπ’ Εὐφράτου τὴν ἀρχὴν πεποιημένοι . Ἔλυμος μὲν γὰρ Ἐλυμαίους Περσῶν ὄντας ἀρχηγέτας κατέλιπεν · Ἀσσούρας δὲ Νίνον οἰκίζει πόλιν καὶ τοὺς ὑπηκόους Ἀσσυρίους ἐπωνόμασεν , οἳ μάλιστα εὐδαιμόνησαν · 143Shem, the third son of Noah, had five sons, who occupied the land from the Euphrates to the Indian Ocean. For Elam left behind him the Elamites, the forebears of the Persians. Ashur lived in the city of Ninon, and named his subjects Assyrians, who prospered greatly.
[144] Ἀρφαξάδης δὲ τοὺς νῦν Χαλδαίους καλουμένους Ἀρφαξαδαίους ὠνόμασεν ἄρξας αὐτῶν · Ἀραμαίους δὲ Ἄραμος ἔσχεν , οὓς Ἕλληνες Σύρους προσαγορεύουσιν · οὓς δὲ Λυδοὺς νῦν καλοῦσι , Λούδους δὲ τότε , Λούδας ἔκτισε . 144Arphaxad named his subjects the Arphaxadites, now called the Chaldeans. Aramaeus ruled the Aramites, whom the Greeks call Syrians, and Loudas founded the Loudites, now called Lydians.
[145] τῶν δὲ Ἀράμου παίδων τεσσάρων ὄντων Οὔσης μὲν κτίζει τὴν Τραχωνῖτιν καὶ Δαμασκόν , μέση δ’ ἐστὶ τῆς Παλαιστίνης καὶ κοίλης Συρίας · Ἀρμενίαν δὲ Ὄτρος , καὶ Γεθέρης Βακτριανούς , Μήσας δὲ Μησαναίους , Σπασίνου Χάραξ ἐν τοῖς νῦν καλεῖται . 145Of the four sons of Aramos, Ouses founded Trachonitis and Damascus which is between Palestine and Coele-Syria, Ouros founded Armenia, and Getheres the Bactrians, and Mesa the Mesaneans in the area that is now called Charax Spasini.
[146] Ἀρφαξάδου δὲ παῖς γίνεται Σάλης , τοῦ δὲ Ἕβερος , ἀφ’ οὗ τοὺς Ἰουδαίους Ἑβραίους ἀρχῆθεν ἐκάλουν · Ἕβερος δὲ Ἰούκταν καὶ Φάλεγον ἐγέννησεν · ἐκλήθη δὲ Φάλεγος , ἐπειδὴ κατὰ τὸν ἀποδασμὸν τῶν οἰκήσεων τίκτεται · φαλὲκ γὰρ τὸν μερισμὸν Ἑβραῖοι καλοῦσιν . 146Arphaxad's son was Sala, whose son was Heber, from whom the Jews were originally called Hebrews. Heber begot Joetan and Phaleg, who got the name Phaleg because he was born at the dispersion of the territories, as for the Hebrews phalek means division.
[147] Ἰούκτᾳ δὲ τῶν Ἑβέρου παίδων ἦσαν υἱοὶ Ἐλμόδαδος Σάλεφος Ἀζερμώθης Εἰράης Ἐδώραμος Οὐζάλης Δαήλης Ἤβαλος Ἀβιμάηλος Σάφας Ὀφίρης Εὐίλης Ἰόβηλος . οὗτοι ἀπὸ Κωφῆνος ποταμοῦ τῆς Ἰνδικῆς καὶ τῆς πρὸς αὐτῇ Σηρίας τινὰ κατοικοῦσι . ταῦτα μὲν περὶ τῶν Σημᾶ παίδων ἱστορήσθω . 147Of the children of Heber, Joctan's sons were Elmodad, Saleph, Azermoth, Eira, Edoram, Ouzal, Dakles, Ebal, Abimael, Safas, Ophir, Euiles and Jobel. These inhabited part of India from the river Cophen and part of Asia adjoining it. Such is my report about the sons of Shem .
[148] Ποιήσομαι δὲ περὶ Ἑβραίων τὸν λόγον · Φαλέγου γὰρ τοῦ Ἑβέρου γίνεται παῖς Ῥεούς · τούτου δὲ Σεροῦγος , Ναχώρης Ναχώρης τίκτεται · τούτου δὲ Θέρρος · πατὴρ δὲ οὗτος Ἁβράμου γίνεται , ὃς δέκατος μέν ἐστιν ἀπὸ Νώχου , δευτέρῳ δ’ ἔτει καὶ ἐνενηκοστῷ πρὸς ἐνακοσίοις μετὰ τὴν ἐπομβρίαν ἐγένετο . 148I will go on to tell about the Hebrews. Reus was the son of Heber's son Phaleg, and his son was Serug, to whom was born Nahor, whose son was Therros, the father of Abraham, who was the tenth generation from Noah, born in the two hundred and ninety second year after the deluge.
[149] Θέρρος μὲν γὰρ ἑβδομηκοστῷ ποιεῖται τὸν Ἅβραμον · Ναχώρης δὲ Θέρρον εἰκοστὸν αὐτὸς [ ἔτος ] καὶ ἑκατοστὸν ἤδη γεγονὼς ἐγέννησε · Σερούγῳ δὲ Ναχώρης τίκτεται περὶ ἔτος δεύτερον καὶ τριακοστὸν καὶ ἑκατοστόν · Ῥοῦμος δὲ Σεροῦγον ἔτη τριάκοντα γεγονὼς πρὸς τοῖς ἑκατόν · ἐν δὲ τοῖς αὐτοῖς ἔτεσι καὶ Ῥοῦμον Φάλεγος ἔσχεν · 149Therros begot Abram in his seventieth year; Nahor begot Therros when he was a hundred and twenty; Serug was a hundred and thirty two when Nahor was born to him; Rumos had Serug at one hundred and thirty, and Phaleg was the same age when he had Rumos.
[150] Ἕβερος δὲ τετάρτῳ καὶ τριακοστῷ πρὸς τοῖς ἑκατὸν γεννᾷ Φάλεγον γεννηθεὶς αὐτὸς ὑπὸ Σέλου τριακοστὸν ἔτος ἔχοντος καὶ ἑκατοστόν , ὃν Ἀρφάξαδος ἐτέκνωσε κατὰ πέμπτον καὶ τριακοστὸν ἔτος πρὸς τοῖς ἑκατόν · Σημᾷ δὲ Ναχώρης Ἀρφαξάδης ἦν μετὰ ἔτη δώδεκα τῆς ἐπομβρίας γενόμενος . 150Heber begot Phaleg in his hundred and thirty-fourth year, having himself being born of the hundred and thirty year-old Selos, whom Arphaxad begot at the age of a hundred and thirty five. Arphaxad was the son of Shem and born twelve years after the deluge .
[151] Ἅβραμος δὲ εἶχεν ἀδελφοὺς Ναχώρην καὶ Ἀράνην · τούτων Ἀράνης μὲν υἱὸν καταλιπὼν Λῶτον καὶ Σάρραν καὶ Μελχὰν θυγατέρας ἐν Χαλδαίοις ἀπέθανεν ἐν πόλει Οὐρῆ λεγομένῃ τῶν Χαλδαίων , καὶ τάφος αὐτοῦ‎ μέχρι νῦν δείκνυται . γαμοῦσι δὲ τὰς ἀδελφιδὰς Μελχὰν μὲν Ναχώρης Σάρραν δὲ Ἅβραμος . 151Now Abram had two brothers, Nahor and Aran, of whom Aran left behind a son, Lot, and daughters, Sara and Melcha, and he died among the Chaldeans, in a Chaldean city named Ur, and his tomb is shown to this day. The brothers married their nieces, Nabor taking Melcha and Abram taking Sara.
[152] Θέρρου δὲ μισήσαντος τὴν Χαλδαίαν διὰ τὸ Ἀράνου πένθος μετοικίζονται πάντες εἰς Χαρρὰν τῆς Μεσοποταμίας , ὅπου καὶ Θέρρον τελευτήσαντα θάπτουσιν ἔτη βιώσαντας πέντε καὶ διακόσια · συνετέμνετο γὰρ ἤδη τοῖς ἀνθρώποις τὸ ζῆν καὶ βραχύτερον ἐγίνετο μέχρι τῆς Μωυσέος γενέσεως , μεθ’ ὃν ὅρος ἦν τοῦ ζῆν ἑκατὸν ἔτη πρὸς τοῖς εἴκοσι τοσαῦθ’ ὁρίσαντος τοῦ θεοῦ , ὅσα καὶ Μωυσεῖ συνέβη βιῶναι . 152Now as Therros hated Chaldea, in his grief for the loss of Aran, they all moved to Haran in Mesopotamia, where Therros died and was buried, after living to be two hundred and five years old, for the human lifespan was already diminishing and becoming shorter up to the birth of Moses, after whom the limit of human life was fixed by God at a hundred and twenty years, the length that Moses lived.
[153] Ναχώρῃ μὲν οὖν ἐκ τῆς Μελχᾶς ὀκτὼ παῖδες ἐγένοντο , Οὖξος Βαοῦξος Μαουῆλος Μαουῆλος Ζάχαμος Ἀζαοῦος Ἰαδελφᾶς Ἰαδαφᾶς Βαθουῆλος · οὗτοι μὲν Ναχώρου παῖδες γνήσιοι · Ταβαῖος γὰρ καὶ Γάδαμος καὶ Τααῦος καὶ Μαχᾶς ἐκ Ῥούμας παλλακῆς αὐτῷ γεγόνασι . Βαθουήλῳ δὲ τῶν Ναχώρου γνησίων παίδων γίνεται Ῥεβέκκα θυγάτηρ καὶ Λάβανος υἱός . 153By Melcha Nahor had eight sons: Uz and Buz, Kemuel, Chesed, Azau, Pheldas, Jadelph and Bethuel. These were all the legitimate sons of Nahor, for Teba and Gaam and Tachas and Maaca were born of his concubine Reuma; and Bethuel had a daughter, Rebecca, and a son, Laban.
Chapter 7
[154-160]
Abram goes to the land of Canaan. His monotheism

[154] Ἅβραμος δὲ Λῶτον τὸν Ἀράνου τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ υἱὸν τῆς δὲ γυναικὸς αὐτοῦ‎ Σάρρας ἀδελφὸν εἰσεποιήσατο γνησίου παιδὸς ἀπορῶν καὶ καταλείπει τὴν Χαλδαίαν ἑβδομήκοντα καὶ πέντε γεγονὼς ἔτη τοῦ θεοῦ κελεύσαντος εἰς τὴν Χαναναίαν μετελθεῖν , ἐν κατῴκησε καὶ τοῖς ἀπογόνοις κατέλιπε δεινὸς ὢν συνεῖναί τε περὶ πάντων καὶ πιθανὸς τοῖς ἀκροωμένοις περί τε ὧν εἰκάσειεν οὐ διαμαρτάνων .
154Abram, having no son of his own, adopted Lot, his brother Aran's son and his wife Sara's brother, and left the land of Chaldea when he was seventy-five years old and at God's command went into Canaan, where he lived and then left it to his descendants. He had a remarkable grasp of all things and great powers of persuasion and was not mistaken in his views.
[155] διὰ τοῦτο καὶ φρονεῖν μεῖζον ἐπ’ ἀρετῇ τῶν ἄλλων ἠργμένος καὶ τὴν περὶ τοῦ θεοῦ δόξαν , ἣν ἅπασι συνέβαινεν εἶναι , καινίσαι καὶ μεταβαλεῖν ἔγνω . πρῶτος οὖν τολμᾷ θεὸν ἀποφήνασθαι δημιουργὸν τῶν ὅλων ἕνα , τῶν δὲ λοιπῶν εἰ καί τι πρὸς εὐδαιμονίαν συντελεῖ κατὰ προσταγὴν τὴν τούτου παρέχειν ἕκαστον καὶ οὐ κατ’ οἰκείαν ἰσχύν . 155Thus he began to have higher ideas of virtue than others and decided to renew and change the opinion all people then had about God. He was the first who dared to proclaim that there was only one God, the Creator of the universe, and that if any others contributed to human prosperity, each gave it only at his command and not by their own power.
[156] εἰκάζεται δὲ ταῦτα τοῖς γῆς καὶ θαλάσσης παθήμασι τοῖς τε περὶ τὸν ἥλιον καὶ τὴν σελήνην καὶ πᾶσι τοῖς κατ’ οὐρανὸν συμβαίνουσι · δυνάμεως γὰρ αὐτοῖς παρούσης καὶ προνοῆσαι τῆς κατ’ αὐτοὺς εὐταξίας , ταύτης δ’ ὑστεροῦντας φανεροὺς γίνεσθαι μηδ’ ὅσα πρὸς τὸ χρησιμώτερον ἡμῖν συνεργοῦσι κατὰ τὴν αὐτῶν ἐξουσίαν , ἀλλὰ κατὰ τὴν τοῦ κελεύοντος ἰσχὺν ὑπουργεῖν , καλῶς ἔχει μόνῳ τὴν τιμὴν καὶ τὴν εὐχαριστίαν ἀπονέμειν . 156This he concluded from the movements of both land and sea, and those of the sun and moon and all the heavens. If these had power of their own, they would control their own regular motions, but since they do not, it is clear that where they co-operate for our advantage, they do it not of their own power but as subject to Him who orders them, to whom alone we should properly give honour and thanksgiving.
[157] δι’ ἅπερ Χαλδαίων τε καὶ τῶν ἄλλων Μεσοποταμιτῶν στασιασάντων πρὸς αὐτὸν μετοικεῖν δοκιμάσας κατὰ βούλησιν καὶ βοήθειαν τοῦ θεοῦ τὴν Χαναναίαν ἔσχε γῆν , ἱδρυθείς τε αὐτόθι βωμὸν ᾠκοδόμησε καὶ θυσίαν ἐτέλεσε τῷ θεῷ . 157When the Chaldeans and other Mesopotamians challenged him about these doctrines he decided to emigrate, and guided and helped by God, gained possession of the land of Canaan. When he had settled there, he built an altar and offered sacrifice to God .
[158] Μνημονεύει δὲ τοῦ πατρὸς ἡμῶν Ἁβράμου Βηρωσός , οὐκ ὀνομάζων , λέγων δ’ οὕτως · μετὰ δὲ τὸν κατακλυσμὸν δεκάτῃ γενεᾷ παρὰ Χαλδαίοις τις ἦν δίκαιος ἀνὴρ καὶ μέγας καὶ τὰ οὐράνια 158Berosus mentions our father Abram without naming him, when he says, "In the tenth generation after the Flood, there was among the Chaldeans a just and great man, skilled about the heavens."
[159] ἔμπειρος . Ἑκαταῖος δὲ καὶ τοῦ μνησθῆναι πλέον τι πεποίηκε · βιβλίον γὰρ περὶ αὐτοῦ‎ συνταξάμενος κατέλιπε . Νικόλαος δὲ Δαμασκηνὸς ἐν τῇ τετάρτῃ τῶν ἱστοριῶν λέγει οὕτως · " Ἁβράμης ἐβασίλευσεν ἔπηλυς σὺν στρατῷ ἀφιγμένος ἐκ τῆς γῆς τῆς ὑπὲρ Βαβυλῶνος Χαλδαίων λεγομένης . 159Hecataeus gave him more than a mere mention, for he left a book about him. And Nicolaus of Damascus, in the fourth book of his History, says, "Abram reigned though he was a foreigner, for he came with an army from the land above Babylon, called the land of the Chaldeans.
[160] μετ’ οὐ πολὺν δὲ χρόνον μεταναστὰς καὶ ἀπὸ ταύτης τῆς χώρας σὺν τῷ σφετέρῳ λαῷ εἰς τὴν τότε μὲν Χαναναίαν λεγομένην νῦν δὲ Ἰουδαίαν μετῴκησε καὶ οἱ ἀπ’ ἐκείνου πληθύσαντες , περὶ ὧν ἐν ἑτέρῳ λόγῳ διέξειμι τὰ ἱστορούμενα . τοῦ δὲ Ἁβράμου ἔτι καὶ νῦν ἐν τῇ Δαμασκηνῇ τὸ ὄνομα δοξάζεται καὶ κώμη δείκνυται ἀπ’ αὐτοῦ‎ Ἁβράμου οἴκησις λεγομένη." 160Soon he moved from that country with his people and went into the land then called Canaan, which is now Judea, and his descendants were many; of them we will tell in another work. The name of Abram is still honoured near Damascus, where they point out a village named after him "Abram's Dwelling-Place."
Chapter 8
[161-170]
Abram to Egypt; back to Canaan; divides the land with Lot

[161] Λιμοῦ δὲ χρόνοις ὕστερον τὴν Ἰουδαίαν καταλαβόντος Ἅβραμος Αἰγυπτίους εὐδαιμονεῖν πυθόμενος μεταίρειν πρὸς αὐτοὺς ἦν πρόθυμος τῆς τε ἀφθονίας τῆς ἐκείνων μεθέξων καὶ τῶν ἱερέων ἀκροατὴς ἐσόμενος ὧν λέγοιεν περὶ θεῶν · γὰρ κρείσσοσιν εὑρεθεῖσι κατακολουθήσειν μετακοσμήσειν αὐτοὺς ἐπὶ τὸ βέλτιον αὐτὸς ἄμεινον φρονῶν .
161When in time a famine took hold in Judea and Abram realised that the Egyptians were prospering, he wanted to go down to them, both to share in their plenty and to hear what their priests had to say about the gods. If they had better notions, he would follow them, but if his ideas were right he would convert them to a better understanding.
[162] ἐπαγόμενος δὲ καὶ τὴν Σάρραν καὶ φοβούμενος τὸ πρὸς τὰς γυναῖκας τῶν Αἰγυπτίων ἐπιμανές , μὴ διὰ τὴν εὐμορφίαν τῆς γυναικὸς βασιλεὺς αὐτὸν ἀνέλῃ , τέχνην ἐπενόησε τοιαύτην · ἀδελφὸς αὐτῆς εἶναι προσεποιήσατο κἀκείνην τοῦθ’ ὑποκρίνασθαι , συμφέρειν γὰρ αὐτοῖς , ἐδίδαξεν . 162He took Sara with him but on account of his wife's great beauty he feared that the king, with an Egyptian's mania for women, would have him killed, so he came up with this plan: he would claim to be her brother and get her to pretend the same, for the sake of them both.
[163] ὡς δ’ ἧκον εἰς τὴν Αἴγυπτον , ἀπέβαινε τῷ Ἁβράμῳ καθὼς ὑπενόησε · τὸ γὰρ κάλλος ἐξεβοήθη τῆς γυναικὸς αὐτοῦ‎ · διὸ καὶ Φαραώθης βασιλεὺς τῶν Αἰγυπτίων οὐ τοῖς περὶ αὐτῆς λεγομένοις ἀρκεσθεὶς ἀλλὰ καὶ θεάσασθαι σπουδάσας οἷός τε ἦν ἅψασθαι τῆς Σάρρας . 163When he came into Egypt, it turned out as Abram had expected. His wife's beauty was highly praised, so that when he heard of her the king of the Egyptians, Pharaothes, would not rest until he saw Sara and was eager for her embrace.
[164] ἐμποδίζει δὲ αὐτοῦ‎ θεὸς τὴν ἄδικον ἐπιθυμίαν νόσῳ τε καὶ στάσει τῶν πραγμάτων · καὶ θυομένῳ περὶ ἀπαλλαγῆς κατὰ μῆνιν θεοῦ τὸ δεινὸν αὐτῷ παρεῖναι ἀπεσήμαινον οἱ ἱερεῖς , ἐφ’ οἷς ἠθέλησεν ὑβρίσαι τοῦ ξένου τὴν γυναῖκα . 164But God thwarted his unjust desires by sending on him an illness and a civic revolt. When he asked the priests how he could be freed from these troubles, they told him that his misfortune resulted from the wrath of God, for intending to abuse the stranger's wife.
[165] δὲ φοβηθεὶς ἠρώτα τὴν Σάρραν , τίς τε εἴη καὶ τίνα τοῦτον ἐπάγοιτο , πυθόμενός τε τὴν ἀλήθειαν Ἅβραμον παρῃτεῖτο · νομίζων γὰρ ἀδελφὴν ἀλλ’ οὐ γυναῖκα αὐτοῦ‎ σπουδάσαι περὶ αὐτὴν συγγένειαν ποιήσασθαι βουλόμενος , ἀλλ’ οὐκ ἐνυβρίσαι κατ’ ἐπιθυμίαν ὡρμημένος · δωρεῖταί τε αὐτὸν πολλοῖς χρήμασι , καὶ συνῆν Αἰγυπτίων τοῖς λογιωτάτοις τήν τε ἀρετὴν αὐτῷ καὶ τὴν ἐπ’ αὐτῇ δόξαν ἐντεῦθεν ἐπιφανεστέραν συνέβη γενέσθαι . 165Full of fear, he asked Sara who she was and whom she had brought with her, and once he learned the truth he apologised to Abram. Thinking she was his sister and not his wife he had desired her, seeking a family bond with Abram and not drawn by lust to abuse her. He made him a large gift of money and let him converse with the most learned of the Egyptians, from which his virtue and reputation shone out even more than before.
[166] Τῶν γὰρ Αἰγυπτίων διαφόροις ἀρεσκομένων ἔθεσι καὶ τὰ παρ’ ἀλλήλοις ἐκφαυλιζόντων νόμιμα καὶ διὰ τοῦτο δυσμενῶς δυσμενῶς πρὸς ἀλλήλους , συμβαλὼν αὐτῶν ἑκάστοις καὶ διαπτύων τοὺς λόγους οὓς ἐποιοῦντο περὶ τῶν ἰδίων κενοὺς καὶ μηδὲν ἔχοντας ἀληθὲς ἀπέφαινε . 166Since the Egyptians were formerly devoted to different customs and despised each other's rites and were therefore hostile to each other, he conferred with them individually and confuted their principles, proving them to be empty and void of truth.
[167] θαυμασθεὶς οὖν ὑπ’ αὐτῶν ἐν ταῖς συνουσίαις ὡς συνετώτατος καὶ δεινὸς ἀνὴρ οὐ νοῆσαι μόνον ἀλλὰ καὶ πεῖσαι λέγων περὶ ὧν ἐπιχειρήσειε διδάσκειν , τήν τε ἀριθμητικὴν αὐτοῖς χαρίζεται καὶ τὰ περὶ ἀστρονομίαν παραδίδωσι . 167In those conferences he was admired by them as a very wise and prudent man who taught wisely and persuasively on any subject and shared arithmetic with them and passed on to them the science of astronomy.
[168] πρὸ γὰρ τῆς Ἁβράμου παρουσίας Αἰγύπτιοι τούτων εἶχον ἀμαθῶς · ἐκ Χαλδαίων γὰρ ταῦτ’ ἐφοίτησεν εἰς Αἴγυπτον , ὅθεν ἦλθε καὶ εἰς τοὺς Ἕλληνας . 168Before Abram's arrival the Egyptians were ignorant of those things, for they came from the Chaldeans into Egypt and from there also to the Greeks .
[169] ὡς δ’ εἰς τὴν Χαναναίαν ἀφίκετο , μερίζεται πρὸς Λῶτον τὴν γῆν τῶν ποιμένων αὐτοῖς στασιαζόντων περὶ τῆς χώρας ἐν νέμοιεν · τὴν ἐκλογὴν μέντοι καὶ τὴν αἵρεσιν ἐπιτρέπει τῷ Λώτῳ · 169When returned to Canaan he divided out the land with Lot, because their shepherds were quarrelling over the pasturage, and gave Lot of which area to take.
[170] λαβὼν δ’ αὐτὸς τὴν ὑπ’ ἐκείνου καταλελειμμένην ὑπώρειαν ᾤκει ἐν τῇ Ναβρῶ πόλει · παλαιοτέρα δέ ἐστιν ἔτεσιν ἑπτὰ πρὸ Τάνιδος τῆς Αἰγύπτου . Λῶτος δὲ τὴν πρὸς τὸ πεδίον κειμένην καὶ ποταμὸν Ἰορδάνην εἶχεν οὐκ ἄπωθεν τῆς Σοδομιτῶν πόλεως , τότε μὲν ἦν ἀγαθή , νῦν δὲ ἠφάνισται κατὰ βούλησιν θεοῦ . τὴν δὲ αἰτίαν κατὰ χώραν σημανῶ . 170He himself took the base of the mountains, the land the other had left, and lived in Hebron, a city seven years older than Tanis of Egypt. But Lot occupied the land of the plain around the river Jordan, not far from the city of Sodom, at that time a fine city though now destroyed by the will and anger of God, for reasons which I shall show later, in due time.
Chapter 9
[171-175]
The Assyrians fight against Sodom

[171] Κατ’ ἐκεῖνον δὲ τὸν καιρὸν Ἀσσυρίων κρατούντων τῆς Ἀσίας Σοδομίταις ἤνθει τὰ πράγματα εἴς τε πλοῦτον αὐτῶν ἐπιδεδωκότων καὶ νεότητα πολλήν · βασιλεῖς δὲ αὐτοῖς πέντε διεῖπον τὴν χώραν , Βάλας Βαλαίας Συναβάνης καὶ Συμμόβορος τε Βαλήνων βασιλεύς · μοίρας δ’ ἦρχον ἕκαστος ἰδίας .
171At that time, while the Assyrians ruled over Asia, the people of Sodom were flourishing, both in riches and in the numbers of their youth. Five kings ruled their territory: Balas, Balaeas, Senabanes and Summobor, with the king of the Baleni, with each ruling his own area.
[172] ἐπὶ τούτους στρατεύσαντες Ἀσσύριοι καὶ μέρη τέσσαρα ποιήσαντες τῆς στρατιᾶς ἐπολιόρκουν αὐτούς · στρατηγὸς δ’ ἑκάστοις ἦν εἷς ἐπιτεταγμένος . γενομένης δὲ μάχης νικήσαντες οἱ Ἀσσύριοι φόρον ἐπιτάσσουσι τοῖς Σοδομιτῶν βασιλεῦσι . 172The Assyrians went to war against them, and besieged them, dividing their army into four parts, each part under its own commander. After the battle the victorious Assyrians imposed a tax on the kings of the Sodomites,
[173] δώδεκα μὲν οὖν ἔτη δουλεύοντες καὶ τοὺς ἐπιταχθέντας αὐτοῖς φόρους τελοῦντες ὑπέμειναν , τῷ δὲ τρισκαιδεκάτῳ ἀπέστησαν , καὶ διαβαίνει στρατὸς Ἀσσυρίων ἐπ’ αὐτοὺς στρατηγούντων Ἀμαραψίδου Ἀριόχου Χοδολαμόρου Θαδάλου. 173who for twelve years submitted to this slavery and continued to pay the tax, but on the thirteenth year rebelled. Then the army of the Assyrians came against them, under their officers Amrapsides, Arioch, Chodorlamor and Thadal.
[174] οὗτοι τήν τε Συρίαν ἅπασαν διηρπάσαντο καὶ τοὺς τῶν Γιγάντων ἀπογόνους κατεστρέψαντο , γενόμενοι δὲ κατὰ τὰ Σόδομα στρατοπεδεύουσι κατὰ τὴν κοιλάδα τὴν λεγομένην φρέατα ἀσφάλτου · κατ’ ἐκεῖνον γὰρ τὸν καιρὸν φρέατα ἦν ἐν τῷ τόπῳ , νῦν μέντοι τῆς Σοδομιτῶν πόλεως ἀφανισθείσης κοιλὰς ἐκείνη λίμνη γέγονεν Ἀσφαλτῖτι λεγομένη . 174These had destroyed all Syria and subdued the descendants of the giants, and when they reached the area of Sodom, they camped in the valley called Asphalt Springs, for at that time there were springs there, but now that the city of Sodom has disappeared, the valley has become the lake called Asphaltitis,
[175] περὶ μὲν οὖν τῆς λίμνης ταύτης αὖθις μετ’ οὐ πολὺ δηλώσομεν , τῶν δὲ Σοδομιτῶν συμβαλόντων τοῖς Ἀσσυρίοις καὶ καρτερᾶς τῆς μάχης γενομένης , πολλοὶ μὲν αὐτῶν ἀπέθανον , οἱ λοιποὶ δὲ ᾐχμαλωτίσθησαν , σὺν οἷς καὶ Λῶτος ἤγετο τοῖς Σοδομίταις σύμμαχος ἐληλυθώς . 175and about this lake we shall soon have more to say. When the Sodomites clashed with the Assyrians, it was a very hard-fought battle and many of them were killed and the rest were taken prisoner, among them Lot, who had gone over to the Sodomites as an ally.
Chapter 10
[176-193]
Abram saves Lot; Melchisedek blesses him. Sarah envies Hagar

[176] Ἁβράμῳ δὲ ἀκούσαντι τὴν συμφορὰν αὐτῶν φόβος τε ἅμα περὶ Λώτου τοῦ συγγενοῦς εἰσῆλθε καὶ οἶκτος περὶ τῶν Σοδομιτῶν φίλων ὄντων καὶ γειτνιώντων .
176When Abram heard of their plight, he feared for his kinsman Lot and felt pity for his Sodomite friends and neighbours.
[177] καὶ βοηθεῖν αὐτοῖς δοκιμάσας οὐκ ἀνέμεινεν , ἀλλ’ ἐπειχθεὶς καὶ κατὰ πέμπτην ἐπιπεσὼν νύκτα τοῖς Ἀσσυρίοις περὶ Δάνον, οὕτως γὰρ ἑτέρα τοῦ Ἰορδάνου προσαγορεύεται πηγή , καὶ φθάσας πρὶν ἐν ὅπλοις γενέσθαι τοὺς μὲν ἐν ταῖς κοίταις ὄντας ἀπέκτεινε μηδ’ ἐπίνοιαν τῆς συμφορᾶς ἔχοντας , οἱ δὲ μήπω πρὸς ὕπνον τετραμμένοι μάχεσθαι δ’ ὑπὸ μέθης ἀδύνατοι ἔφυγον . 177Planning to come to their help, he marched without delay and on the fifth night attacked the Assyrians near Dan, for so the other source of the Jordan is named, and killed some as they were in their beds, with no inkling of disaster, before they could grasp their armour. Others, who were not yet asleep but were too drunk to fight, fled.
[178] Ἅβραμος δὲ διώκων εἵπετο μέχρι καὶ δευτεραίους συνήλασεν αὐτοὺς εἰς Ὠβὰ τῆς Δαμασκηνῶν γῆς , ἐπιδείξας ὅτι τὸ νικᾶν οὐκ ἐν τῷ πλήθει καὶ τῇ πολυχειρίᾳ κεῖσθαι συμβέβηκεν , ἀλλὰ προθυμία τῶν μαχομένων καὶ τὸ γενναῖον κρατεῖ παντὸς ἀριθμοῦ , τριακοσίοις καὶ δεκαοκτὼ οἰκέταις αὐτοῦ‎ καὶ τρισὶ φίλοις τοσούτου στρατοῦ περιγενόμενος . ὁπόσοι δὲ αὐτῶν καὶ διέφυγον ἀδόξως ἀνέστρεψαν . 178Abram pursued them, until on the next day he corralled them at Hoba in the area of Damascus and, since victory depends not on the size of the group or the number of available hands but on the soldiers' spirit and courage, he overcame their whole force and defeated such a large army with no more than three hundred and eighteen of his servants and three of his friends. Any of them who fled returned home without glory .
[179] Ἅβραμος δὲ τοὺς τῶν Σοδομιτῶν σώσας αἰχμαλώτους , οἳ ληφθέντες ἔφθησαν ὑπὸ τῶν Ἀσσυρίων , καὶ τὸν συγγενῆ Λῶτον ἀνέζευξεν μετὰ εἰρήνης . ἀπήντησε δὲ αὐτῷ τῶν Σοδομιτῶν βασιλεὺς εἰς τόπον τινά , ὃν καλοῦσι πεδίον βασιλικόν . 179So Abram, when he had saved the Sodomites who had been captured by the Assyrians, including his kinsman Lot, returned home in peace. The king of Sodom met him at a place they called the Royal Plain.
[180] ἔνθα τῆς Σολυμᾶ ὑποδέχεται βασιλεὺς αὐτὸν Μελχισεδέκ · σημαίνει δὲ τοῦτο βασιλεὺς δίκαιος · καὶ ἦν δὲ τοιοῦτος ὁμολογουμένως , ὡς διὰ ταύτην αὐτὸν τὴν αἰτίαν καὶ ἱερέα γενέσθαι τοῦ θεοῦ · τὴν μέντοι Σολυμᾶ ὕστερον ἐκάλεσεν Ἱεροσόλυμα . 180Melchisedec, king of the city of Salem, also received him there. His name means "righteous king" and such he was, as all agree, and on this account he was made the priest of God, and later Salem was called Jerusalem.
[181] ἐχορήγησε δὲ οὗτος Μελχισεδὲκ τῷ Ἁβράμου στρατῷ ξένια καὶ πολλὴν ἀφθονίαν τῶν ἐπιτηδείων παρέσχε καὶ παρὰ τὴν εὐωχίαν αὐτόν τε ἐπαινεῖν ἤρξατο καὶ τὸν θεὸν εὐλογεῖν ὑποχειρίους αὐτῷ ποιήσαντα τοὺς ἐχθρούς . Ἁβράμου δὲ διδόντος καὶ τὴν δεκάτην τῆς Λείας αὐτῷ προσδέχεται τὴν δόσιν . 181This Melchisedec supplied Abram's army most hospitably and gave them provisions in abundance, and during their feasting he began to praise him and to bless God for subduing his enemies to him. When Abram gave him the tenth part of his booty, he accepted the gift.
[182] δὲ τῶν Σοδομιτῶν βασιλεὺς τὴν μὲν λείαν ἔχειν Ἅβραμον παρεκάλει , τοὺς δ’ ἀνθρώπους ἀπολαβεῖν ἠξίου , οὓς παρὰ τῶν Ἀσσυρίων ἔσωσεν οἰκείους ὄντας . Ἅβραμος δὲ οὐκ ἔφη τοῦτο ποιήσειν , οὐδ’ ἂν ἄλλην ὠφέλειαν ἐκ τῆς Λείας ἐκείνης εἰς αὐτὸν ἥξειν πλὴν ὅσα τροφὴ τοῖς οἰκέταις αὐτοῦ‎ γένοιτο · μοῖραν μέντοι τινὰ τοῖς φίλοις αὐτοῦ‎ παρέσχε τοῖς συστρατευομένοις . Ἔσχων δ’ πρῶτος ἐκαλεῖτο [ καὶ ] Ἔννηρος καὶ Μαμβρῆς. 182Then the king of Sodom asked Abram to keep the remaining booty, wanting only the return of those of his people whom Abram had saved from the Assyrians. But Abram did not accept and wanted no more of the booty than what would feed his servants, though he also provided a portion to his friends who had helped him in the battle. The first of them was called Eschol, and the others Enner and Mambre .
[183] Ἐπαινέσας δὲ αὐτοῦ‎ τὴν ἀρετὴν θεός , " ἀλλ’ οὐκ ἀπολεῖς , φησί , μισθοὺς οὓς ἄξιόν ἐστίν σε ἐπὶ τοιαύταις εὐπραγίαις κομίζεσθαι . τοῦ δ’ ὑπολαβόντος " καὶ τίς ἂν εἴη χάρις τούτων τῶν μισθῶν , οὐκ ὄντων οἳ διαδέξονται μετ’ αὐτόν , ἔτι γὰρ ἦν ἄπαις , θεὸς καὶ παῖδα αὐτῷ γενήσεσθαι καταγγέλλει καὶ πολλὴν ἐκείνου γενεάν , ὡς παραπλησίως αὐτῇ τοῖς ἄστροις ἔσεσθαι τὸν ἀριθμόν . 183God praised his virtue and said, "You shall not lose the rewards you merited by such good actions." He replied, "And what good are such rewards, when I have none to enjoy them after me?' - for he was still childless. God promised that he would have a son and that would have so many descendants that they would be as numerous as the stars.
[184] καὶ μὲν ταῦτ’ ἀκούσας θυσίαν προσφέρει τῷ θεῷ κελευσθεὶς ὑπ’ αὐτοῦ‎ . ἦν δὲ τρόπος τῆς θυσίας τοιοῦτος · δάμαλιν τριετίζουσαν καὶ αἶγα τριετίζουσαν καὶ κριὸν ὁμοίως τριετῆ καὶ τρυγόνα καὶ περιστερὰν κελεύσαντος διεῖλε , τῶν ὀρνέων οὐδὲν διελών . 184When he heard this, he offered a sacrifice to God, as he had commanded him. The manner of the sacrifice was this: at God's command, he divided a three-year-old heifer and a three-year-old goat and a three-year-old ram, and took a turtle-dove and a pigeon, but the birds he did not divide.
[185] εἶτα πρὶν στῆναι τὸν βωμὸν οἰωνῶν ἐφιπταμένων ἐπιθυμίᾳ τοῦ αἵματος φωνὴ θεία παρῆν ἀποσημαίνουσα πονηροὺς αὐτοῦ‎ τοῖς ἐγγόνοις γείτονας ἐπὶ ἔτη τετρακόσια γενησομένους κατὰ τὴν Αἴγυπτον · ἐν οἷς κακοπαθήσαντας περιέσεσθαι τῶν ἐχθρῶν καὶ κρατήσαντας πολέμῳ Χαναναίων ἕξειν αὐτῶν τὴν γῆν καὶ τὰς πόλεις . 185Before he built his altar and while birds of prey were flying there, eager for blood, a divine voice came to him, declaring that for four hundred years his descendants would have harsh neighbours when they were in Egypt, but that after being afflicted they would overcome their enemies and conquer the Canaanites in war and take over their land and cities .
[186] Ἅβραμος δὲ κατῴκει μὲν περὶ τὴν Ὠγύγην καλουμένην δρῦν , ἔστι δὲ τῆς Χαναναίας τὸ χωρίον οὐ πόρρω τῆς Ἑβρωνίων πόλεως , δυσφορῶν δὲ ἐπὶ γυναικὶ μὴ κυούσῃ ἱκετεύει τὸν θεὸν γονὴν αὐτῷ παιδὸς ἄρσενος παρασχεῖν . 186Abram lived near the oak called Ogyges, in a place belonging to Canaan, not far from the city of Hebronites, where, discontent at his wife's barrenness, he begged God to grant him the birth of a male child.
[187] τοῦ δὲ θεοῦ θαρσεῖν αὐτὸν παρακελευομένου τοῖς τε ἄλλοις ἅπασιν ὡς ἐπ’ ἀγαθοῖς αὐτὸν ἀπὸ τῆς Μεσοποταμίας ἠγμένον καὶ παίδων ἐσομένων , Σάρρα τοῦ θεοῦ κελεύσαντος ἐπικλίνει μίαν τῶν θεραπαινίδων Ἀγάρην ὄνομα γένος οὖσαν Αἰγυπτίαν ὡς ἐξ αὐτῆς παιδοποιησομένῳ . 187God bade him take heart, saying that on top of all the other benefits he had given to him since leading him from Mesopotamia, he would have children too. So, at God's command, Sara brought to his bed one of her serving girls named Hagar, a woman of Egyptian descent, in order to have children through her.
[188] καὶ γενομένη ἐγκύμων θεραπαινὶς ἐξυβρίζειν εἰς τὴν Σάρραν ἐτόλμησε βασιλίζουσα , ὡς τῆς ἡγεμονίας περιστησομένης εἰς τὸν ὑπ’ αὐτῆς τεχθησόμενον . Ἁβράμου δὲ αὐτὴν πρὸς αἰκίαν παραδιδόντος τῇ Σάρρᾳ δρασμὸν ἐπεβούλευσεν οὐχ ὑπομένουσα τὰς ταλαιπωρίας καὶ τὸν θεὸν ἱκέτευεν οἶκτον αὐτῆς λαβεῖν . 188When this serving girl became pregnant she dared to insult Sara, queening it as though the leadership were to pass to the child to be born of her. When Abram left it to Sara to punish her, she managed to escape, to avoid the humiliation, and begged God to have pity on her.
[189] ὑπαντιάζει δὲ διὰ τῆς ἐρήμου προϊοῦσαν αὐτὴν ἄγγελος θεῖος κελεύων πρὸς τοὺς δεσπότας ἐπανιέναι · βίου γὰρ μείζονος τεύξεσθαι σωφρονοῦσαν · καὶ γὰρ νῦν εἰς τὴν δέσποιναν ἀγνώμονα καὶ αὐθάδη γενομένην ἐν τούτοις εἶναι τοῖς κακοῖς · 189Now as she was going through the wilderness an angel of God met her, and told her to return to her masters, for she would later have a better life under self-control, since her woes came from being ungrateful and arrogant to her mistress.
[190] παρακούουσαν μὲν τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ προσωτέρω χωροῦσαν ἔλεγεν ἀπολεῖσθαι , νοστήσασαν δὲ αὐτὴν ὀπίσω γενήσεσθαι μητέρα παιδὸς τῆς γῆς ἐκείνης βασιλεύσοντος . τούτοις πείθεται καὶ ἐπανελθοῦσα πρὸς τοὺς δεσπότας συγγνώμης ἔτυχε · τίκτει δὲ μετ’ οὐ πολὺ Ἰσμαῆλον, θεόκλυτον ἄν τις εἴποι , διὰ τὸ εἰσακοῦσαι τὸν θεὸν τῆς ἱκεσίας . 190If she disobeyed God and continued on her way, she would die, but if she returned, she would become the mother of a son who would reign over that country. She obeyed these directions and returned to her masters and was forgiven. A little while later, she bore Ismael; which may be rendered Heard by God, because God had heard her prayers.
[191] Ἁβράμῳ μὲν οὖν ἕκτον ἤδη καὶ ὀγδοηκοστὸν ἔτος γεγονότι προειρημένος ἐγεννήθη , εἰς ἔνατον δ’ αὐτῷ καὶ ἐνενηκοστὸν παρελθόντι ἐπιφανεὶς θεὸς ἀπήγγειλεν , ὡς παῖς αὐτῷ ἐκ Σάρρας ἔσοιτο · κελεύει δ’ αὐτὸν καλέσαι Ἴσακον δηλῶν ἐσόμενα ἔθνη μεγάλα ἀπ’ αὐτοῦ‎ καὶ βασιλεῖς , καὶ ὅτι πολεμήσαντες καθέξουσι τὴν Χαναναίαν ἅπασαν ἀπὸ Σιδῶνος μέχρι Αἰγύπτου , 191Abram was already eighty-six years old when that son was born to him. When he was ninety-nine, God appeared to him and promised that he would have a son by Sara. He commanded him to name him Isaac, and revealed that from this son would spring great nations and kings and that they would take all of Canaan by war, from Sidon to Egypt.
[192] προσέταξέ τε βουλόμενος τὸ ἀπ’ αὐτοῦ‎ γένος μένειν τοῖς ἄλλοις οὐ συμφυρόμενον περιτέμνεσθαι τὰ αἰδοῖα καὶ τοῦτο ποιεῖν ὀγδόῃ ἡμέρᾳ μετὰ τὸ γεννηθῆναι . τὴν αἰτίαν δὲ τῆς περιτομῆς ἡμῶν ἐν ἄλλοις δηλώσω . 192But in order to keep his descendants distinct from others, he instructed that they be circumcised in the flesh of their foreskin, a thing to be done on the eighth day after their birth. I will explain the reason for this circumcision, in another place.
[193] πυθομένῳ δὲ Ἁβράμῳ καὶ περὶ τοῦ Ἰσμαήλου , εἰ ζήσεται , πολυχρόνιόν τε ἀπεσήμαινεν θεὸς καὶ μεγάλων ἐθνῶν πατέρα . καὶ Ἅβραμος μὲν ἐπὶ τούτοις εὐχαριστήσας τῷ θεῷ περιτέμνεται παραχρῆμα καὶ πάντες οἱ παρ’ αὐτοῦ‎ καὶ παῖς Ἰσμαῆλος, οὗ κατ’ ἐκείνην τὴν ἡμέραν τρισκαιδέκατον ἔτος ἔχοντος αὐτὸς ἐνενηκοστὸν πρὸς τοῖς ἐννέα διῆγεν . 193When Abram also asked about the life of Ismael, God revealed that he would live a long time and become the father of great nations. Abram then gave thanks to God for these things and he was circumcised immediately with all his family and his son Ismael, who was thirteen years of age and he himself was in his ninety-ninth year.
Chapter 11
[194-206]
God punishes Sodom for its sins

[194] Ὑπὸ δὴ τοῦτον τὸν καιρὸν οἱ Σοδομῖται πλήθει καὶ μεγέθει χρημάτων ὑπερφρονοῦντες εἴς τε ἀνθρώπους ἦσαν ὑβρισταὶ καὶ πρὸς τὸ θεῖον ἀσεβεῖς , ὡς μηκέτι μεμνῆσθαι τῶν παρ’ αὐτοῦ‎ γενομένων ὠφελειῶν , εἶναί τε μισόξενοι καὶ τὰς πρὸς ἄλλους ὁμιλίας ἐκτρέπεσθαι .
194About this time the Sodomites, arrogant in their numbers and great wealth, grew insolent towards men and impious towards God, no longer recalling the benefits they had received from him, becoming hostile to strangers and avoiding all contact with others.
[195] χαλεπήνας οὖν ἐπὶ τούτοις θεὸς ἔγνω τιμωρήσασθαι τῆς ὑπερηφανίας αὐτοὺς καὶ τήν τε πόλιν αὐτὴν κατασκάψασθαι καὶ τὴν χώραν οὕτως ἀφανίσαι , ὡς μήτε φυτὸν ἔτι μήτε καρπὸν ἕτερον ἐξ αὐτῆς ἀναδοθῆναι . 195Angry at this, God decided to punish them for their pride and destroy their city and wither their land, so that neither plant nor fruit would grow from it .
[196] Ταῦτα τοῦ θεοῦ κρίναντος περὶ τῶν Σοδομιτῶν Ἅβραμος θεασάμενος τρεῖς ἀγγέλους , ἐκαθέζετο δὲ πρὸς τῇ δρυῒ τῇ Μαμβρῆ παρὰ τῇ θύρᾳ τῆς αὑτοῦ αὐλῆς , καὶ νομίσας εἶναι ξένους ἀναστὰς ἠσπάσατό τε καὶ παρ’ αὐτῷ καταχθέντας παρεκάλει ξενίας μεταλαβεῖν . 196After God's judgment on the Sodomites, Abraham saw three angels, as he sat by the oak of Mambre, at the door of his tent, and thinking them to be strangers, he got up to greet them and asked them to lodge with him as his guests.
[197] ἐπινευσάντων δὲ ἄρτους τε προσέταξεν εὐθὺς ἐκ σεμιδάλεως γενέσθαι , καὶ μόσχον θύσας καὶ ὀπτήσας ἐκόμισεν αὐτοῖς ὑπὸ τῇ δρυῒ κατακειμένοις · οἱ δὲ δόξαν αὐτῷ παρέσχον ἐσθιόντων , ἔτι δὲ καὶ περὶ τῆς γυναικὸς ἐπυνθάνοντο , ποῖ ποτ’ εἴη Σάρρα . τοῦ δ’ εἰπόντος ἔνδον εἶναι , ἥξειν ἔφασαν εἰς τὸ μέλλον καὶ εὑρήσειν αὐτὴν ἤδη μητέρα γεγενημένην . 197When they accepted, he immediately ordered cakes of meal to be made, and killed a calf and roasted it and brought it to them, as they sat under the oak. They seemed to him to be eating, and then asked about his wife and how Sarah was. When he said she was inside, they said they would come back again to find she had become a mother.
[198] τῆς δὲ γυναικὸς ἐπὶ τούτῳ μειδιασάσης καὶ ἀδύνατον εἶναι τὴν τεκνοποιίαν εἰπούσης αὐτῆς μὲν ἐνενήκοντα ἔτη ἐχούσης τοῦ δ’ ἀνδρὸς ἑκατόν , οὐκέτι κατέσχον λανθάνοντες ἀλλ’ ἐμήνυσαν ἑαυτοὺς ὄντας ἀγγέλους τοῦ θεοῦ , καὶ ὅτι πεμφθείη μὲν εἷς σημανῶν περὶ τοῦ παιδός , οἱ δύο δὲ Σοδομίτας καταστρεψόμενοι . 198At this the woman laughed inwardly, considering that child-bearing was impossible, as she was ninety years of age and her husband was a hundred. Then they no longer remained concealed, but declared that they were angels of God, one of whom was sent to tell them about the child and the other two to destroy the Sodomites .

[199] Ταῦτ’ ἀκούσας Ἅβραμος ἤλγησεν ἐπὶ τοῖς Σοδομίταις καὶ τὸν θεὸν ἀναστὰς ἱκέτευσε παρακαλῶν , μὴ τοὺς δικαίους καὶ ἀγαθοὺς συναπολλύναι τοῖς πονηροῖς . τοῦ δὲ θεοῦ φήσαντος μηδένα εἶναι τῶν Σοδομιτῶν ἀγαθόν , εἰ γὰρ ἐν αὐτοῖς δέκα εἶεν συγχωρεῖν ἅπασι τὴν ἐπὶ τοῖς ἁμαρτήμασι τιμωρίαν , μὲν Ἅβραμος ἡσύχασεν ·
199When Abraham heard this, he was grieved for the people of Sodom, and he got up and implored God for them, not to destroy the good and upright along with the wicked. When God said that there was no good man among the Sodomites, but that if there were just ten such men among them, he would forgive the sins of them all, Abraham stayed silent.
[200] οἱ δὲ ἄγγελοι παρεγένοντο εἰς τὴν τῶν Σοδομιτῶν πόλιν , καὶ Λῶτος αὐτοὺς ἐπὶ ξενίαν παρεκάλει · λίαν γὰρ ἦν περὶ τοὺς ξένους φιλάνθρωπος καὶ μαθητὴς τῆς Ἁβράμου χρηστότητος . οἱ δὲ Σοδομῖται θεασάμενοι τοὺς νεανίσκους εὐπρεπεστάτους τῇ ὄψει διαφέροντας καὶ παρὰ Λώτῳ καταχθέντας ἐπὶ βίαν καὶ ὕβριν αὐτῶν τῆς ὥρας ἐτράπησαν . 200The angels came to the city of the Sodomites and Lot invited them as his guests, for he was a hospitable man who had learned the goodness of Abraham. When the Sodomites saw that the young men who had taken lodgings with Lot were very good-looking, they resolved to force themselves on them, to enjoy their beauty.
[201] τοῦ δὲ Λώτου παραινοῦντος σωφρονεῖν καὶ μὴ χωρεῖν ἐπ’ αἰσχύνῃ τῶν ξένων , ἀλλ’ ἔχειν αἰδῶ τῆς παρ’ αὐτῷ καταγωγῆς , εἰ δὲ ἔχουσιν ἀκρατῶς , τὰς θυγατέρας αὐτοῦ‎ ὑπὲρ ἐκείνων ταῖς ἐπιθυμίαις αὐτῶν λέγοντος παρέξειν , οὐδ’ οὕτως ἐπείσθησαν . 201Lot urged them to show restraint and not to dishonour the guests, but to respect the fact that they lodged with him, but if they could not restrain themselves, he offered his own daughters for their lust, instead of these strangers; but even this did not satisfy them .
[202] θεὸς οὖν ἀγανακτήσας αὐτῶν ἐπὶ τοῖς τολμήμασι τοὺς μὲν ἠμαύρωσεν , ὡς μὴ δυνηθῆναι τὴν εἴσοδον τὴν εἰς τὴν οἰκίαν εὑρεῖν , Σοδομιτῶν δὲ κατέκρινε πάνδημον ὄλεθρον . Λῶτος δὲ τοῦ θεοῦ τὴν μέλλουσαν ἀπώλειαν τῶν Σοδομιτῶν αὐτῷ φράσαντος ἀπαλλάσσεται τήν τε γυναῖκα καὶ τὰς θυγατέρας , δύο δὲ ἦσαν ἔτι παρθένοι , ἀναλαβών · οἱ γὰρ μνηστῆρες περιεφρόνησαν τῆς ἐξόδου εὐήθειαν ἐπικαλοῦντες τοῖς ὑπὸ τοῦ Λώτου λεγομένοις . 202Angry at their outrages, God first struck them with blindness so that they could not find entrance to the house, and then condemned all the Sodomites to destruction. Warned by God of the coming ruin of the Sodomites, Lot left the place with his wife and daughters, both of them still virgins, for those who were betrothed to them scorned the thoughts of leaving and treated Lot's words as absurd.
[203] καὶ θεὸς ἐνσκήπτει βέλος εἰς τὴν πόλιν καὶ σὺν τοῖς οἰκήτορσιν κατεπίμπρα τὴν γῆν ὁμοίᾳ πυρώσει ἀφανίζων , ὥς μοι καὶ πρότερον λέλεκται τὸν Ἰουδαϊκὸν ἀναγράφοντι πόλεμον . δὲ Λώτου γυνὴ παρὰ τὴν ἀναχώρησιν συνεχῶς εἰς τὴν πόλιν ἀναστρεφομένη καὶ πολυπραγμονοῦσα τὰ περὶ αὐτὴν ἀπηγορευκότος τοῦ θεοῦ τοῦτο μὴ ποιεῖν εἰς στήλην ἁλῶν μετέβαλεν · ἱστόρησα δ’ αὐτήν , ἔτι γὰρ καὶ νῦν διαμένει . 203God then hurled a thunderbolt at the city and burned it up, with its inhabitants, and wiped out the countryside with fire, as I said earlier when describing the Jewish War. Lot's wife, who continually turned back to view the city as she left it and too curious about its fate despite God's forbidding it, was changed into a pillar of salt, for I have seen it and it remains to this day.
[204] διαφεύγει δ’ αὐτὸς μετὰ τῶν θυγατέρων εἰς βραχύ τι χωρίον κατασχὼν περιγραφὲν ὑπὸ τοῦ πυρός · Ζωὼρ ἔτι καὶ νῦν λέγεται · καλοῦσι γὰρ οὕτως Ἑβραῖοι τὸ ὀλίγον . ἐνταῦθα τοίνυν ὑπό τε ἀνθρώπων ἐρημίας καὶ τροφῆς ἀπορίας ταλαιπώρως διῆγεν . 204He and his daughters took refuge in a small place sheltered from the fire and settled there. It is still called Zoar, the Hebrew word for a small thing, where, isolated from mankind and short of provisions, he lived in want .
[205] Αἱ δὲ παρθένοι πᾶν ἠφανίσθαι τὸ ἀνθρώπινον ὑπολαβοῦσαι τῷ πατρὶ πλησιάζουσι προνοήσασαι λαθεῖν · ἐποίουν δὲ τοῦτο ὑπὲρ τοῦ μὴ τὸ γένος ἐκλιπεῖν . γίνονται δὲ παῖδες ὑπὸ μὲν τῆς πρεσβυτέρας Μώαβος · εἴποι δ’ ἄν τις ἀπὸ πατρός . Ἄμμανον δ’ νεωτέρα ποιεῖται · γένους υἱὸν ἀποσημαίνει τὸ ὄνομα . 205Thinking that the whole human race had perished, the virgins secretly had intercourse with their father. They did this to prevent the extinction of the race, and sons were born to them; to the elder was born Moab, denoting "from his father" and to the younger, Amman, denoting "derived from a kinsman."
[206] καὶ κτίζει δ’ αὐτῶν μὲν Μωαβίτας μέγιστον ὄντας καὶ νῦν ἔθνος , Ἀμμανίτας δὲ ἕτερος · Συρίας τῆς κοίλης ἐστὶν ἀμφότερα . καὶ Λώτῳ μὲν τοιαύτην συνέβη τὴν ἐκ Σοδομιτῶν ἀναχώρησιν γενέσθαι . 206The former was ancestor of the Moabites, still today a great nation; the latter was the father of the Ammanites, and both of them inhabit Coele-syria. Such was the manner of Lot's departure from among the Sodomites .
Chapter 12
[207-221]
King Abimelech must not take Sarah. Ishmael is born to Hagar

[207] Ἅβραμος δὲ μετῴκησεν εἰς Γέραρα τῆς Παλαιστίνης ἐν ἀδελφῆς ἐπαγόμενος σχήματι τὴν Σάρραν , ὅμοια τοῖς πρὶν ὑποκρινάμενος διὰ τὸν φόβον · ἐδεδίει γὰρ Ἀβιμέλεχον τὸν βασιλέα τῶν ἐπιχωρίων · ὃς καὶ αὐτὸς ἐρασθεὶς τῆς Σάρρας φθείρειν οἷός τε ἦν .
207Abraham moved on to Gerar in Palestine, taking Sarah with him disguised as his sister, using the same deceit he had used before, out of fear, for he was afraid that the local king, Abimelech, lusted for Sarah and wanted to seduce her.
[208] εἴργεται δὲ τῆς ἐπιθυμίας ὑπὸ νόσου χαλεπῆς αὐτῷ προσπεσούσης ἐκ θεοῦ καὶ τῶν ἰατρῶν αὐτὸν ἀπεγνωκότων ὑπνώσας ὄναρ ὁρᾷ μηδὲν ὑβρίζειν τὴν τοῦ ξένου γυναῖκα , καὶ ῥᾷον διατεθεὶς φράζει πρὸς τοὺς φίλους , ὡς θεὸς ταύτην αὐτῷ ἐπάγει τὴν νόσον ὑπὲρ ἐκδικίας τοῦ ξένου φυλάσσων ἀνύβριστον αὐτῷ τὴν γυναῖκα , μὴ γὰρ ἀδελφὴν οὖσαν ἐπάγεσθαι νόμῳ δ’ αὐτῷ συνοικοῦσαν , ἐπαγγέλλεταί τε παρέξειν αὑτὸν εὐμενῆ τὸ λοιπὸν ἀδεοῦς ἐκείνου περὶ τὴν γυναῖκα γενομένου . 208This lust was checked by a dangerous illness which came upon him from God, and the doctors had despaired of his life when he fell asleep and saw in a dream, "Do not abuse the stranger's wife!" When he recovered, he told his friends that God had inflicted that illness upon him, to prevent him from wronging the stranger and to preserve the chastity of his wife, since that was not his sister with him, but his lawful wife, and that God had promised to be gracious to him in the future, if this man were reassured about his wife .
[209] ταῦτα εἰπὼν μεταπέμπεται τὸν Ἅβραμον συμβουλευσάντων τῶν φίλων καὶ μηδὲν ἔτι περὶ τῆς γυναικὸς αὐτὸν ὡς πεισομένης τι τῶν αἰσχρῶν ἐκέλευσε δεδιέναι , θεὸν γὰρ αὐτοῦ‎ κήδεσθαι , καὶ κατὰ τὴν συμμαχίαν τὴν ἐκείνου μεμενηκυῖαν ἀνύβριστον κομίζεσθαι . τοῦ δὲ θεοῦ μάρτυρος ὄντος καὶ τοῦ τῆς γυναικὸς συνειδότος ἔλεγε μηδ’ ἂν ὀρεχθῆναι τὴν ἀρχήν , εἰ γαμετὴν οὖσαν ἠπίστατο , ὡς ἀδελφὴν δὲ ἀγόμενον ἣν οὐκ ἠδίκουν . 209After saying this, on his friends' advice he sent for Abraham and told him to have no more fear about any unworthy attempt on his wife, for God was taking care of him and by his providence he would get his wife back unharmed, as God and his wife's conscience would testify; for he would not have desired her from the first, if he had known she was his wife, but since she had been introduced as a sister, he had done him no wrong.
[210] παρακαλεῖ τε πρᾴως ἔχειν πρὸς αὐτὸν καὶ τὸν θεὸν εὐμενῆ ποιεῖν , παρ’ αὐτῷ τε μένειν βουλομένῳ πᾶσαν ἀφθονίαν ὑπάρξειν ἀπιέναι τε προαιρούμενον τεύξεσθαι πομπῆς καὶ πάντων ὅσων καὶ χρῄζων πρὸς αὐτὸν ἀφίκοιτο . 210He implored him to be fair and to pray to God for him, promising him all he needed if he wished to remain with him, but if he preferred to leave, he could have an escort and take whatever supplies he had sought when he came to him.
[211] ταῦτ’ εἰπόντος Ἅβραμος οὔτε τὴν συγγένειαν τῆς γυναικὸς ἐψεῦσθαι ἔλεγεν , ἀδελφοῦ γὰρ αὐτὴν εἶναι παῖδα , καὶ δίχα τοιαύτης ὑποκρίσεως οὐκ ἀσφαλῆ τὴν ἐπιδημίαν ὑπολαβεῖν . ὅσα τε ἐπὶ τῷ μηδὲν αἴτιος τῆς νόσου γεγονέναι προθυμηθῆναι δ’ αὐτοῦ‎ περὶ τὴν σωτηρίαν , ἑτοίμως ἔφασκεν ἔχειν παρ’ αὐτῷ μένειν . 211Abraham replied that his relationship to his wife had not been a lie, since she was his brother's daughter, and that in his travels abroad he did not feel safe without such a deception. To show that he had not caused the king's sickness, but was only anxious for his own safety, he said he was prepared to stay on with him.
[212] καὶ Ἀβιμέλεχος τήν τε γῆν πρὸς αὐτὸν νέμεται καὶ τὰ χρήματα , καὶ συντίθενται ἀδόλως πολιτεύσεσθαι ὑπέρ τινος φρέατος ποιούμενοι τὸν ὅρκον , Βηρσουβαὶ καλοῦσιν · ὅρκιον δὲ φρέαρ λέγοιτ’ ἄν . οὕτω δ’ ἔτι καὶ νῦν ὑπὸ τῶν ἐπιχωρίων ὠνόμασται . 212So Abimelech assigned him land and money, and they covenanted to be honest with each other and took an oath at a well called Beersheba, which means "The Well of the Oath," as the local people still call it.
[213] Γίνεται δὲ Ἁβράμῳ μετ’ οὐ πολὺ καὶ παῖς ἐκ Σάρρας , ὡς αὐτῷ ὑπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ προείρητο , ὃν Ἴσακον ὠνόμασε · τοῦτο γέλωτα σημαίνει · διὰ μέντοι τὸ τὴν Σάρραν μειδιάσαι τέξεσθαι φήσαντος αὐτὴν τοῦ θεοῦ μὴ προσδοκῶσαν ἤδη τοκετοῦ πρεσβυτέραν οὖσαν τὸν υἱὸν οὕτως ἐκάλεσεν . αὐτὴ μὲν γὰρ ἐνενήκοντα εἶχεν ἔτη ἑκατὸν δὲ Ἅβραμος . 213Not long afterwards, as God had foretold, Abraham had a son by Sarah, whom he called Isaac, which means "Laughter." This was because Sarah laughed when God said that she would bear a son, as she was past the age of child-bearing and could not expect it, being ninety years old and Abraham a hundred.
[214] τίκτεται δὲ παῖς ἑκατέρων τῷ ὑστάτῳ ἔτει , ὃν εὐθὺς μετ’ ὀγδόην ἡμέραν περιτέμνουσι , κἀξ ἐκείνου μετὰ τοσαύτας ἔθος ἔχουσιν οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι ποιεῖσθαι τὰς περιτομάς , Ἄραβες δὲ μετὰ ἔτος τρισκαιδέκατον · Ἰσμαῆλος γὰρ κτίστης αὐτῶν τοῦ ἔθνους Ἁβράμῳ γενόμενος ἐκ τῆς παλλακῆς ἐν τούτῳ περιτέμνεται τῷ χρόνῳ · περὶ οὗ τὸν πάντα λόγον ἐκθήσομαι μετὰ πολλῆς ἀκριβείας . 214This son was born a year later, and they circumcised him on the eighth day, and from then on the Jews practice circumcision that many days after a birth, whereas the Arabs circumcise after the thirteenth year, because that was the age when the founder of their race, Ismael, born of Abraham's concubine, was circumcised, as I will later expound in detail .
[215] Σάρρα δὲ γεννηθέντα τὸν Ἰσμαῆλον ἐκ τῆς δούλης αὐτῆς Ἀγάρης τὸ μὲν πρῶτον ἔστεργεν οὐδὲν ἀπολείπουσα τῆς πρὸς ἴδιον υἱὸν εὐνοίας , ἐτρέφετο γὰρ ἐπὶ τῇ τῆς ἡγεμονίας διαδοχῇ , τεκοῦσα δ’ αὐτὴ τὸν Ἴσακον οὐκ ἠξίου παρατρέφεσθαι τούτῳ τὸν Ἰσμαῆλον ὄντα πρεσβύτερον καὶ κακουργεῖν δυνάμενον τοῦ πατρὸς αὐτοῖς ἀποθανόντος . 215Sarah at first loved Ismael, who was born of her serving girl Hagar, with an affection no less than if he were her own son, for he was being reared to take over the leadership. When she herself had Isaac, she did not want Ismael to be reared along with him, as he was too old for him and could do him harm after their father was dead,
[216] ἔπειθεν οὖν τὸν Ἅβραμον εἰς ἀποικίαν ἐκπέμπειν αὐτὸν μετὰ τῆς μητρός . δὲ κατὰ μὲν ἀρχὰς οὐ προσετίθετο τὴν αὑτοῦ γνώμην οἷς Σάρρα ἐσπουδάκει πάντων ὠμότατον ἡγούμενος εἶναι παῖδα νήπιον καὶ γυναῖκα ἄπορον τῶν ἀναγκαίων ἐκπέμπειν . 216so she persuaded Abraham to send him and his mother away. At first he did not agree to Sarah's eager request, thinking it cruel to send away a young child and a woman unprovided with the necessities of life.
[217] ὕστερον δέ , καὶ γὰρ θεὸς ἠρέσκετο τοῖς ὑπὸ τῆς Σάρρας προσταττομένοις , πεισθεὶς παρεδίδου τὸν Ἰσμαῆλον τῇ μητρὶ μήπω δι’ αὐτοῦ‎ χωρεῖν δυνάμενον , ὕδωρ τε ἐν ἀσκῷ καὶ ἄρτον φερομένην ἐκέλευεν ἀπιέναι ὁδηγῷ τῇ ἀνάγκῃ χρωμένην . 217Later, however, seeing that God approved of Sarah's wishes, he agreed. Entrusting Ismael to his mother, for he was not yet able to walk alone, he told her to take a skinful of water and a loaf of bread and be gone, guided by necessity.
[218] ὡς δ’ ἀπιοῦσαν ἐπιλελοίπει τὰ ἀναγκαῖα , ἐν κακοῖς ἦν , ὕδατος δὲ σπανίζοντος ὑπ’ ἐλάτῃ τινὶ θεῖσα τὸ παιδίον ψυχορραγοῦν , ὡς μὴ παρούσης τὴν ψυχὴν ἀφῇ , προῄει πορρωτέρω . 218When her provisions failed, she was in a trouble and when the water was almost finished, she laid the young child, who was about to die, under a fir-tree and went on ahead, so as not to be present at his death.
[219] συντυχὼν δ’ αὐτῇ θεῖος ἄγγελος πηγήν τε φράζει παρακειμένην καὶ κελεύει προνοεῖν τῆς ἀνατροφῆς τοῦ παιδίου · μεγάλα γὰρ αὐτὴν ἀγαθὰ περιμένειν ἐκ τῆς Ἰσμαήλου σωτηρίας . δ’ ἐθάρσησε τοῖς προκατηγγελμένοις καὶ συμβαλοῦσα ποιμέσι διὰ τὴν ἐξ αὐτῶν ἐπιμέλειαν διαφεύγει τὰς ταλαιπωρίας . 219But an angel of God met her and told her of a nearby fountain and told her go ahead and rear the child, for she would be very blessed through the survival of Ismael. Encouraged by these promises she then met with some shepherds, by whose help she escaped from her plight .
[220] Ἀνδρωθέντι δὲ τῷ παιδὶ γύναιον ἄγεται τὸ γένος Αἰγύπτιον , ἐνθένδε ἦν καὶ αὐτὴ τὸ ἀρχαῖον , ἐξ οὗ παῖδες Ἰσμαήλῳ γίνονται δώδεκα πάντες , Ναβαιώθης Κήδαρος Ἀβδεῆλος Μάσσαμος Μάσμασος Ἰδουμᾶς Μάσμησος Χόδαμος Θέμανος Ἰετοῦρος Νάφαισος Κάδμασος . 220When the lad reached manhood, she found him a wife, a Egyptian woman as she originally was herself. Of this wife twelve sons were born to Ismael: Nabaioth, Kedar, Abdeel, Mabsam, Idumas, Masmaos, Masaos, Chodad, Theman, Jetur, Naphesus and Cadmas.
[221] οὗτοι πᾶσαν τὴν ἀπ’ Εὐφράτου καθήκουσαν πρὸς τὴν Ἐρυθρὰν θάλασσαν κατοικοῦσι Ναβατηνὴν τὴν χώραν ὀνομάσαντες . εἰσὶ δὲ οὗτοι , οἳ τὸ τῶν Ἀράβων ἔθνος καὶ τὰς φυλὰς ἀπ’ αὐτῶν καλοῦσι διά τε τὴν ἀρετὴν αὐτῶν καὶ τὸ Ἁβράμου ἀξίωμα . 221These inhabited all the land from the Euphrates to the Red Sea and called it Nabatene. They are an Arab nation and name their tribes after them, because of their own virtue and of the dignity of their father Abraham .
Chapter 13
[222-236]
Abram prepares to sacrifice Isaac; God's promise to him is confirmed

[222] Ἴσακον δὲ πατὴρ Ἅβραμος ὑπερηγάπα μονογενῆ ὄντα καὶ ἐπὶ γήρως οὐδῷ κατὰ δωρεὰν αὐτῷ τοῦ θεοῦ γενόμενον . προεκαλεῖτο δὲ εἰς εὔνοιαν καὶ τὸ φιλεῖσθαι μᾶλλον ὑπὸ τῶν γονέων καὶ αὐτὸς παῖς ἐπιτηδεύων πᾶσαν ἀρετὴν καὶ τῆς τε τῶν πατέρων θεραπείας ἐχόμενος καὶ περὶ τὴν τοῦ θεοῦ θρησκείαν ἐσπουδακώς .
222Abraham greatly loved Isaac his only son, given to him by God's favour at the threshold of old age. The child endeared himself to his parents still more by the practice of every virtue and fulfilling his duty towards them and being zealous in the worship of God.
[223] Ἅβραμος δὲ τὴν ἰδίαν εὐδαιμονίαν ἐν μόνῳ τῷ τὸν υἱὸν ἀπαθῆ καταλιπὼν ἐξελθεῖν τοῦ ζῆν ἐτίθετο . τούτου μέντοι κατὰ τὴν τοῦ θεοῦ βούλησιν ἔτυχεν , ὃς διάπειραν αὐτοῦ‎ βουλόμενος λαβεῖν τῆς περὶ αὐτὸν θρησκείας ἐμφανισθεὶς αὐτῷ καὶ πάντα ὅσα εἴη παρεσχημένος καταριθμησάμενος , 223Abraham trusted in the promise that when he died he would leave his son in a safe and secure situation. God willed to grant him this, but he wanted first to test Abraham's religious attitude, so He appeared to him and listed all the ways he had blessed him;
[224] ὡς πολεμίων τε κρείττονα ποιήσειε καὶ τὴν παροῦσαν εὐδαιμονίαν ἐκ τῆς αὐτοῦ‎ σπουδῆς ἔχοι καὶ τὸν υἱὸν Ἴσακον , ᾔτει τοῦτον αὐτῷ θῦμα καὶ ἱερεῖον αὐτὸν παρασχεῖν ἐκέλευέ τε εἰς τὸ Μώριον ὄρος ἀναγαγόντα ὁλοκαυτῶσαι βωμὸν ἱδρυσάμενον · οὕτως γὰρ ἐμφανίσειν τὴν περὶ αὐτὸν θρησκείαν , εἰ καὶ τῆς τοῦ τέκνου σωτηρίας προτιμήσειε τὸ τῷ θεῷ κεχαρισμένον . 224how he had given him victory over his enemies, and given him his son Isaac, the mainstay of his present prosperity. He said he required this son as a sacrifice and victim and told him to bring him to mount Moriah and there build an altar and offer him upon it as a holocaust, to prove his devotion and that he set God's will above the survival of his own son.

[225] Ἅβραμος δὲ ἐπὶ μηδενὶ κρίνων παρακούειν τοῦ θεοῦ δίκαιον ἅπαντά θ’ ὑπουργεῖν ὡς ἐκ τῆς ἐκείνου προνοίας ἀπαντώντων οἷς ἂν εὐμενὴς , ἐπικρυψάμενος πρὸς τὴν γυναῖκα τήν τε τοῦ θεοῦ πρόρρησιν καὶ ἣν εἶχεν αὐτὸς γνώμην περὶ τῆς τοῦ παιδὸς σφαγῆς , ἀλλὰ μηδὲ τῶν οἰκετῶν τινι δηλώσας , ἐκωλύετο γὰρ ἂν ὑπηρετῆσαι τῷ θεῷ , λαβὼν τὸν Ἴσακον μετὰ δύο οἰκετῶν καὶ τὰ πρὸς τὴν ἱερουργίαν ἐπισάξας ὄνῳ ἀπῄει πρὸς τὸ ὄρος .
225Abraham wished to disobey God in nothing but to serve him completely, for it is by his loving providence that all things have life. So he concealed from his wife and servants God's command and his own intention to slaughter his son, for they would have kept him from obeying God, and he took Isaac and two of his servants, and loading an ass with all that was required for sacrifice, he went off to the mountain.
[226] καὶ δύο μὲν ἡμέρας αὐτῷ συνώδευσαν οἱ οἰκέται , τῇ τρίτῃ δὲ ὡς κάτοπτον ἦν αὐτῷ τὸ ὄρος , καταλιπὼν ἐν τῷ πεδίῳ τοὺς συνόντας μετὰ μόνου τοῦ παιδὸς παραγίνεται εἰς τὸ ὄρος , ἐφ’ οὗ τὸ ἱερὸν Δαβίδης βασιλεὺς ὕστερον ἱδρύεται . 226The two servants accompanied him for two days, but when he saw the mountain on the third day, he left his companions on the plain, and went alone with his son to the mountain, where later king David established the temple.
[227] ἔφερον δὲ σὺν αὐτοῖς ὅσα λοιπὰ πρὸς τὴν θυσίαν ἦν πλὴν ἱερείου . τοῦ δ’ Ἰσάκου πέμπτον τε καὶ εἰκοστὸν ἔτος ἔχοντος τὸν βωμὸν κατασκευάζοντος καὶ πυθομένου , τί καὶ μέλλοιεν θύειν ἱερείου μὴ παρόντος , τὸν θεὸν αὐτοῖς παρέξειν ἔλεγεν ὄντα ἱκανὸν καὶ τῶν οὐκ ὄντων εἰς εὐπορίαν ἀνθρώποις παραγαγεῖν καὶ τὰ ὄντα τῶν ἐπ’ αὐτοῖς θαρρούντων ἀφελέσθαι · δώσειν οὖν κἀκείνῳ ἱερεῖον , εἴπερ εὐμενὴς μέλλει τῇ θυσίᾳ παρατυγχάνειν αὐτοῦ‎ . 227They had brought with them all that was needed for a sacrifice except the animal to be offered. Isaac was twenty-five years old, and as he was built the altar he asked his father what he intended to offer, since there was no animal there for a victim. He said that God himself would provide a victim, since he can make provide plentifully for people in need, and deprive others of what they already have, if they confide in it too much; and if He graciously chose to be present at this sacrifice, he would provide a victim too .
[228] ὡς δ’ βωμὸς παρεσκεύαστο καὶ τὰς σχίζας ἐπενηνόχει καὶ ἦν εὐτρεπῆ , λέγει πρὸς τὸν υἱόν · " παῖ , μυρίαις εὐχαῖς αἰτησάμενός σε γενέσθαι μοι παρὰ τοῦ θεοῦ , ἐπεὶ παρῆλθες εἰς τὸν βίον , οὐκ ἔστιν τι μὴ περὶ τὴν σὴν ἀνατροφὴν ἐφιλοτιμησάμην οὐδ’ ἐφ’ μᾶλλον εὐδαιμονήσειν ᾤμην , ὡς εἰ σέ τ’ ἴδοιμι ἠνδρωμένον καὶ τελευτῶν διάδοχον τῆς ἀρχῆς τῆς ἐμαυτοῦ καταλίποιμι . 228When the altar was prepared and Abraham had laid on the wood and all was ready, he said to his son, "My child, I prayed so long to have you as my son. Then when you came into my life there was nothing I would not do for your upbringing, which I cherished, and nothing made me happier than to see you grow up, so that at my death I could leave you to rule after me.
[229] ἀλλ’ ἐπεὶ θεοῦ τε βουλομένου σὸς πατὴρ ἐγενόμην καὶ πάλιν τούτῳ δοκοῦν ἀποτίθεμαί σε , φέρε γενναίως τὴν καθιέρωσιν · τῷ θεῷ γάρ σε παραχωρῶ ταύτης ἀξιώσαντι παρ’ ἡμῶν τῆς τιμῆς ἀνθ’ ὧν εὐμενὴς γέγονέ μοι παραστάτης καὶ σύμμαχος νῦν ἐπιτυχεῖν . 229But just as it was by God's will that I became your father, so it is now his will that I give you up, so bear this dedication generously. It is to God my support and protector that I surrender you, who now sees fit to ask this homage in return for his favours to me.
[230] ἐπεὶ δ’ ἐγεννήθης * ἀποθάνῃς οὐ τὸν κοινὸν ἐκ τοῦ ζῆν τρόπον , ἀλλ’ ὑπὸ πατρὸς ἰδίου θεῷ τῷ πάντων πατρὶ νόμῳ θυσίας προπεμπόμενος , ἄξιον οἶμαί σε κρίναντος αὐτοῦ‎ μήτε νόσῳ μήτε πολέμῳ μήτε ἄλλῳ τινὶ τῶν παθῶν , συμπίπτειν πέφυκεν ἀνθρώποις , ἀπαλλαγῆναι τοῦ βίου , 230Just as you were born, so you will now die, not in the normal way but as sent ahead in sacrifice by your own father to God, the Father of all. I reckon he judges you worthy not to leave this life by disease, war, or any of the other cruel ways by which death usually comes.
[231] μετ’ εὐχῶν τε καὶ ἱερουργίας ἐκείνου ψυχὴν τὴν σὴν προσδεξομένου καὶ παρ’ αὐτῷ καθέξοντος · ἔσῃ τ’ ἐμοὶ εἰς κηδεμόνα καὶ γηρωκόμον , διὸ καὶ σὲ μάλιστα ἀνετρεφόμην , τὸν θεὸν ἀντὶ σαυτοῦ παρεσχημένος ." 231He will receive your soul with prayers and religious rites and put you close to himself, where you will be the help and support me in my old age. It was for this that I brought you up, and now you leave God to me, to console me instead of you ."

[232] Ἴσακος δέ , πατρὸς γὰρ ἦν οἵου τετυχηκότα γενναῖον ἔδει τὸ φρόνημα εἶναι , δέχεται πρὸς ἡδονὴν τοὺς λόγους καὶ φήσας , ὡς οὐδὲ γεγονέναι τὴν ἀρχὴν ἦν δίκαιος , εἰ θεοῦ καὶ πατρὸς μέλλει κρίσιν ἀπωθεῖσθαι καὶ μὴ παρέχειν αὑτὸν τοῖς ἀμφοτέρων βουλήμασιν ἑτοίμως , ὅτε καὶ μόνου τοῦ πατρὸς ταῦτα προαιρουμένου μὴ ὑπακούειν ἄδικον ἦν , ὥρμησεν ἐπὶ τὸν βωμὸν καὶ τὴν σφαγήν .
232As the son of such a father, Isaac's character was so generous that he accepted this explanation gladly. He said he would be unworthy of his birth if he rejected the will of God and of his father and not did readily resign himself up to both, for it would be wrong to disobey, even if his father alone had decided it. So he went immediately to the altar to be sacrificed, and it would have happened if God had not prevented it.
[233] κἂν ἐπράχθη τὸ ἔργον μὴ στάντος ἐμποδὼν τοῦ θεοῦ · βοᾷ γὰρ ὀνομαστὶ τὸν Ἅβραμον εἴργων τῆς τοῦ παιδὸς σφαγῆς . οὐ γὰρ ἐπιθυμήσας αἵματος ἀνθρωπίνου τὴν σφαγὴν αὐτῷ προστάξαι τοῦ παιδὸς ἔλεγεν , οὐδὲ οὗ πατέρα ἐποίησεν αὐτὸς ἀφελέσθαι τούτου βουλόμενος μετὰ τοιαύτης ἀσεβείας , ἀλλὰ δοκιμάσαι θέλων αὐτοῦ‎ τὴν διάνοιαν , εἰ καὶ τοιαῦτα προστασσόμενος ὑπακούοι . 233He loudly called Abraham's name and forbade him to kill his son, since it was not a desire for human blood that had moved him to order him to kill his son, nor had he made him a father only to remove the boy so terribly, but he just wished to test his spirit, to see if he would obey such a command.
[234] μαθὼν δὲ αὐτοῦ‎ τὸ πρόθυμον καὶ τὴν ὑπερβολὴν τῆς θρησκείας ἥδεσθαι μὲν οἷς αὐτῷ παρέσχεν , οὐχ ὑστερήσειν δὲ αὐτὸν ἀεὶ πάσης ἐπιμελείας καὶ τὸ γένος ἀξιοῦντα , ἔσεσθαί τε τὸν υἱὸν αὐτοῦ‎ πολυχρονιώτατον καὶ βιώσαντας εὐδαιμόνως παισὶν ἀγαθοῖς καὶ γνησίοις παραδώσειν μεγάλην ἡγεμονίαν . 234Now that he was sure of his loyalty and his deep devotion, he was glad to have given him so much, and promised to show all care for him and his race, and that his son would live to a great age and after a happy life would pass on the noble leadership to his good and legitimate offspring.
[235] προεδήλου τε τὸ γένος τὸ αὐτῶν εἰς ἔθνη πολλὰ καὶ πλοῦτον ἐπιδώσειν , καὶ μνήμην αἰώνιον αὐτῶν ἔσεσθαι τοῖς γενάρχαις , τήν τε Χαναναίαν ὅπλοις κατακτησαμένους ζηλωτοὺς ἔσεσθαι πᾶσιν ἀνθρώποις . 235He foretold too that his family would grow into many nations and that the patriarchs would leave behind them an everlasting name, and gain possession of the land of Canaan and be envied by all people.
[236] ταῦτα θεὸς εἰπὼν κριὸν ἐκ τἀφανοῦς παρήγαγεν αὐτοῖς εἰς τὴν ἱερουργίαν . οἱ δὲ παρ’ ἐλπίδας αὐτοῦ‎ κεκομισμένου καὶ τοιούτων ἀγαθῶν ἐπαγγελίας ἀκηκοότες ἠσπάζοντό τε ἀλλήλους καὶ θύσαντες ἀπενόστησαν πρὸς τὴν Σάρραν καὶ διῆγον εὐδαιμόνως ἐφ’ ἅπασιν οἷς ἐθελήσειαν τοῦ θεοῦ συλλαμβάνοντος αὐτοῖς . 236After saying this, God sent them a ram they had not noticed before, as the sacrifice. So Abraham and Isaac embraced, having received each other back beyond all expectation and with the promises of such great blessings. After the sacrifice they returned to Sarah and lived happily together, and God helped them in everything they asked .
Chapter 14
[237]
The death of Abraham's wife, Sarah

[237] Καὶ Σάρρα μὲν οὐ πολὺ ὕστερον ἀποθνήσκει βιώσασα ἔτη ἑπτὰ καὶ εἴκοσι πρὸς τοῖς ἑκατόν . θάπτουσι δ’ αὐτὴν ἐν Νεβρῶνι συγχωρούντων μὲν τῶν Χαναναίων καὶ δημοσίᾳ χοῦν αὐτῆς τὸν τάφον , Ἁβράμου δὲ ὠνησαμένου τὸ χωρίον σίκλων τετρακοσίων παρ’ Ἐφραίμου τινὸς ἐκ τῆς Νεβρῶνος. καὶ τὰ μνημεῖα Ἅβραμός τε καὶ οἱ ἀπόγονοι αὐτοῦ‎ ταύτῃ κατεσκευάσαντο .

237Sarah died a short time later, having lived one hundred and twenty-seven years, and they buried her in Hebron, where the Canaanites publicly allowed them a burying-place. Abraham bought this piece of ground for four hundred shekels from Ephron, an inhabitant of Hebron. Here too Abraham and his descendants built tombs for themselves.
Chapter 15
[238-241]
By Keturah, Abraham fathers the nation of Troglodytes

[238] Γαμεῖ δ’ αὐτὸς Κατούραν ὕστερον , ἐξ ἧς αὐτῷ παῖδες ἓξ γίνονται πρός τε πόνους καρτεροὶ καὶ δεινοὶ συνιέναι , Ζεμβράνης Ἰαζάρης Μαδάνης Μαδιάνης Λουσούβακος Σοῦος. φύονται δὲ καὶ τούτοις παῖδες · καὶ Σούου μὲν Σαβακίνης γίνεται καὶ Δαδάνης, τούτου δὲ Λατούσιμος Ἄσσουρις Λούουρις · Μαδάνου δὲ Ἠφᾶς Ἑώφρην Ἄνωχος Ἐβιδᾶς Ἐλδᾶς.
238Abraham later married Keturah, by whom he had six sons, men of courage and intelligence: Zambran and Jazar and Madan and Madian and Josabak and Sous. The sons of Sous were Sabathan and Dadan. The sons of Dadan were Latusim and Assur and Luom. The sons of Madan were Ephas and Eophren and Anoch and Ebidas and Eldas.
[239] τούτοις ἅπασι τοῖς παισὶ καὶ τοῖς υἱωνοῖς Ἅβραμος ἀποικιῶν στόλους μηχανᾶται , καὶ τήν τε Τρωγλοδῦτιν καταλαμβάνουσι καὶ τῆς εὐδαίμονος Ἀραβίας ὅσον ἐπὶ τὴν Ἐρυθρὰν καθήκει θάλασσαν . λέγεται δέ , ὡς οὗτος Ἑώφρην στρατεύσας ἐπὶ τὴν Λιβύην κατέσχεν αὐτὴν καὶ οἱ υἱωνοὶ αὐτοῦ‎ κατοικήσαντες ἐν αὐτῇ τὴν γῆν ἀπὸ τοῦ ἐκείνου ὀνόματος Ἀφρικὰ προσηγόρευσαν . 239Abraham managed to send all these sons and grandsons out to colonise, and they took possession of Troglodytis and of Arabia Felix, extending to the Red Sea. It is said that this Eophren made war on Libya and took it and that his grandchildren, when they inhabited it, called it Africa after him.
[240] μαρτυρεῖ δέ μου τῷ λόγῳ Ἀλέξανδρος πολυίστωρ λέγων οὕτως · Κλεόδημος δέ φησιν προφήτης καὶ Μάλχος ἱστορῶν τὰ περὶ Ἰουδαίων , καθὼς καὶ Μωυσῆς ἱστόρησεν νομοθέτης αὐτῶν , ὅτι ἐκ τῆς Κατούρας Ἁβράμῳ ἐγένοντο παῖδες ἱκανοί . 240Alexander Polyhistor is my witness here, when he says, "Cleodemus the prophet, surnamed Malchus, who wrote a history of the Jews, just as did their Legislator, Moses, says that many sons were born to Abraham by Keturah.
[241] λέγει δὲ αὐτῶν καὶ τὰ ὀνόματα ὀνομάζων τρεῖς Ἰαφέραν Σούρην Ἰαφράν. ἀπὸ Σούρου μὲν τὴν Ἀσσυρίαν κεκλῆσθαι , ἀπὸ δὲ τῶν δύο Ἰαφρᾶ τε καὶ Ἰαφέρου, πόλιν τε Ἐφρᾶν καὶ τὴν χώραν Ἀφρικὰ ὀνομασθῆναι . τούτους γὰρ Ἡρακλεῖ συστρατεῦσαι ἐπὶ Λιβύην καὶ Ἀνταῖον · γήμαντά τε τὴν Ἀφράνου θυγατέρα Ἡρακλέα γεννῆσαι υἱὸν ἐξ αὐτῆς Δίδωρον · τούτου δὲ γενέσθαι Σόφωνα, ἀφ’ οὗ τοὺς βαρβάρους Σόφακας λέγεσθαι." 241He gives their names and lists three of them, Jafra, Surim and Japheros. From Surim the land of Assyria was named, and from the other two, Jafra and Japheros, the land of Africa was named, for these men soldiered with Hercules against Libya and Antaeus, and that Hercules married Jafra's daughter and of her he begot a son, Diodorus, and that Sophon was his son, from whom the barbarous Sophacians were named."
Chapter 16
[242-255]
Isaac meets and marries Rebecca

[242] Ἰσάκῳ δὲ περὶ τεσσαρακοστὸν ἔτος γεγονότι γυναῖκα γνοὺς ἀγαγέσθαι πατὴρ Ἅβραμος Ῥεβέκκαν Ναχώρου παιδὸς θυγατέρα τἀδελφοῦ τὸν πρεσβύτατον πέμπει τῶν οἰκετῶν ἐπὶ τὴν μνηστείαν ἐνδησάμενος μεγάλαις πίστεσι .
242When Abraham, the father of Isaac, intended to take Rebecca, his brother Nahor's grand-daughter, as wife for his son Isaac, who was then about forty years old, he sent the oldest of his servants to arrange her betrothal, after binding him with firm pledges.
[243] γίνονται δὲ αὗται τοῦτον τὸν τρόπον · ὑπὸ τοὺς μηροὺς ἀλλήλοις τὰς χεῖρας ἐπαγαγόντες ἔπειτα ἐπικαλοῦνται τὸν θεὸν μάρτυρα τῶν ἐσομένων . ἔπεμπε δὲ καὶ δῶρα τοῖς ἐκεῖ διὰ τὸ σπάνιον μηδ’ ὅλως ἐπιχωριάζειν ἐκτετιμημένα . 243They pledged as follows, each put his hand under the other's thigh and called on God to witness what they would do. He also sent to the people living there gifts such as they had rarely if ever seen before.
[244] οὗτος ἀπερχόμενος χρόνῳ διὰ τὸ εἶναι χαλεπὴν ὁδεύεσθαι τὴν Μεσοποταμίαν , χειμῶνι μὲν ὑπὸ πηλῶν βάθους , θέρους δ’ ὑπὸ ἀνυδρίας , ἔτι δὲ καὶ λῃστηρίων ὄντων ἐν αὐτῇ , διαφυγεῖν οὐκ ἐνῆν μὴ προνοοῦσι τούτου τοῖς ὁδεύουσιν , εἰς πόλιν ἀφικνεῖται Κάρραν καὶ γενόμενος ἐν τοῖς προαστείοις παρθένοις ἐντυγχάνει πλείοσιν ἐφ’ ὕδωρ βαδιζούσαις · 244It took this man some time to get there, as travel is difficult in Meopotamia, in winter because of the deep mud and in summer for lack of water, and also because of the bandits who can be avoided only by prudent travellers; but he reached Haran, and on the outskirts of the town met a large number of maidens going to get water.
[245] εὔχεται μὲν οὖν τῷ θεῷ Ῥεβέκκαν , ἣν τῷ παιδὶ Ἅβραμος μνηστευσόμενον ἐξαπέστειλεν , εἰ κατὰ νοῦν τὸν αὐτοῦ‎ μέλλει γάμος οὗτος συντελεῖσθαι , ἐν ἐκείναις εὑρεθῆναι γνωρισθῆναι τε αὐτὴν τῶν μὲν ἄλλων αἰτοῦντι ποτὸν ἀρνουμένων ἐκείνης δὲ αὐτῷ παρασχούσης . 245He prayed to God that he would find Rebecca among them, whom Abraham had sent him to espouse for his son, if she would agreed to the marriage, and to make her known to him through this sign that while others denied him a drink, she would give it him .
[246] Καὶ μὲν ἐπὶ ταύτης ὢν τῆς διανοίας ἐπὶ τὸ φρέαρ παραγίνεται καὶ παρακαλεῖ τὰς παρθένους ποτὸν αὐτῷ παρασχεῖν · τῶν δ’ ἐκτρεπομένων ὡς χρῃζουσῶν οἴκαδε κομίζειν , ἀλλ’ οὐκ ἐκείνῳ παρασχεῖν , καὶ γὰρ οὐδ’ εὔληπτον εἶναι τὸ ὕδωρ , μία ἐξ ἁπασῶν ἐκείναις τε τῆς πρὸς τὸν ξένον ἐπιπλήττει δυσκολίας , τίνος ἄλλου κοινωνήσειν πρὸς ἀνθρώπους αὐτάς ποτε , αἳ μηδ’ ὕδατος μετέδοσαν λέγουσα , καὶ παρέχει αὐτῷ φιλοφρόνως . 246With this intention he went to the well and asked the maidens to fetch him a drink. But while the others refused, claiming that they needed all of it at home and could spare none for him, only one of the whole group rebuked their rudeness towards the stranger, saying: "What will you ever share with anybody, if you won't even give them water?" and kindly offered it to him.
[247] δὲ ἐν ἐλπίδι μὲν τῶν ὅλων γενόμενος , βουλόμενος δὲ τὴν ἀλήθειαν μαθεῖν , ἐπῄνει τε τῆς εὐγενείας αὐτὴν καὶ τῆς χρηστότητος , ὅτι καὶ μετ’ οἰκείου πόνου τοῖς δεομένοις ἐπαρκεῖν οὐκ ἔφυγεν , ἐπυνθάνετό τε τίνων εἴη γονέων καὶ κατεύχεται αὐτοῖς ὄνησιν τοιαύτης παιδὸς καί " νυμφεύσειαν , φησίν , ὡς αὐτοῖς ἐστι κεχαρισμένον , εἰς οἶκον ἀνδρὸς ἀγαθοῦ παῖδας αὐτῷ τεξομένην γνησίους .." 247He began to hope for the success of his mission, but wishing to find out, praised her generosity and good nature for not fearing to give to those in need what had cost her some effort to draw. He asked who her parents were, wishing them joy from having such a child. "And may you be espoused," he said, "to their satisfaction, into the house of a good husband and bear him legitimate children."
[248] δὲ οὐδὲ τούτων ἐφθόνησεν αὐτῷ βουλομένῳ μαθεῖν , ἀλλὰ καὶ τὸ γένος ἀπεσήμαινε καὶ " Ῥεβέκκα μέν , φησίν , ἐγὼ καλοῦμαι , πατὴρ δέ μοι Βαθουῆλος ἦν · ἀλλ’ μὲν ἤδη τέθνηκε , Λάβανος δὲ ἀδελφός ἐστιν ἡμέτερος τοῦ τε οἴκου παντὸς σὺν τῇ μητρὶ προνοούμενος καὶ τῆς ἐμῆς παρθενίας ἐπιμελόμενος . 248She did not reject his inquiries, but told him about her family. "My name is Rebecca; my father was Bethuel, but he is dead, and Laban is my brother, and along with my mother takes care of all our affairs and is the guardian of my virginity."
[249] τούτων ἀκροασάμενος ἔχαιρέ τε τοῖς γεγονόσι καὶ τοῖς εἰρημένοις τὸν θεὸν οὕτως ὁρῶν αὐτῷ τῆς ὁδοῦ σαφῶς συλλαμβάνοντα , καὶ προκομίσας ὁρμίσκον τε καί τινας κόσμους , οὓς εὐπρεπὲς φορεῖν παρθένοις , ἀνεδίδου τῇ κόρῃ τῆς ἐπὶ τῷ πιεῖν χάριτος ἀμοιβὴν εἶναι καὶ γέρας , δίκαιον λέγων τοιούτων αὐτὴν τυγχάνειν ἀγαθὴν παρὰ τὰς τοσαύτας παρθένους γενομένην . 249When the servant heard this, he was very glad at what had been done and said, seeing how clearly God had directed his journey. Producing his bracelets and other ornaments which it was thought decent for virgins to wear, he gave them to the girl, in thanks for her kindness in letting him drink, saying that it was right for her to have them since she had been kinder than the other girls.
[250] ἠξίου τε παρ’ αὐτοῖς καταχθῆναι τοῦ προσωτέρω χωρεῖν τῆς νυκτὸς αὐτὸν ἀφαιρουμένης , κόσμον τε φέρων γυναικεῖον πολυτελῆ πιστεύειν αὐτὸν οὐκ ἀσφαλεστέροις ἔφασκεν τούτοις , οἷς αὐτὸς ἐπειράθη . τεκμαίρεσθαι δὲ καὶ τὴν τῆς μητρὸς καὶ τἀδελφοῦ φιλανθρωπίαν αὐτῆς ἔλεγεν , ὡς οὐ δυσχερανοῦσιν , ἐκ τῆς περὶ αὐτὴν ἀρετῆς · οὐδὲ γὰρ ἔσεσθαι βαρὺς μισθόν τε τῆς φιλοξενίας τελέσας καὶ δαπάναις ἰδίαις χρησάμενος . 250She asked him to come and lodge with them, since the onset of night would not let him travel any farther, so producing the splendid women's garments he had brought, he said there was no one he could more securely entrust it to than the sort of person she had proven to be. From her he felt he could guess at the kindness of her mother and brother, who would not turn him away, for he did not wish to burden anybody but would pay for his lodging with his own money.
[251] δὲ περὶ μὲν τῆς τῶν γονέων φιλανθρωπίας αὐτῆς ὀρθῶς εἰκάζειν αὐτὸν εἶπεν , ἐπεμέμφετο δὲ ὡς μικρολόγους ὑπειληφότα · πάντων γὰρ ἀμισθὶ μεθέξειν . δηλώσασα μέντοι Λαβάνῳ πρότερον τἀδελφῷ συγχωροῦντος ἄξειν αὐτὸν ἔλεγεν . 251She replied that he was right about the kindness of her parents, but blamed him for thinking them so mean as to accept his money. He would have everything free of charge but she must first inform her brother Laban, and then bring him with his permission.
[252] ὡς οὖν τούτου γενομένου παρῆγε τὸν ξένον , τὰς μὲν καμήλους αὐτοῦ‎ παραλαμβάνοντες οἱ Λαβάνου θεράποντες ἐτημέλουν , αὐτὸς δὲ δειπνήσων εἰσήγετο σὺν αὐτῷ καὶ μετὰ τὸ δεῖπνόν φησι πρός τε αὐτὸν καὶ τὴν μητέρα τῆς κόρης · " Ἅβραμος Θέρρου μέν ἐστιν υἱός , συγγενὴς δ’ ὑμέτερος · Ναχώρης γὰρ τούτων , γύναι , τῶν παίδων πάππος ἀδελφὸς ἦν Ἁβράμου ὁμοπάτριός τε καὶ ὁμομήτριος . 252When this was done, she introduced the stranger, and his camels were taken and tended to by Laban's servants, and he was brought in to him to supper. After supper, he said to him and the girl's mother, "Abraham is the son of Terah and a kinsman of yours, for Nahor, the grandfather of these children, was the brother of Abraham, both on his father's and mother's side.
[253] πέμπει τοίνυν οὗτος πρὸς ὑμᾶς ἀξιῶν τὴν κόρην ταύτην παιδὶ τῷ ἑαυτοῦ λαβεῖν πρὸς γάμον , ὃς γνήσιός ἐστιν αὐτῷ καὶ μόνος ἐπὶ τοῖς πᾶσι τεθραμμένος . τῶν μὲν ἐκεῖ γυναικῶν δυνατὸν αὐτῷ τὴν εὐδαιμονεστάτην λαβεῖν οὐκ ἠξίωσεν ἀγαγέσθαι , τιμῶν δὲ τὸ γένος τὸν γάμον πολιτεύει τοῦτον . 253This man has sent me to you, wanting to take the girl as a wife for his legitimate son, who was reared as his only heir. Though he could have for him had the most prosperous of all the women in that region, he did not want his son to marry any of them, but wants this match out of honour to his clan.
[254] οὗ τὴν σπουδὴν καὶ τὴν προαίρεσιν μὴ ὑβρίσητε · κατὰ γὰρ θεοῦ βούλησιν τά τε ἄλλα μοι κατὰ τὴν ὁδὸν ἀπήντησε καὶ τὴν παῖδα καὶ τὸν ὑμέτερον οἶκον εὗρον . ἐπεὶ γὰρ πλησίον τῆς πόλεως ἐγενόμην , παρθένους ἰδὼν πολλὰς ἐπὶ τὸ φρέαρ παραγινομένας ηὐξάμην εἰς ταύτην ἐμπεσεῖν , δὴ γέγονε . 254He is a man whose ardour and inclination you should not despise. All that happened on my journey was by the will of God and that I came upon your daughter and your house. For when I was near the city, I saw many maidens coming to the well and to meet with this girl, as it turned out.
[255] γάμον οὖν ὑπὸ θείας μνηστευόμενον ἐπιφανείας καὶ ὑμεῖς κυρώσατε καὶ Ἅβραμον τὸν μετὰ τοσαύτης ἀπεσταλκότα σπουδῆς τῷ κατανεῦσαι τὴν κόρην τιμήσατε . οἱ δὲ , καλὰ γὰρ ἦν αὐτοῖς καὶ κεχαρισμένα , τήν τε γνώμην τοῦ θεοῦ συνῆκαν καὶ πέμπουσιν ἐφ’ οἷς ἠξίου τὴν θυγατέρα . γαμεῖ δὲ ταύτην Ἴσακος τῶν πραγμάτων εἰς αὐτὸν ἀφικομένων · οἱ γὰρ ἐκ τῆς Κατούρας εἰς τὰς ἀποικίας ἐξεληλύθεισαν . 255So you should ratify the match which God has already pointed out, and show your respect for Abraham, who sent me here so urgently, by giving your consent to this girl." They understood it as God's will and gladly approved of the offer and sent their daughter, as was asked. And Isaac married her, having now come into his inheritance, for the children of Keturah had gone off to their colonies.
Chapter 17
[256]
The death and burial of Abraham, in Hebron
[256] Τελευτᾷ δὲ καὶ Ἅβραμος μετ’ ὀλίγον , ἀνὴρ πᾶσαν ἀρετὴν ἄκρος καὶ τῆς περὶ αὐτὸν σπουδῆς ἀξίως ὑπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ τετιμημένος . ἐβίωσε δὲ τὸν πάντα χρόνον ἐτῶν ἑβδομηκονταπέντε πρὸς τοῖς ἑκατὸν καὶ θάπτεται ἐν Νεβρῶνι μετὰ τῆς γυναικὸς Σάρρας ὑπὸ τῶν παίδων Ἰσάκου καὶ Ἰσμαήλου . 256Shortly after this Abraham died. He was a man of incomparable virtue and honoured by God for his devotion to him. He lived in all for a hundred seventy and five years and was buried in Hebron, with his wife Sarah, by their sons Isaac and Ismael .
Chapter 18
[257-277]
Esau and Jacob, sons of Isaac; their birth and the birthright
[257] Ἰσάκῳ δὲ μετὰ τὴν Ἁβράμου τελευτὴν ἐκύει τὸ γύναιον , καὶ τῆς γαστέρας ἐπὶ μεῖζον ὀγκουμένης ἀγωνιάσας ἀνήρετο τὸν θεόν . φράζει δ’ αὐτῷ διδύμους τέξεσθαι τὴν Ῥεβέκκαν καὶ φερώνυμα ἔσεσθαι τοῖς παισὶν ἔθνη , τοῦ δὲ μείζονος προτερήσειν τὸ δοκοῦν ἔλασσον εἶναι . 257After Abraham's death, Isaac's wife conceived and when her belly grew very large Isaac was worried and enquired of God, who replied that Rebecca would bear twins, and that two nations would take the names of those sons, and that he who appeared the second would excel the elder.
[258] τίκτεται δ’ αὐτῷ μετ’ ὀλίγον κατὰ πρόρρησιν τοῦ θεοῦ δίδυμα παιδία , ὧν τὸ μὲν πρεσβύτερον ἀπὸ κεφαλῆς ἐπὶ τοὺς πόδας περισσῶς ἦν δασύ , τὸ δὲ νεώτερον εἴχετο προϊόντος αὐτοῦ‎ κατὰ πτέρναν . ἠγάπα δὲ μὲν πατὴρ τὸν πρεσβύτερον Ἠσαῦ λεγόμενον κατ’ ἐπωνυμίαν τῆς τριχώσεως · Ἑβραῖοι γὰρ τὸ ἤσαυρον τρίχωμα λέγουσιν · Ἰάκωβος δὲ νεώτερος τῇ μητρὶ προσφιλὴς ἦν . 258A little later, as God had foretold, she bore twins; the elder of whom was very rough and hairy from head to foot, but the younger took hold of his heel as they were being born. The father loved the elder, named Esau, a name suited to his roughness, for the Hebrews call such a hairy roughness esauron, but Jacob the younger was more loved by his mother .
[259] Λιμοῦ δὲ τὴν γῆν καταλαβόντος Ἴσακος , δόξαν αὐτῷ χωρεῖν εἰς Αἴγυπτον τῆς χώρας ἀγαθῆς ὑπαρχούσης , ἐπὶ Γεράρων ἀπῄει τοῦ θεοῦ κελεύσαντος . ὑποδέχεται δ’ αὐτὸν βασιλεὺς Ἀβιμέλεχος κατὰ ξενίαν καὶ φιλίαν τὴν Ἁβράμου καὶ πολλῇ πάνυ πρὸς αὐτὸν εὐνοίᾳ χρησάμενος κατ’ ἀρχὰς ἐπὶ ταύτης ὑπὸ φθόνου μεῖναι πρὸς τὸ πᾶν ἐκωλύθη . 259When there was a famine in the land, Isaac resolved to go to Egypt, where things were good, but went to Gerar at God's command. Here Abimelech the king received him, because Abraham had formerly lived with him as his friend. But though he treated him kindly at first, he was unable to continue in it, through envy of him.
[260] ὁρῶν γὰρ τὸν θεὸν τῷ Ἰσάκῳ συμπαρόντα καὶ τοσαύτῃ περὶ αὐτὸν σπουδῇ χρώμενον ἀπώσατο αὐτόν . δὲ τοιούτου πάλιν ἐκ μεταβολῆς τῆς ἀπὸ τοῦ βασκάνου πειραθεὶς Ἀβιμελέχου τότε μὲν ἀνεχώρησεν εἰς τὴν λεγομένην Φάραγγα χωρίον οὐ μακρὰν Γεράρων , ὀρύσσοντι δ’ αὐτῷ φρέαρ ποιμένες ἐπιπεσόντες εἰς μάχην ἐχώρησαν κωλύοντες τὸ ἔργον, καὶ μὴ βουληθέντος φιλονικεῖν ἔδοξαν κεκρατηκέναι . 260For when he saw how God was with Isaac and took such care of him, he drove him away; and he, seeing the change in Abimelech, retreated to a place called the Valley, not far from Gerar. There, as he was digging a well, the shepherds attacked him and began fighting, hindering the work, and as he did not want to fight, they seemed to get the better of him.
[261] ὑποχωρήσας δὲ ὤρυσσεν ἕτερον , καὶ βιασαμένων ἄλλων τινῶν Ἀβιμελέχου ποιμένων καὶ τοῦτο καταλιπὼν ἀπεχώρησεν εὐγνώμονι λογισμῷ κτώμενος αὑτῷ τὴν χρόνου . 261So he retreated and dug still another, and when other shepherds of Abimelech began to be violent, he left that also, still retreating, and so won security for himself by prudent conduct.
[262] εἶτα αὐτομάτου παρασχόντος αὐτῷ τὴν φρεωρυχίαν ἀνεπικώλυτον , Ῥοωβὼθ τὸ φρέαρ ὠνόμασεν · εὐρύχωρον ἀποσημαίνει τὸ ὄνομα . τῶν δὲ προτέρων τὸ μὲν Ἔσκον καλεῖται · μάχην ἄν τις αὐτὸ φήσειε · τὸ δ’ ἕτερον Σύαιναν · ἔχθραν ἀποσημαίνει τὸ ὄνομα . 262Finally they let him dig a well untroubled, which he named Rehoboth, which means spacious. The earlier wells he called Escon, which means battle, the other Stena, which means enmity .
[263] Ἰσάκῳ μὲν οὖν ἀκμάζειν συνέβαινε τὴν ἰσχὺν ὑπὸ μεγέθους πραγμάτων , Ἀβιμέλεχος δὲ κατ’ αὐτοῦ‎ φύεσθαι νομίζων τὸν Ἴσακον , ὑπόπτου μὲν αὐτοῖς καὶ τῆς συνδιαιτήσεως γενομένης , ἐπ’ οὐ φανερᾷ δὲ ἔχθρᾳ τοῦ Ἰσάκου ὑπεκστάντος , δείσας μὴ τῆς προτέρας αὐτῷ φιλίας οὐδὲν ὄφελος γένηται πρὸς ἄμυναν ὧν ἔπαθεν Ἰσάκου τραπέντος φιλίαν ἄνωθεν ποιεῖται πρὸς αὐτὸν ἕνα τῶν στρατηγῶν Φίλοχον ἐπαγόμενος . 263Isaac's strength and possessions began to flourish, but Abimelech brooded about him, since their situation made them mutually suspect, and was secretly hostile for fear that their former friendship would not save him if Isaac were to recall the wrongs he had done him. So he renewed his treaty of friendship with him, through Philoch, one of his generals.
[264] πάντων δὲ τετυχηκὼς ὧν ἠξίου διὰ τὴν Ἰσάκου χρηστότητα ὀργῆς προσφάτου πρεσβυτέραν χάριν εἰς αὐτόν τε καὶ τὸν πατέρα γεγενημένην προτιμῶντος ἀπῆρεν εἰς τὴν ἑαυτοῦ . 264Having obtained everything he asked because of Isaac's good nature, who thought of the earlier friendship Abimelech had shown to him and his father rather than of his later anger towards him, he returned home .
[265] Τῶν δὲ Ἰσάκου παίδων Ἡσαῦς , περὶ ὃν μάλιστα πατὴρ ἐσπουδάκει , τεσσαράκοντα γεγονὼς ἔτη γαμεῖ Ἄδαν τὴν Ἥλωνος καὶ Ἀλιβάμην τὴν Εὐσεβεῶνος δυναστευόντων ἐν Χαναναίοις ἀνδρῶν θυγατέρας , ἑαυτὸν ποιήσας τῆς περὶ τὸν γάμον ἐξουσίας κύριον καὶ μηδὲ τῷ πατρὶ συμβουλευσάμενος · 265Of the sons of Isaac, Esau, the father's favourite, at the age of forty, married Adah, the daughter of Helon and Aholibamah, the daughter of Esebeon, Canaanite nobles, making these m