topANTIQUITIES--2

From Isaac's death to Exodus; Israel in Egypt; the call of Moses

Chapter 1 The separation of Esau and Jacob

Chapter 2 Joseph's Dream and his brothers' envy

Chapter 3 Joseph is sold into slavery in Egypt

Chapter 4 Joseph's notable Chastity.

Chapter 5 Joseph in prison and released, explains Pharao's dreams

Chapter 6 Joseph's power; his brothers come for food; reunited

Chapter 7 Jacob and family go down to Egypt, escaping famine

Chapter 8 The Deaths of Jacob and Joseph, in Egypt

Chapter 9 Plight of the Hebrews in Egypt; the birth of Moses

Chapter 10 How Moses made war with the Ethiopians

Chapter 11 Moses flees from Egypt into Madian

Chapter 12 The burning bush; the God-empowered rod of Moses

Chapter 13 Moses and Aaron return to confront Pharaothes

Chapter 14 The ten plagues which came upon the Egyptians

Chapter 15 Guided by Moses the Hebrews left Egypt

Chapter 16 The sea parts for Moses and destroys the pursuing Egyptians

Chapter & Paragraph numbers as in Whiston .
[Verse numbers] as in Niese's Greek edition.
Chapter 1
.
[001-006]
The separation of Esau and Jacob

[1] μετὰ δὲ τὴν Ἰσάκου τελευτὴν οἱ παῖδες αὐτοῦ‎ μερισάμενοι τὴν οἴκησιν πρὸς ἀλλήλους οὐχ ἣν ἔλαβον ταύτην κατέσχον , ἀλλ Ἡσαῦς μὲν τῆς Νεβρωνίας πόλεως ἐκχωρήσας τῷ ἀδελφῷ ἐν Σαειρᾷ διητᾶτο καὶ τῆς Ἰδουμαίας ἦρχεν οὕτω καλέσας τὴν χώραν ἀπ’ αὐτοῦ‎ · Ἄδωμος γὰρ ἐπωνομάζετο κατὰ τοιαύτην αἰτίαν τυχὼν τῆς ἐπικλήσεως .
[2] ἀπὸ θήρας ποτὲ καὶ πόνου τοῦ περὶ τὸ κυνήγιον λιμώττων ἐπανῆκεν , ἔτι δὲ ἦν παῖς τὴν ἡλικίαν , ἐπιτυχὼν δὲ τἀδελφῷ φακῆν ἐσκευακότι πρὸς ἄριστον αὑτῷ ξανθὴν σφόδρα τὴν χροιὰν καὶ διὰ τοῦτ’ ἔτι μᾶλλον ὀρεχθεὶς ἠξίου παρασχεῖν αὐτῷ πρὸς τροφήν .
[3] δὲ ἀποδόσθαι τὸ πρεσβεῖον αὐτῷ τοῦ φαγεῖν συνεργῷ χρησάμενος τῇ πείνῃ τὸν ἀδελφὸν ἠνάγκαζε , κἀκεῖνος ὑπὸ τοῦ λιμοῦ προαχθεὶς παραχωρεῖ τῶν πρεσβείων αὐτῷ μεθ’ ὅρκων . ἔνθεν διὰ τὴν ξανθότητα τοῦ βρώματος ὑπὸ τῶν ἡλικιωτῶν κατὰ παιδιὰν Ἄδωμος ἐπικληθείς , ἄδωμα γὰρ Ἑβραῖοι τὸ ἐρυθρὸν καλοῦσι , τὴν χώραν οὕτως προσηγόρευσεν · Ἕλληνες γὰρ αὐτὴν ἐπὶ τὸ σεμνότερον Ἰδουμαίαν ὠνόμασαν .

001After the death of Isaac, his sons moved away to live separately rather than stay on in the property they had acquired previously. Esau left the city of Hebron to his brother, and lived in Seir and ruled over Idumaea, calling the region after himself, for he was called Adom, a name that he got in this way :
002 During his youth, as he was returning very hungry from a hard day's hunting, he met his brother who was preparing a pot of the best red lentils for his dinner; and feeling a deep desire for them he asked for some of the food to eat.
003 The other took advantage of his brother's hunger and made him surrender his birthright to him and, compelled by his hunger, he handed it over to him on oath. Therefore, from the redness of this pottage, he was jokingly called by his mates, Adom, for that is the Hebrew for whatever is red. It was also the name given to the region, though the Greeks gave it the more elegant name of Idumaea . .

[4] Γίνεται δὲ καὶ πατὴρ παίδων πέντε τὸν ἀριθμόν , ὧν Ἰάους μὲν καὶ Ἰόλαμος καὶ Κορῆος ἐκ γυναικὸς μιᾶς Ἀλιβάμης τοὔνομα , τῶν δὲ λοιπῶν Ἀλιφάζης μὲν ἐξ Ἀδάσης , Ῥαουῆλος δὲ ἐκ Βασαμάθης ὑπῆρξαν αὐτῷ γεγονότες .
[5] καὶ Ἡσαῦ μὲν οὗτοι παῖδες ἦσαν · Ἀλιφάζῃ δὲ γίνονται γνήσιοι πέντε Θημανὸς Ὄμερος Ὄφους Ἰόθαμος Καναζός · Ἀμαλῆκος γὰρ νόθος ἦν ἐκ παλλακῆς αὐτῷ γεγονὼς Θαμνάης ὄνομα .
[6] οὗτοι κατῴκησαν τῆς Ἰδουμαίας τὴν Γοβολῖτιν λεγομένην καὶ τὴν ἀπὸ Ἀμαλήκου κληθεῖσαν Ἀμαληκῖτιν · πολλὴ γὰρ γενομένη ποτὲ Ἰδουμαία τό τε πάσης αὐτῆς ἀπέσωζεν ὄνομα καὶ τοῖς μέρεσι τὰς ἀπὸ τῶν οἰκητόρων προσηγορίας διεφύλαξεν .

004 He became the father of five sons, of whom Jaus and Lamus and Coreus were by one wife named Alibama, and Aliphaz was later born to him by Adasa and Raouel by Basamath.
005 Those were the sons of Esau. Aliphaz had five legitimate sons; Theman, Omer, Sophous, Jotham and Kanaz, for Amalek was not legitimate, but by a concubine named Thamnae.
006 These lived in the part of Idumaea which is called Gobolitis and the one named "Amalekitis" after Amalek, for Idumaea was a large region and had a single name, while its individual parts kept the names of the local inhabitants .
Chapter 2
.
[007-019]
Joseph's Dream and his brothers' envy

[7] Ἰακώβῳ δὲ συνέβη παρελθεῖν εἰς εὐδαιμονίας μέγεθος , οἷον οὐκ ἄλλῳ τινὶ ῥᾳδίως · πλούτῳ τε γὰρ ὑπερέβαλλε τοὺς ἐπιχωρίους καὶ παίδων ἀρεταῖς ζηλωτὸς καὶ περίβλεπτος ἦν · οὐδενὸς γὰρ ὅλως ὑστέρουν , ἀλλὰ καὶ πρὸς ἔργα χειρῶν καὶ πόνων ὑπομονὴν ἦσαν εὔψυχοι καὶ δεινοὶ συνιέναι .
[8] τοσαύτην δ’ ἄρα τὸ θεῖον αὐτοῦ‎ πρόνοιαν ἔσχε καὶ τῆς εὐδαιμονίας ἐπιμέλειαν , ὡς κἀκ τῶν λυπηρῶν αὐτῷ δοξάντων τὴν ὑπερβολὴν τῶν ἀγαθῶν παρασχεῖν καὶ ποιῆσαι τῆς ἀπ’ Αἰγύπτου τῶν ἡμετέρων προγόνων ἀναχωρήσεως αἴτιον αὐτόν τε καὶ τοὺς ἐξ αὐτοῦ‎ γεγονότας ὑπὸ τοιαύτης αἰτίας ·
[9] Ἰώσηπον ἐκ Ῥαχήλας πεπαιδοποιημένος Ἰάκωβος διά τε τὴν τοῦ σώματος εὐγένειαν καὶ διὰ ψυχῆς ἀρετήν , φρονήσει γὰρ διέφερε , τῶν ἄλλων πλέον υἱῶν ἠγάπα .
[1] τούτῳ παρὰ τῶν ἀδελφῶν τε τοῦ πατρὸς στοργὴ φθόνον ἐκίνησε καὶ μῖσος τε ἐκ τῶν ὀνειράτων , θεασάμενος τῷ τε πατρὶ καὶ τούτοις ἐμήνυσεν , εὐδαιμονία καταγγελλομένη , ζηλοτυπούντων ἄρα τῶν ἀνθρώπων καὶ τὰς τῶν οἰκειοτάτων εὐπραγίας . αἱ δὲ ὄψεις , ἃς κατὰ τοὺς ὕπνους εἶδεν Ἰώσηπος , τοιαίδε ἦσαν .

007 Jacob reached a level of prosperity rarely attained by anyone and was richer than the rest of the local inhabitants and envied and admired for having such virtuous sons, for they were lacking in nothing but were resilient and cheerful at manual work and also shrewd in intellect.
008 God's providential care for him and his welfare brought him such great blessings, even out of what seem the worst of conditions, and granted to our forefather and his descendants the exodus from Egypt, in the way that we shall relate.
009 When Jacob's son Joseph was born to him by Rachel, his father loved him more than the rest of his sons for his physical beauty and the virtue of his soul, and his exceptional prudence.
010 His father's affection roused his brothers to envy and hate him; as also did the dreams which he saw and reported to his father and to them, foretelling his future success, for people are usually jealous of the success of even their nearest relatives. The visions which Joseph saw in his sleep were these:

[11] Ἐκπεμφθεὶς μετὰ τῶν ἀδελφῶν παρὰ τοῦ πατρὸς ἐπὶ συλλογῇ τῶν καρπῶν θέρους ἀκμάζοντος ὁρᾷ πολὺ τῶν κατὰ συνήθειαν ἐπιφοιτώντων κατὰ τοὺς ὕπνους ὀνειράτων διαφέρουσαν ὄψιν , ἣν περιεγερθεὶς τοῖς ἀδελφοῖς ὡς κρινοῦσιν αὐτῷ τὸ σημαινόμενον ἐξέθετο , λέγων ἰδεῖν ἐπὶ τῆς παρελθούσης νυκτὸς τὸ μὲν αὐτοῦ‎ δράγμα τῶν πυρῶν ἠρεμεῖν ἐφ’ οὗ κατέθηκε τόπου , τὰ δὲ ἐκείνων προστρέχοντα προσκυνεῖν αὐτὸ καθάπερ οἱ δοῦλοι τοὺς δεσπότας .
[12] οἱ δὲ συνέντες ἰσχὺν αὐτῷ καὶ μέγεθος πραγμάτων τὴν ὄψιν προλέγουσαν καὶ κατ’ αὐτῶν τὴν ἐξουσίαν ἐσομένην τῷ μὲν Ἰωσήπῳ τούτων οὐδὲν ὡς οὐ γνώριμον αὐτοῖς τὸ ὄναρ ὂν διεσάφησαν , ἀρὰς δ’ ἐποιήσαντο μηδὲν εἰς τέλος αὐτῷ παρελθεῖν ὧν ὑπενόουν καὶ πρὸς αὐτὸν ἔτι μᾶλλον ἀπεχθῶς ἔχοντες διετέλουν .

011 When he was sent out along with his brothers by their father to gather in the harvest, he saw a vision in a dream that far surpassed the usual appearances which come when we are asleep, and when he got up he told it to his brothers, for them to judge what was meant by it. He told how during the night he had seen his own wheat-sheaf standing still just where he set it, while their sheaves ran to bow down to it, as servants bow down to their masters.
012 Noting how the vision foretold how he would gain power and wealth and how his power would surpass theirs, they made no comment to Joseph, as if they did not understand the dream, but prayed that none of what they suspected as its meaning would come true, and hated him still more on account of it .

[13] Τῷ δὲ παρ’ αὐτῶν φθόνῳ προσφιλονικῆσαν τὸ θεῖον δευτέραν ὄψιν ἐπιπέμπει τῷ Ἰωσήπῳ πολὺ τῆς προτέρας θαυμασιωτέραν . τὸν ἥλιον γὰρ ἔδοξε τὴν σελήνην παραλαβόντα καὶ τοὺς λοιποὺς ἀστέρας ἐπὶ τὴν γῆν κατελθεῖν καὶ προσκυνεῖν αὐτόν .
[14] ταύτην τὴν ὄψιν τῷ πατρὶ μηδὲν παρὰ τῶν ἀδελφῶν κακόηθες ὑφορώμενος καὶ τούτων παρατυγχανόντων διεσάφησε , τί καὶ βούλεται σημαίνειν φράσαι παρακαλῶν .
[15] δὲ ἡσθεὶς τῷ ὀνείρατι , τὴν γὰρ πρόρρησιν αὐτοῦ‎ τῇ διανοίᾳ συλλαβὼν καὶ μετὰ σοφίας οὐκ ἀσκόπως εἰκάσας ἔχαιρεν ἐπὶ μεγάλοις τοῖς σημαινομένοις , εὐδαιμονίαν τῷ παιδὶ κατήγγελλε καὶ καιρὸν ἥξειν θεοῦ δόντος , καθ’ ὃν αὐτὸν ὑπό τε τῶν γονέων καὶ τῶν ἀδελφῶν ἔσεσθαι τίμιον καὶ προσκυνήσεως ἄξιον ,
[16] τὴν μὲν σελήνην καὶ τὸν ἥλιον μητρὶ καὶ πατρί , τῆς μὲν αὐξούσης ἅπαντα καὶ τρεφούσης τοῦ δ’ ἐκτυποῦντος καὶ τὴν ἄλλην ἰσχὺν ἐντιθέντος εἰκάζων , τοὺς δ’ ἀστέρας τοῖς ἀδελφοῖς · καὶ γὰρ τούτους ἕνδεκα εἶναι καθάπερ καὶ τοὺς ἀστέρας ἀπό τε ἡλίου καὶ σελήνης τὴν ἰσχὺν λαμβάνοντας .

013 In response to their envy the Deity sent a second, more wonderful vision to Joseph, where it seemed to him that the sun took along the moon and the rest of the stars and came down to the earth and bowed down to him.
014Suspecting no ill-will from his brothers who were present, he told the vision to his father, asking him to explain its meaning.
015Jacob was pleased with the dream, for shrewdly pondering the prediction he rightly guessed its meaning and was glad of the great things it signified, since it declared his son's future prosperity. By the blessing of God, the time would come when he would be honoured and venerated by his parents and brothers.
016He reckoned that the moon and sun meant his mother and father; the one giving all things increase and nourishment, and the other shaping them and giving them other powers. The stars meant his brothers, eleven in number, like stars receiving their power from the sun and moon .

[17] Καὶ μὲν Ἰάκωβος τοιαύτην οὐκ ἀσυνέτως ἐποιήσατο τῆς ὄψεως τὴν κρίσιν , τοὺς δ’ ἀδελφοὺς τοῦ Ἰωσήπου σφόδρα ἐλύπησε τὰ προειρημένα καὶ διετέθησαν ὡς ἐπ’ ἀλλοτρίῳ τινὶ μέλλοντι τὰ σημαινόμενα διὰ τῶν ὀνειράτων ἀγαθὰ ἕξειν , ἀλλ’ οὐκ ἀδελφῷ καὶ ὧν συναπολαύσειν αὐτῷ εἰκὸς ἦν κοινωνοὺς ὡς τῆς γενέσεως οὕτως καὶ τῆς εὐδαιμονίας ἐσομένους ·
[18] ἀνελεῖν τε ὡρμήκεσαν τὸ μειράκιον , καὶ ταύτην κυρώσαντες τὴν βουλήν , ἐπεὶ τὰ τῆς συγκομιδῆς αὐτοῖς πέρας εἶχεν , ἐπὶ Σικίμων τραπέντες , χώρα δ’ ἐστὶν αὕτη βόσκειν ἀγαθὴ θρέμματα καὶ νομὰς ἐκφέρειν , αὐτόθι τῶν ποιμνίων ἐπεμελοῦντο μὴ προδηλώσαντες τῷ πατρὶ τὴν ἐκεῖσε ἄφιξιν .
[19] δὲ ὑπὸ τῆς ἀγνοίας καὶ τοῦ μηδὲ ἀπὸ τῶν ποιμνίων πρὸς αὐτὸν ἀφικέσθαι τινὰ τὸν περὶ τῶν παίδων αὐτῷ τἀληθὲς σημαίνειν δυνάμενον , σκυθρωπότερον τὴν περὶ αὐτῶν διάνοιαν λαμβάνων καὶ περιδεὴς ὢν πέμπει τὸν Ἰώσηπον εἰς τὰ ποίμνια μαθησόμενον τὰ περὶ τῶν ἀδελφῶν καὶ τί πράττοιεν σημανοῦντα .

017This was Jacob's shrewd judgment about the vision, but what he said caused great grief to Joseph's brothers, and made them feel alienated from him as if he kept for himself the good things his dreams signified, not sharing them in partnership as a brother should, for they who shared the same parentage should share in the same prosperity.
018They resolved to kill the young man, and after agreeing on that intention, when they had gathered in the harvest they went to Sikima, which is a good region for feeding livestock and for pasturage. There they fed their flocks, without telling their father that they had gone there.
019He was deeply worried at not knowing how they were and at receiving no message from the flocks with news about them; so, in his anxiety about them he sent Joseph to the flocks, to learn what had happened to his brothers and bring him word of what they were doing .
Chapter 3
.
[020-038]
Joseph's coat & his brothers' envy. Sold as a slave, he prospers in Egypt

[20] Οἱ δὲ τὸν ἀδελφὸν ὡς εἶδον πρὸς αὐτοὺς ἀφιγμένον , ἥσθησαν μέν , ἀλλ’ οὐχ ὡς ἐπ’ οἰκείου παρουσίᾳ καὶ πατρὸς ἀπεσταλκότος , ἀλλ’ ὡς ἐπ’ ἐχθροῦ καὶ ταῖς χερσὶν αὐτῶν κατὰ θείαν βούλησιν παραδοθέντος , ἀναιρεῖν τε ἤδη καὶ μὴ τὸν ἐν ποσὶν ὑπερβαλέσθαι καιρὸν ὡρμήκεσαν .
[21] οὕτως δ’ αὐτοὺς Ῥουβῆλος ὁρῶν ἔχοντας πρεσβύτατος αὐτῶν καὶ πρὸς τὴν πρᾶξιν ὡμονοηκότας ἐπειρᾶτο κατέχειν ὑποδεικνὺς τὸ μέγεθος τοῦ τολμήματος καὶ τὸ ἐπ’ αὐτῷ μύσος ,
[22] ὡς πονηρὸν μὲν καὶ θεῷ καὶ ἀνθρώποις ἀνόσιον δοκοῦν καὶ τὸ μὴ συγγενοῦς ἀνθρώπου χειρουργῆσαι φόνον , πολὺ μέντοι μιαρώτερον τὸ σφαγὴν ἀδελφοῦ δράσαντας ὀφθῆναι , πατήρ τε ἀναιρουμένῳ συναδικεῖται καὶ μήτηρ εἰς πένθος καὶ παιδὸς ἀποστέρησιν οὐ κατ’ ἀνθρώπινον γενομένην νόμον συγκατασπᾶται .
[23] τούτων οὖν αὐτῶν αἰδῶ λαβόντας καὶ τῷ λογισμῷ τί καὶ πείσονται τεθνηκότος αὐτοῖς παιδὸς ἀγαθοῦ καὶ νεωτάτου παραθεμένους ἀποσχέσθαι τοῦ τολμήματος παρεκάλει καὶ τὸν θεὸν δείσαντας , ὃς θεατὴς ἅμα καὶ μάρτυς ἤδη καὶ τῆς βουλῆς αὐτῶν τῆς ἐπὶ τὸν ἀδελφὸν γεγενημένος ἀποστάντας μὲν τῆς πράξεως ἀγαπήσει μετανοίᾳ καὶ τῷ σωφρονεῖν εἴξαντας ,
[24] προελθόντας δ’ ἐπὶ τοὖργον οὐκ ἔστιν ἣν οὐκ εἰσπράξεται τῆς ἀδελφοκτονίας δίκην μιάναντας αὐτοῦ‎ τὴν πανταχοῦ παροῦσαν πρόνοιαν καὶ μήτε τῶν ἐπ’ ἐρημίᾳ πραττομένων ὑστεροῦσαν μήτε τῶν κατὰ τὰς πόλεις · ὅπου γὰρ ἂν ἄνθρωπος χρὴ δοκεῖν ἐνταῦθα παρεῖναι καὶ θεόν .
[25] τό τε συνειδὸς αὐτοὺς τὸ ἴδιον ἕξειν ἐχθρὸν ἐπὶ τοῖς τολμηθεῖσιν ἔλεγεν , μήτε τοῖς ἀγαθὸν αὐτὸ ἔχουσι μήτε τοιοῦτον ὁποῖον αὐτοῖς συνοικήσει τὸν ἀδελφὸν ἀνελοῦσιν ἔστιν ἀποδράναι .

020The brothers were glad to see him coming to them, not as for the arrival of a relative, or one sent by their father, but as an enemy whom Providence had put into their hands, and were eager to kill him and not let their opportunity slip.
021When the eldest of them, Ruben, saw their mood and how they planned to achieve their purpose, he tried to restrain them by showing the enormity of what they were about and its dreadfulness.
022If it is a crime in the sight of God and men to murder even a person not related to them, how much more heinous and detestable is the slaughter of one’s brother, by which a father is treated unjustly and a mother is grieved, lamenting that her son is taken away from her in an inhuman way.
023So he implored them to respect their feelings and realise the harm caused to them by the death of so good a child, their youngest; and also to fear God, who saw and witnessed their plan against their brother; and how He would love them if they refrained from this act, yielding to repentance and good judgment.
024If, however, they proceeded with the fratricide, all sorts of punishments would follow, for scorning God's ever-present eye which is nowhere blind to what is done, whether in solitude or in cities. For wherever we are, we should know that God is also there.
025He said that if they did this terrible thing they would have their own conscience as an enemy which cannot be dismissed, whether it be good or such as would haunt them if they killed their brother .

[26] προσετίθει δὲ καὶ ταῦτα τοῖς προειρημένοις , ὡς ἀδελφὸν οὐδὲ ἀδικήσαντα κτείνειν ὅσιον , καλὸν δὲ καὶ τὸ μὴ μνησικακεῖν τοῖς οὕτω φίλοις ὑπὲρ ὧν ἁμαρτεῖν ἔδοξαν . Ἰώσηπον δὲ οὐδὲ πονηρὸν εἰς αὐτοὺς γεγενημένον διαφθεροῦσιν , τὸ τῆς ἡλικίας ἀσθενὲς ἔλεον μᾶλλον καὶ τὴν παρ’ ἡμῶν ἐρανίζεται κηδεμονίαν ·
[27] τε αἰτία τῆς ἀναιρέσεως πολὺ χείρω τὴν πρᾶξιν αὐτοῖς τίθησι , διὰ φθόνον τῶν ἐσομένων ἀγαθῶν αὐτῷ τοῦ ζῆν ἐξαγαγεῖν διεγνωκότων , ὧν τὸ ἴσον ἀπολαύσουσι κοινωνοῦντες αὐτῷ τῆς μετουσίας οὐκ ἀλλοτρίων ὄντων ἀλλ’ οἰκείων ·
[28] ἴδια γὰρ αὐτῶν ὑπολαμβάνειν , ὅσα θεὸς Ἰωσήπῳ δώσει , προσεκίνουν τὴν ὀργὴν καὶ διὰ τοῦτο καλῶς ἔχειν χαλεπωτέραν ἔσεσθαι νομίζειν , εἰ τὸν ὑπ’ αὐτοῦ‎ κεκριμένον τῶν ἐλπιζομένων ἀγαθῶν ἄξιον ἀποκτείναντες ἀφαιρήσονται τὸν θεὸν ταῦτα χαρίσεται .

026To all this he added that even if a brother had done them an injustice it was wrong to kill him, and that it is good not to remember the apparent sins of one’s friends. Surely they would not kill Joseph, who had done them no harm, "since his junior status should rather elicit our mercy and move us to care for him ."
027Their reason for killing him only made the act so much worse, since it was from envy at his future prosperity, in which they would have a share once he reached it, not as outsiders but as relatives.
028They should reckon as their own whatever God gave to Joseph, and that they would provoke Him to anger if they killed one whom He judged worthy of the good things hoped for, since by killing him they would prevent God from bestowing them upon him .

[29] Καὶ μὲν Ῥουβῆλος ταῦτα λέγων καὶ πρὸς τούτοις ἔτι πλείω καὶ δεόμενος ἐπειρᾶτο τῆς ἀδελφοκτονίας αὐτοὺς ἀποτρέπειν , ἐπεὶ δὲ οὐδὲν μετριωτέρους ὑπὸ τῶν λόγων ἑώρα γεγενημένους , ἀλλὰ σπεύδοντας ἐπὶ τὴν ἀναίρεσιν , συνεβούλευε τὸ κακὸν αὐτοὺς ἐπιεικέστερον ποιῆσαι τῷ τρόπῳ τῆς ἀναιρέσεως ·
[30] καὶ γὰρ ἄμεινον μὲν οἷς παρῄνεσε τὸ πρῶτον πεπεῖσθαι λέγων αὐτούς , ἐπεὶ δ’ ἐκράτησαν ὥστε ἀνελεῖν τὸν ἀδελφόν , οὐκ ἔσεσθαι σφόδρα κακοὺς οἷς νῦν παραινεῖ πεισθέντας · ἐν γὰρ τούτοις εἶναι καὶ τὸ ἔργον , ἐφ’ σπεύδουσιν , οὐ μέντοι τοιοῦτον , ἀλλ’ ὡς ἐν ἀπόροις κουφότερον .
[31] ἠξίου γὰρ αὐτοὺς αὐτόχειρας μὲν μὴ γενέσθαι τἀδελφοῦ , ῥίψαντας δὲ εἰς τὸν παρακείμενον λάκκον οὕτως ἀποθανεῖν ἐᾶσαι καὶ τό γε μὴ μιανθῆναι τὰς χεῖρας αὐτῶν κερδαίνειν . συναινεσάντων δὲ τούτοις τῶν νεανίσκων παραλαβὼν Ῥουβῆλος τὸ μειράκιον καὶ καλωδίου ἐκδήσας ἠρέμα καθίησιν εἰς τὸν λάκκον · καὶ γὰρ ἱκανῶς ἄνυδρος ἦν . καὶ μὲν τοῦτο ποιήσας ἀπαλλάσσεται κατὰ ζήτησιν χωρίων πρὸς νομὰς ἐπιτηδείων .

029Ruben said these and many other things, trying to divert them from fratricide. But seeing that his words had not mollified them and that they were in a hurry to be rid of him, he advised them to do a lesser evil, in the way they got rid of him.
030For as he had first urged them to refrain instead of taking revenge, now, since they insisted on disposing of their brother, he proposed a plan that would not be so gross a sin. In their present distress it would be less grievously wrong and would achieve what they wanted.
031They should not put their brother to death by their own hands, but throw him into the nearby cistern and so let him die without defiling their hands with his blood. To this the young men agreed, so Ruben took the lad and tied him with a rope and let him down gently into the cistern, which was dry; and then went off seeking pasturage for his flocks .

[29] Καὶ μὲν Ῥουβῆλος ταῦτα λέγων καὶ πρὸς τούτοις ἔτι πλείω καὶ δεόμενος ἐπειρᾶτο τῆς ἀδελφοκτονίας αὐτοὺς ἀποτρέπειν , ἐπεὶ δὲ οὐδὲν μετριωτέρους ὑπὸ τῶν λόγων ἑώρα γεγενημένους , ἀλλὰ σπεύδοντας ἐπὶ τὴν ἀναίρεσιν , συνεβούλευε τὸ κακὸν αὐτοὺς ἐπιεικέστερον ποιῆσαι τῷ τρόπῳ τῆς ἀναιρέσεως ·
[30] καὶ γὰρ ἄμεινον μὲν οἷς παρῄνεσε τὸ πρῶτον πεπεῖσθαι λέγων αὐτούς , ἐπεὶ δ’ ἐκράτησαν ὥστε ἀνελεῖν τὸν ἀδελφόν , οὐκ ἔσεσθαι σφόδρα κακοὺς οἷς νῦν παραινεῖ πεισθέντας · ἐν γὰρ τούτοις εἶναι καὶ τὸ ἔργον , ἐφ’ σπεύδουσιν , οὐ μέντοι τοιοῦτον , ἀλλ’ ὡς ἐν ἀπόροις κουφότερον .
[31] ἠξίου γὰρ αὐτοὺς αὐτόχειρας μὲν μὴ γενέσθαι τἀδελφοῦ , ῥίψαντας δὲ εἰς τὸν παρακείμενον λάκκον οὕτως ἀποθανεῖν ἐᾶσαι καὶ τό γε μὴ μιανθῆναι τὰς χεῖρας αὐτῶν κερδαίνειν . συναινεσάντων δὲ τούτοις τῶν νεανίσκων παραλαβὼν Ῥουβῆλος τὸ μειράκιον καὶ καλωδίου ἐκδήσας ἠρέμα καθίησιν εἰς τὸν λάκκον · καὶ γὰρ ἱκανῶς ἄνυδρος ἦν . καὶ μὲν τοῦτο ποιήσας ἀπαλλάσσεται κατὰ ζήτησιν χωρίων πρὸς νομὰς ἐπιτηδείων .

032But after Ruben had left another of Jacob's sons, Judas, seeing some of the Arab descendants of Ismael bringing spices and Syrian wares from the Galadene to Egypt, advised his brothers to draw Joseph from the cistern and sell him to the Arabs,
033for if he died far away among strangers, they would be innocent of this foul deed. This was agreed, so they drew Joseph up from the cistern and sold him to the merchants for twenty pounds. He was now seventeen years old.
034Ruben had planned to save Joseph, and unknown to his brothers came back to the cistern by night. When he got no answer to his call he was afraid they had killed him after he had left, and protested to his brothers; but when they said what they had done, Ruben ceased his mourning .

[35] ὡς δὲ ταῦτα περὶ τὸν Ἰώσηπον τοῖς ἀδελφοῖς ἐπέπρακτο , τί ποιήσαντες ἂν ἔξω τῆς ὑπονοίας παρὰ τῷ πατρὶ γενηθεῖεν ἐζήτουν , καὶ δὴ τὸν χιτωνίσκον , ὃν ἀφῖκτο μὲν πρὸς αὐτοὺς Ἰώσηπος ἐνδεδυμένος , περιῃρήκεσαν δ’ αὐτὸν ὅτε καθίεσαν εἰς τὸν λάκκον , ἔδοξεν αὐτοῖς διασπαράξασιν αἵματι τράγου μολῦναι καὶ τῷ πατρὶ δεῖξαι φέροντας , ὡς ἂν ὑπὸ θηρίων αὐτῷ φανείη διεφθαρμένος .
[36] καὶ τοῦτο ποιήσαντες ἧκον πρὸς τὸν πρεσβύτην ἤδη τῶν περὶ τὸν υἱὸν εἰς γνῶσιν ἀφιγμένον , ἔλεγον δὲ τὸν μὲν Ἰώσηπον οὔτ’ ἰδεῖν οὔθ’ κέχρηται συμφορᾷ μεμαθηκέναι , χιτῶνα δὲ τοῦτον εὑρεῖν ᾑμαγμένον καὶ λελακισμένον , ὅθεν αὐτοῖς ὑπόνοιαν εἶναι περιπεσόντα θηρίοις αὐτὸν ἀπολωλέναι , εἴγε τοῦτον ἐνδεδυμένος οἴκοθεν ἐστάλη .
[37] Ἰάκωβος δὲ ἐπὶ κουφοτέραις ὢν ἐλπίσιν ὡς ἠνδραποδισμένου δῆθεν αὐτῷ τοῦ παιδός , τοῦτον μὲν ἀφίησι τὸν λογισμόν , πίστιν δ’ αὐτοῦ‎ τῆς τελευτῆς ἐναργῆ τὸν χιτῶνα ὑπολαβών , καὶ γὰρ ἐγνώρισεν ἐκεῖνον αὐτὸν ὃν ἐνδεδυμένον ἐκπέμποι πρὸς τοὺς ἀδελφούς , ὡς ἐπὶ νεκρῷ τὸ λοιπὸν οὕτω διέκειτο ἐπὶ τῷ μειρακίῳ πενθῶν .
[38] καὶ ὡς ἑνὸς πατὴρ ὢν καὶ τῆς ἐξ ἄλλων παραμυθίας ἐστερημένος οὕτως ἦν παρὰ τῷ κακῷ , πρὶν τοῖς ἀδελφοῖς συμβαλεῖν εἰκάζων ὑπὸ θηρίων Ἰώσηπον ἀφανῆ γεγονέναι . ἐκαθέζετο δὲ σακκίον ἐξαψάμενος καὶ τῇ λύπῃ βαρύς , ὡς μήτε ὑπὸ παίδων παρηγορούντων αὐτὸν ῥᾴονα γενέσθαι μήτε κάμνοντα τοῖς πόνοις ἀπαγορεύειν .

035When Joseph's brothers had done this to him, they considered what to do in order to avoid any suspicion from their father. When they let him down into the cistern they had taken the coat Joseph was wearing when he came to them, and torn it in pieces and dipped it in goats' blood and brought it back to show to their father, to make him believe he had been killed by wild beasts.
036Then they came to the old man, but not before he had already learned what had happened to his son. They claimed not to have seen Joseph, nor to know what became of him, but that they found his coat bloody and torn to pieces, which made them suspect he had fallen among wild beasts and so met his death, if that was the coat he was wearing when he left home.
037Up to then, Jacob had hoped that his son had only been taken prisoner, but now he set that idea aside and took the coat as a clear sign that he was dead, for he knew that this was the coat he was wearing when he sent him to his brothers. From then on he grieved for the lad as dead, without taking any comfort in the rest.
038As though he were now the father of only one, he had grieved his loss before meeting Joseph's brothers, but now thought of Joseph as killed by wild beasts. He sat down in sackcloth and heavy mourning, and found no comfort from his sons, nor did his grief ease with the passing of time .
Chapter 4
.
[039-059]
Joseph's Loyalty & Chastity. He instructs and rejects the wife of Pentephres

[39] Ἰώσηπον δὲ πωλούμενον ὑπὸ τῶν ἐμπόρων ὠνησάμενος Πετεφρὴς ἀνὴρ Αἰγύπτιος ἐπὶ τῶν Φαραώθου μαγείρων τοῦ βασιλέως εἶχεν ἐν πάσῃ τιμῇ καὶ παιδείαν τε τὴν ἐλευθέριον ἐπαίδευε καὶ διαίτῃ χρῆσθαι κρείττονι τῆς ἐπὶ δούλῳ τύχης ἐπέτρεπεν ἐγχειρίζει τε τὴν τῶν κατὰ τὸν οἶκον αὐτῷ πρόνοιαν .
[40] δὲ τούτων τε ἀπέλαυε καὶ τὴν ἀρετήν , ἥτις ἦν περὶ αὐτόν , οὐδ’ ὑπὸ τῆς μεταβολῆς ἐγκατέλιπεν , ἀλλὰ διέδειξε τὸ φρόνημα κρατεῖν τῶν ἐν τῷ βίῳ δυσκόλων δυνάμενον , οἷς ἂν παρῇ γνησίως καὶ μὴ πρὸς τὰς εὐπραγίας τὰς κατὰ καιρὸν μόνον ἡρμοσμένον .

039Joseph was sold by the merchants and bought by the chief cook of king Pharaothes, an Egyptian named Pentephres, who held him in high esteem, gave him an education fit for a free man and assigned him better nourishment than was given to slaves, and entrusted to him the care of his house.
040While enjoying these advantages, his changed condition did not draw him away from his previous virtue, but he showed how wisdom can govern life's unruly passions, in one who is really wise and does not merely put it on for a show in order to succeed .

[41] Τῆς γὰρ τοῦ δεσπότου γυναικὸς διά τε τὴν εὐμορφίαν καὶ τὴν περὶ τὰς πράξεις αὐτοῦ‎ δεξιότητα ἐρωτικῶς διατεθείσης καὶ νομιζούσης , εἰ ποιήσειεν αὐτῷ τοῦτο φανερόν , ῥᾳδίως πείσειν αὐτὸν εἰς ὁμιλίαν ἐλθεῖν εὐτύχημα ἡγησάμενον τὸ τὴν δέσποιναν αὐτοῦ‎ δεηθῆναι ,
[42] καὶ πρὸς τὸ σχῆμα τῆς τότε δουλείας ἀλλ’ οὐ πρὸς τὸν τρόπον ἀφορώσης τὸν καὶ παρὰ τὴν μεταβολὴν παραμένοντα τήν τε ἐπιθυμίαν αὐτῷ ποιησάσης καταφανῆ καὶ λόγους προσφερούσης περὶ μίξεως , παρέπεμπε τὴν ἀξίωσιν οὐ κρίνας ὅσιον εἶναι τοιαύτην αὐτῇ διδόναι χάριν , ἐν τοῦ πριαμένου καὶ τοσαύτης ἠξιωκότος τιμῆς ἀδικίαν συνέβαινεν εἶναι καὶ ὕβριν ,
[43] ἀλλὰ κρατεῖν τε τοῦ πάθους κἀκείνην παρεκάλει τὴν ἀπόγνωσιν τοῦ τεύξεσθαι τῆς ἐπιθυμίας προβαλλόμενος , σταλήσεσθαι γάρ τε αὐτῇ τοῦτο μὴ παρούσης ἐλπίδος , αὐτός τε πάντα μᾶλλον ὑπομενεῖν ἔλεγεν πρὸς τοῦτο καταπειθὴς ἔσεσθαι · καὶ γὰρ εἰ τῇ δεσποίνῃ δοῦλον ὄντα δεῖ ποιεῖν μηδὲν ἐναντίον , πρὸς τὰ τοιαῦτα τῶν προσταγμάτων ἀντιλογία πολλὴν ἂν ἔχοι παραίτησιν .
[44] τῆς δ’ ἔτι μᾶλλον ἐπέτεινε τὸν ἔρωτα τὸ μὴ προσδοκώσῃ τὸν Ἰώσηπον ἀντισχεῖν καὶ δεινῶς ὑπὸ τοῦ κακοῦ πολιορκουμένη δευτέρᾳ πάλιν πείρᾳ προεθυμεῖτο κατεργάσασθαι .

041For when his master's wife had fallen in love with him, both for his handsome appearance and his management skill, and thought that if she declared her love to him she could persuade him to make love to her and that he would regard himself as fortunate that his mistress should ask him,
042Seeing only his state of slavery but not his moral character, which continued after his change of status, she revealed her feelings and spoke to him of intercourse; but he rejected her words, not thinking it true to his religion to yield in this, and do such an injury and insult to the man who had purchased him and given him such honours.
043He urged her to govern her passion, showing the impossibility of what she desired, which he thought could be quelled if she had no hope of success. He himself would endure everything, he said, rather than be persuaded to it. Even though a slave like him should do nothing against the wishes of his mistress, he would be excused where his refusal was to this sort of command.
044But Joseph's unexpected opposition stoked her love for him still further, and obsessed with this wicked passion, she resolved to achieve her goal by a second attempt .

[45] Δημοτελοῦς οὖν ἑορτῆς ἐπιστάσης , καθ’ ἣν εἰς τὴν πανήγυριν καὶ γυναιξὶ φοιτᾶν νόμιμον ἦν , σκήπτεται νόσον πρὸς τὸν ἄνδρα θηρωμένη μόνωσιν καὶ σχολὴν εἰς τὸ δεηθῆναι τοῦ Ἰωσήπου , καὶ γενομένης αὐτῇ ταύτης λιπαρεστέρους ἔτι τῶν πρώτων αὐτῷ προσηνέγκατο λόγους ,
[46] ὡς καλῶς μὲν εἶχεν αὐτὸν μετὰ τὴν ἐξ ἀρχῆς δέησιν εἶξαι καὶ μηδὲ ἀντειρηκέναι κατά τε τὴν τῆς παρακαλούσης ἐντροπὴν καὶ τὴν τοῦ πάθους ὑπερβολήν , ὑφ’ οὗ βιασθείη δέσποινα οὖσα τοῦ κατὰ ταύτην ἀξιώματος ταπεινοτέρα γενέσθαι , φρονήσει δὲ καὶ νῦν ἄμεινον ἐνδοὺς καὶ τὸ ἐπὶ τοῖς παρελθοῦσιν ἄγνωμον διορθώσεται ·
[47] εἴτε γὰρ δευτέραν δέησιν ἐξεδέχετο , ταύτην γεγονέναι καὶ μετὰ πλείονος σπουδῆς · νόσον τε γὰρ προφασίσασθαι καὶ τῆς ἑορτῆς καὶ τῆς πανηγύρεως τὴν πρὸς αὐτὸν ὁμιλίαν προτιμῆσαι · εἴτε τοῖς πρώτοις ὑπὸ ἀπιστίας ἀντέκρουσε λογισμοῖς , τοῦ μηδεμίαν κακουργίαν εἶναι κρίνειν σύμβολον τὸ τοῖς αὐτοῖς ἐπιμένειν .
[48] προσδοκᾶν τε τῶν παρόντων ἀγαθῶν ὄνησιν , ὧν ἤδη μετέχειν , προσθέμενον αὐτῆς τῷ ἔρωτι καὶ μειζόνων ἀπολαύσειν ὑπήκοον γενόμενον , ἄμυναν δὲ καὶ μῖσος παρ’ αὐτῆς ἀποστραφέντα τὴν ἀξίωσιν καὶ τοῦ χαρίσασθαι τῇ δεσποίνῃ τὴν τῆς σωφροσύνης δόκησιν ἐπίπροσθε θέμενον .
[49] οὐ γὰρ αὐτὸν τοῦτο ὠφελήσειν τραπείσης εἰς κατηγορίαν αὐτοῦ‎ καὶ καταψευσαμένης πεῖραν ἐπὶ τἀνδρί , προσέξειν δὲ μᾶλλον τοῖς αὐτῆς λόγοις Πετεφρὴν τοῖς ἐκείνου , κἂν ὅτι μάλιστα ἀπὸ τῆς ἀληθείας φέρωνται .

045As there was a public festival coming up, when it was customare for women to join the general assembly, she pretended to her husband to be sick, in order to gain the solitude and leisure to ask Joseph again, and finding it, she spoke to him more gently than before.
046He really should have yielded to her first request, she said, and not have repulsed her, respecting the dignity of the one soliciting him and the heat of her passion, which drove his mistress to descend beneath her dignity, but now he should follow wiser counsel, and purge his previous foolishness.
047Whether he was expecting her to repeat her request more warmly, now that she had pretended sickness on this account and preferred his company over the festival and its splendour, or whether he had at first rejected her overtures because he did not think she was serious, the fact that she now persisted with them was a sign that it was not a trap.
048If he submitted to her, he would proceed to even more good things, but he must expect revenge and hatred from her if he rejected her desires, preferring his precious chastity above his mistress.
049In that case he would gain nothing, because she would then accuse him and falsely pretend to her husband that he had attacked her chastity, and Pentephres would heed her words rather than his, no matter if they were far from the truth .

[50] Ταῦτα λεγούσης τῆς γυναικὸς καὶ δακρυούσης οὔτε οἶκτος αὐτὸν μὴ σωφρονεῖν ἔπεισεν οὔτ’ ἠνάγκασε φόβος , ἀλλὰ ταῖς δεήσεσιν ἀντέσχε καὶ ταῖς ἀπειλαῖς οὐκ ἐνέδωκε καὶ παθεῖν ἀδίκως καὶ ὑπομένειν τι τῶν χαλεπωτέρων εἵλετο μᾶλλον τῶν παρόντων ἀπολαύειν χαρισάμενος ἐφ’ οἷς ἂν αὑτῷ συνειδῇ δικαίως ἀπολουμένῳ .
[51] γάμου τε αὐτὴν ὑπεμίμνησκε καὶ τῆς πρὸς τὸν ἄνδρα συμβιώσεως καὶ τούτοις τὸ πλέον νέμειν προσκαίρῳ τῆς ἐπιθυμίας ἡδονῇ παρεκάλει , τῆς μὲν καὶ μετάνοιαν ἑξούσης αὖθις ἐπ’ ὀδύνῃ γενησομένην οὐκ ἐπὶ διορθώσει τῶν ἡμαρτημένων καὶ φόβον του μὴ κατάφωρον γενέσθαι καὶ χάριν τοῦ λαθεῖν ἀγνοουμένου τοῦ κακοῦ ,
[52] τῆς δὲ πρὸς τὸν ἄνδρα κοινωνίας ἀπόλαυσιν ἐχούσης ἀκίνδυνον καὶ προσέτι πολλὴν τὴν ἀπὸ τοῦ συνειδότος καὶ πρὸς τὸν θεὸν παρρησίαν καὶ πρὸς τοὺς ἀνθρώπους · καὶ ὡς αὐτοῦ‎ δεσπόσει μᾶλλον μείνασα καθαρὰ καὶ δεσποίνης ἐξουσίᾳ χρήσεται πρὸς αὐτόν , ἀλλ’ οὐ συνεξαμαρτάνοντος αἰδοῖ · πολὺ δὲ κρεῖττον εἶναι θαρρεῖν ἐπὶ γινωσκομένοις τοῖς εὖ βεβιωμένοις ἐπὶ λανθανούσῃ κακοπραγίᾳ .

050Though the woman said this with tears in her eyes, Joseph was neither swayed from his chastity by pity, nor compelled by fear to give in to her, but rejected her pleas and resisted her threats. He chose to suffer unjustly and bear the worst penalty rather than take an offer that in his conscience he knew would merit death.
051He reminded her that she should have intercourse only with her husband, and should prefer this to the brief pleasure of lust, which would only bring her regret and grief and could not be mended after the sin was done; and the fear of being caught, and how secrecy lasts only while the evil stays unknown.
052With her husband she could enjoy intimacy without risk, and the security of a good conscience, in the sight of both God and other people. By preserving chastity, she could exercise authority over him better as his mistress than if both were ashamed of sinning together, for it is far better to know one has lived well than to have to rely on concealing evil .

[53] Ταῦτα λέγων καὶ ἔτι πλείω τούτοις ὅμοια τὴν τῆς γυναικὸς ὁρμὴν ἐπέχειν ἐπειρᾶτο καὶ τὸ πάθος αὐτῆς εἰς λογισμὸν ἐπιστρέφειν , δὲ βιαιότερον ἐχρῆτο τῇ σπουδῇ καὶ ἐπιβαλοῦσα τὰς χεῖρας ἀναγκάζειν ἀπογνοῦσα τὸ πείθειν ἤθελεν .
[54] ὡς δ’ ἐξέφυγεν ὑπὸ ὀργῆς Ἰώσηπος προσκαταλιπὼν καὶ τὸ ἱμάτιον , κατεχούσης καὶ γὰρ αὐτὸν ἐκ τούτου μεθεὶς ἐξεπήδησε τοῦ δωματίου , περιδεὴς γενομένη , μὴ κατείπῃ πρὸς τὸν ἄνδρα αὐτῆς , καὶ τῆς ὕβρεως περιαλγῶς ἔχουσα φθάσαι καταψεύσασθαι πρὸς τὸν Πετεφρὴν ἔγνω τοῦ Ἰωσήπου , καὶ τούτῳ τῷ τρόπῳ τιμωρῆσαι μὲν αὐτῇ δεινῶς ὑπερηφανημένῃ , προλαβεῖν δὲ τὴν διαβολὴν σοφὸν ἅμα καὶ γυναικεῖον ἡγήσατο .
[55] καὶ καθῆστο μὲν κατηφὴς καὶ συγκεχυμένη τὴν ἐπὶ τῷ διαμαρτεῖν τῆς ἐπιθυμίας λύπην ὡς ἐπὶ πείρᾳ διαφθορᾶς πλασαμένη μετ’ ὀργῆς , ἐλθόντι δὲ τἀνδρὶ καὶ πρὸς τὴν ὄψιν ταραχθέντι καὶ πυνθανομένῳ τὴν αἰτίαν τῆς κατηγορίας τῆς Ἰωσήπου κατήρξατο καί " τεθναίης , εἶπεν , ἄνερ , πονηρὸν δοῦλον κοίτην μιᾶναι τὴν σὴν θελήσαντα κόλασον ,
[56] ὃς οὔθ’ οἷος ὢν εἰς τὸν ἡμέτερον οἶκον ἀφῖκται μνησθεὶς ἐσωφρόνησεν οὔθ’ ὧν ἐκ τῆς σῆς χρηστότητος ἔτυχεν , ἀλλ’ ἀχάριστος ὢν ἄν , εἰ μὴ πάντα παρεῖχεν αὑτὸν ἀγαθὸν εἰς ἡμᾶς , ἐπεβούλευσεν ὑβρίσαι γάμον τὸν σόν , καὶ ταῦτ’ ἐν ἑορτῇ τὴν σὴν ἀπουσίαν παραφυλάξας · ὡς ὅσα καὶ μέτριος ἐδόκει πρότερον διὰ τὸν ἐκ σοῦ φόβον ἠρέμει καὶ οὐχὶ φύσει χρηστὸς ἦν .
[57] τοιοῦτον δ’ ἄρα τὸ παρ’ ἀξίαν αὐτὸν καὶ παρ’ ἐλπίδας εἰς τιμὴν παρελθεῖν ἐποίησεν , ὡς δέον τὴν τῆς κτήσεως τῆς σῆς πίστιν καὶ τὴν οἰκονομίαν λαβεῖν ἐξεγένετο καὶ τῶν πρεσβυτέρων
[58] οἰκετῶν προτιμηθῆναι τούτῳ καὶ τῆς σῆς ψαύειν γυναικός . παυσαμένη δὲ τῶν λόγων ἐπεδείκνυεν αὐτῷ τὸ ἱμάτιον , ὡς ὅτ’ ἐπεχείρει βιάσασθαι καταλιπόντος αὐτό . Πετεφρὴς δὲ μήτε δακρυούσῃ τῇ γυναικὶ μήθ’ οἷς ἔλεγε καὶ εἶδεν ἀπιστεῖν ἔχων τῷ τε πρὸς αὐτὴν ἔρωτι πλέον νέμων ἐπὶ μὲν τὴν τῆς ἀληθείας ἐξέτασιν οὐκ ἐτρέπετο ,
[59] δοὺς δὲ σωφρονεῖν τῇ γυναικὶ πονηρὸν δ’ εἶναι κατακρίνας τὸν Ἰώσηπον τὸν μὲν εἰς τὴν τῶν κακούργων εἱρκτὴν ἐνέβαλεν , ἐπὶ δὲ τῇ γυναικὶ καὶ μᾶλλον ἐφρόνει κοσμιότητα καὶ σωφροσύνην αὐτῇ μαρτυρῶν .

053By saying this and more, he tried to curb the woman's violent passion and to turn her feelings towards what was reasonable, but she grew more ungovernable and intense, and in despair of persuading him, she laid hands upon him to force him.
054But Joseph fled from her anger, leaving his garment behind in her grasp as he rushed from her chamber, and she was very afraid that he would tell her husband, and much insulted by the insult he had offered her. She resolved to accuse Joseph falsely to Pentephres and so to revenge herself on him for scorning her, considering it a wise and womanly thing to forestall his accusation.
055So she sat in silent disarray, showing such anger that her sorrow for her frustrated lust, seemed to be for the attempt upon her chastity. When her husband came home he was troubled at how she looked and asked about the cause, she began to accuse Joseph and said, "My husband, you may die if you do not punish the wicked slave who has tried to defile your bed.
056He has forgotten who he was when he came to our house, so as to behave modestly, or the favours he had received from your bounty. What an ungrateful man he must be not to behave himself well toward us in all things. He planned to abuse your wife, availing of your absence during the festival. His former apparent modesty was only out of fear of you, but clearly he was not of good character.
057This has come from his being honoured beyond his merits and his hopes, so he thought that being entrusted with your estate and your household and being set above your oldest servants, he might also be allowed to touch your wife ."
058When she finished talking, she showed him his garment, as though he had left it behind when he attempted to force her. Pentephres, unable to disbelieve his wife's tears and what she said and what he saw, and misled by his love for his wife, did not set to examining the truth.
059Assuming his wife to be chaste and condemning Joseph as wicked, he threw him into prison for wrongdoing, and thought even more highly of his wife, praising her beauty and decency .
Chapter 5
.
[060-090]
Joseph's time in prison. Released, he interprets Pharao's dreams

[60] Ἰώσηπος μὲν οὖν πάντ’ ἐπὶ τῷ θεῷ ποιησάμενος τὰ περὶ αὐτὸν οὔτ’ εἰς ἀπολογίαν οὔτ’ ἐπ’ ἀκριβῆ τῶν γεγονότων δήλωσιν ἐτράπη , τὰ δεσμὰ δὲ καὶ τὴν ἀνάγκην σιγῶν ὑπῆλθεν ἀμείνονα ἔσεσθαι τῶν δεδεκότων θαρρῶν τὸν τὴν αἰτίαν τῆς συμφορᾶς καὶ τὴν ἀλήθειαν εἰδότα θεόν , οὗ πεῖραν τῆς προνοίας εὐθὺς ἐλάμβανεν ·
[61] γὰρ δεσμοφύλαξ τήν τε ἐπιμέλειαν καὶ τὴν πίστιν αὐτοῦ‎ κατανοήσας ἐν οἷς τάξειεν αὐτὸν καὶ τὸ ἀξίωμα τῆς μορφῆς ὑπανίει τε τῶν δεσμῶν καὶ τὸ δεινὸν ἐλαφρότερον αὐτῷ καὶ κοῦφον ἐποίει , διαίτῃ δὲ χρῆσθαι κρείττονι δεσμωτῶν ἐπέτρεπε .
[62] τῶν δὲ ἐν τοῖς αὐτοῖς ὄντων εἴποτε παύσαιντο τῆς περὶ τὰ ἔργα ταλαιπωρίας εἰς ὁμιλίαν , οἷα φιλεῖ κατὰ κοινωνίαν τῆς ὁμοίας συμφορᾶς , τρεπομένων καὶ παρ’ ἀλλήλων τὰς αἰτίας ἐφ’ αἷς κατακριθεῖεν ἀναπυνθανομένων ,
[63] οἰνοχόος τοῦ βασιλέως καὶ σφόδρα αὐτῷ τιμώμενος κατ’ ὀργὴν δεδεμένος καὶ συνδιαφέρων τῷ Ἰωσήπῳ τὰς πέδας συνηθέστερος αὐτῷ μᾶλλον ἐγένετο καί , συνέσει γὰρ ἐδόκει αὐτὸν προύχειν , ὄναρ ἰδὼν ἐξέθετο παρακαλῶν δηλοῦν εἴ τι σημαίνει , μεμφόμενος ὅτι τοῖς ἐκ τοῦ βασιλέως κακοῖς ἔτι τὸ θεῖον αὐτῷ καὶ τὰς ἐκ τῶν ὀνειράτων φροντίδας προστίθησιν .

060Entrusting all his concerns to God, Joseph did not seek either to defend himself or to go into the details of what had occurred, but silently bore his chains and his plight, trusting that God, who knew the cause and the truth about his disaster was better than his captors.
061And he soon had proof of providence, for noting his care and fidelity in the tasks given to him and the dignity of his bearing, the prison guard eased his chains and made his situation milder and more bearable for him, and also allowed him better rations than those of the other prisoners.
062As is usual among partners in misfortune, when their chores were done, the prisoners turned to conversation and told each other the reasons why they were sentenced.
063Among them the king's wine-waiter, once highly regarded but now imprisoned due to a fit of anger, shared a chain with Joseph and grew familiar with him and noting his intelligence, told him of a dream he had. He asked him to interpret its meaning, complaining that, on top of the penalty imposed by the king, the Deity was adding more anxieties by his dreams .

[64] Ἔλεγε δ’ οὖν ἰδεῖν κατὰ τοὺς ὕπνους τριῶν κλημάτων πεφυκυίας ἀμπέλου βότρυς ἐξ ἑκάστου ἀποκρέμασθαι μεγάλους ἤδη καὶ πρὸς τρύγητον ὡραίους , καὶ τούτους αὐτὸς ἀποθλίβειν εἰς φιάλην ὑπέχοντος τοῦ βασιλέως διηθήσας τε τὸ γλεῦκος δοῦναι τῷ βασιλεῖ πιεῖν , κἀκεῖνον δέξασθαι κεχαρισμένως .
[65] τὸ μὲν οὖν ἑωραμένον ἐδήλου τοιοῦτον ὄν , ἠξίου δ’ εἴ τι μεμοίραται συνέσεως φράζειν αὐτῷ τὴν πρόρρησιν τῆς ὄψεως . δὲ θαρρεῖν τε παρεκάλει καὶ προσδοκᾶν ἐν τρισὶν ἡμέραις ἀπολυθήσεσθαι τῶν δεσμῶν τοῦ βασιλέως ποθήσαντος αὐτοῦ‎ τὴν διακονίαν καὶ πάλιν εἰς ταύτην αὐτὸν ἐπανάξοντος ·
[66] καρπὸν γὰρ ἐσήμαινεν ἀμπέλινον ἐπ’ ἀγαθῷ τὸν θεὸν ἀνθρώποις παρασχεῖν , ὃς αὐτῷ τε ἐκείνῳ σπένδεται καὶ πίστιν ἀνθρώποις καὶ φιλίαν ὁμηρεύει , διαλύων μὲν ἔχθρας τὰ πάθη δὲ καὶ τὰς λύπας ἐξαιρῶν τοῖς προσφερομένοις αὐτὸν καὶ πρὸς ἡδονὴν ὑποφέρων .
[67] τοῦτον οὖν φῂς ἐκ τριῶν ἀποθλιβέντα βοτρύων χερσὶ ταῖς σαῖς προσέσθαι τὸν βασιλέα · καλὴν τοίνυν ἴσθι σοι τὴν ὄψιν γεγενημένην καὶ προμηνύουσαν ἄφεσιν τῆς παρούσης ἀνάγκης ἐν τοσαύταις ἡμέραις , ἐξ ὅσων κλημάτων τὸν καρπὸν ἐτρύγησας κατὰ τοὺς ὕπνους .
[68] μέμνησο μέντοι τούτων πειραθεὶς τοῦ προκαταγγείλαντός σοι τὰ ἀγαθά , καὶ γενόμενος ἐν ἐξουσίᾳ μὴ περιίδῃς ἡμᾶς ἐν οἷς καταλείψεις πρὸς δεδηλώκαμεν ἀπερχόμενος · οὐδὲν γὰρ ἐξαμαρτόντες ἐν δεσμοῖς γεγόναμεν ,
[69] ἀλλ’ ἀρετῆς ἕνεκα καὶ σωφροσύνης τὰ τῶν κακούργων ὑπομένειν κατεκρίθημεν οὐδέ γε μετ’ οἰκείας ἡδονῆς τὸν ταῦθ’ ἡμᾶς ἐργασάμενον ὑβρίσαι θελήσαντες . τῷ μὲν οὖν οἰνοχόῳ χαίρειν κατὰ τὸ εἰκὸς ἀκούσαντι τοιαύτης τῆς τοῦ ὀνείρατος ἐξηγήσεως ὑπῆρχε καὶ περιμένειν τῶν δεδηλωμένων τὴν τελευτήν .

064He said that in his sleep he saw three clusters of grapes hanging upon three branches of a vine, large and ready for picking, and that he squeezed them into a cup held by the king, and when he had strained the must he gave it to the king to drink, who took it with satisfaction.
065He explained that this was what he saw, and asked him, if he understood such matters, what this vision foretold. He told him to take heart and to expect to be set free from his chains in three days, for the king required his service and was about to restore him to it.
066For God bestows the fruit of the vine for our good and wine is poured out for man and is the pledge of fidelity and friendship, resolving quarrels and banishing passion and grief from those who use it and giving them pleasure.
067"You say you squeezed this wine from three clusters of grapes with your hands, and gave it to the king. Then realise that this good vision granted to you predicts your release from this plight in the same number of days as the branches from which, in your sleep, you picked the grapes.
068When it turns out so, remember that I predicted this good fortune for you, and when you are back in office, do not forget us here where you will leave us while you go to what we have foretold. For we are not in prison for any crime.
069It is because of virtue and self-control that we are condemned to suffer like criminals and because we were unwilling, for our own pleasure, to wrong the man who did this to us ." Of course, the wine-waiter was glad to hear this interpretation of his dream and looked forward to its coming true .

[70] Δοῦλος δέ τις ἐπὶ τῶν σιτοποιῶν τεταγμένος τοῦ βασιλέως συνδεδεμένος τῷ οἰνοχόῳ τοιαύτην ποιησαμένου τοῦ Ἰωσήπου περὶ τῆς ὄψεως ἐκείνῳ τὴν ἀπόφασιν εὔελπις ὤν , καὶ γὰρ καὐτὸς ὄναρ ἦν τεθεαμένος , ἠξίωσε τὸν Ἰώσηπον φράσαι , τί κἀκείνῳ δηλοῦν βούλεται τὰ διὰ τῆς παρελθούσης νυκτὸς ὀφθέντα .
[71] ἦν δὲ τοιαῦτα · " τρία , φησί , κανᾶ φέρειν ὑπὲρ τῆς κεφαλῆς ἔδοξα , δύο μὲν ἄρτων πλέα , τὸ δὲ τρίτον ὄψου τε καὶ ποικίλων βρωμάτων οἷα βασιλεῦσι σκευάζεται · καταπταμένους δ’ οἰωνοὺς ἅπαντα δαπανῆσαι μηδένα λόγον αὐτοῦ‎ ποιουμένους ἀποσοβοῦντος .
[72] καὶ μὲν ὁμοίαν τὴν πρόρρησιν ἔσεσθαι τῇ τοῦ οἰνοχόου προσεδόκα · δὲ Ἰώσηπος συμβαλὼν τῷ λογισμῷ τὸ ὄναρ καὶ πρὸς αὐτὸν εἰπών , ὡς ἐβούλετ’ ἂν ἀγαθῶν ἑρμηνευτὴς αὐτῷ γεγονέναι καὶ οὐχ οἵων τὸ ὄναρ αὐτῷ δηλοῖ , λέγει δύο τὰς πάσας ἔτι τοῦ ζῆν αὐτὸν ἔχειν ἡμέρας · τὰ γὰρ κανᾶ τοῦτο σημαίνειν ·
[73] τῇ τρίτῃ δ’ αὐτὸν ἀνασταυρωθέντα βορὰν ἔσεσθαι πετεινοῖς οὐδὲν ἀμύνειν αὑτῷ δυνάμενον . καὶ δὴ ταῦτα τέλος ὅμοιον οἷς Ἰώσηπος εἶπεν ἀμφοτέροις ἔλαβε · τῇ γὰρ ἡμέρᾳ τῇ προειρημένῃ γενέθλιον τεθυκὼς βασιλεὺς τὸν μὲν ἐπὶ τῶν σιτοποιῶν ἀνεσταύρωσε , τὸν δὲ οἰνοχόον τῶν δεσμῶν ἀπολύσας ἐπὶ τῆς αὐτῆς ὑπηρεσίας κατέστησεν .

070But another slave who had been a baker for the king was also a prisoner with the wine-waiter, and he took hope, hearing Joseph's interpretation of the other's vision, for he too had seen a dream. So he asked Joseph to tell him the meaning of what he had seen the night before.
071They were as follows : "I thought," he said "I was carrying three baskets on my head, two of them full of loaves and the third full of pastries and such other kinds of food as are prepared for kings. Then birds flew up and ate them all, regardless of my efforts to drive them away."
072He expected a prediction like that of the wine-waiter, but after pondering and thinking about the dream, Joseph told him he would rather interpret good things for him than those warned about in his dream. He said he had only two full days more to live, for that was what the baskets meant.
073On the third day he would be crucified and become food for the birds, unable to help himself. Both outcomes were exactly as Joseph foretold, for on the predicted third day, when the king celebrated his birth-day, he crucified the chief baker, but set the wine-waiter free from his chains and restored him to his former service .

[74] Ἰώσηπον δὲ διετῆ χρόνον τοῖς δεσμοῖς κακοπαθοῦντα καὶ μηδὲν ὑπὸ τοῦ οἰνοχόου κατὰ μνήμην τῶν προειρημένων ὠφελούμενον θεὸς ἀπέλυσε τῆς εἱρκτῆς τοιαύτην αὐτῷ τὴν ἀπαλλαγὴν μηχανησάμενος ·
[75] Φαραώθης βασιλεὺς ὑπὸ τὴν αὐτὴν ἑσπέραν ὄψεις ἐνυπνίων θεασάμενος δύο καὶ μετ’ αὐτῶν τὴν ἑκατέρας ἐξήγησιν ταύτης μὲν ἠμνημόνησε , τῶν δὲ ὀνειράτων κατέσχεν . ἀχθόμενος οὖν ἐπὶ τοῖς ἑωραμένοις , καὶ γὰρ ἐδόκει σκυθρωπὰ ταῦτ’ αὐτῷ , συνεκάλει μεθ’ ἡμέραν Αἰγυπτίων τοὺς λογιωτάτους χρῄζων μαθεῖν τῶν ὀνειράτων τὴν κρίσιν .
[76] ἀπορούντων δ’ ἐκείνων ἔτι μᾶλλον βασιλεὺς ἐταράττετο . τὸν δὲ οἰνοχόον ὁρῶντα τοῦ Φαραώθου τὴν σύγχυσιν ὑπέρχεται μνήμη τοῦ Ἰωσήπου καὶ τῆς περὶ τῶν ὀνειράτων συνέσεως ,
[77] καὶ προσελθὼν ἐμήνυσεν αὐτῷ τὸν Ἰώσηπον τήν τε ὄψιν , ἣν αὐτὸς εἶδεν ἐν τῇ εἱρκτῇ , καὶ τὸ ἀποβὰν ἐκείνου φράσαντος , ὅτι τε σταυρωθείη κατὰ τὴν αὐτὴν ἡμέραν ἐπὶ τῶν σιτοποιῶν κἀκείνῳ τοῦτο συμβαίη κατὰ ἐξήγησιν ὀνείρατος Ἰωσήπου προειπόντος .
[78] δεδέσθαι δὲ τοῦτον μὲν ὑπὸ Πετεφροῦ τοῦ ἐπὶ τῶν μαγείρων ὡς δοῦλον , λέγειν δ’ αὐτὸν Ἑβραίων ἐν ὀλίγοις εἶναι γένους ἅμα καὶ τῆς τοῦ πατρὸς δόξης . τοῦτον οὖν μεταπεμψάμενος καὶ μὴ διὰ τὴν ἄρτι κακοπραγίαν αὐτοῦ‎ καταγνοὺς μαθήσῃ τὰ
[79] ὑπὸ τῶν ὀνειράτων σοι δηλούμενα . κελεύσαντος οὖν τοῦ βασιλέως εἰς ὄψιν αὐτοῦ‎ τὸν Ἰώσηπον παραγαγεῖν τὸν μὲν ἥκουσιν ἄγοντες οἱ κεκελευσμένοι τημελήσαντες κατὰ πρόσταγμα τοῦ βασιλέως .

074Without the wine-waiter giving him any help in memory of his predictions, Joseph was set free after bearing his chains for two years, for God devised this means of release for him.
075On one single evening Pharaothes the king saw in his sleep two visions along with their meanings. Though he forgot the latter, he remembered the actual dreams and was troubled at what he had seen, for it seemed to him to portend no good for him. Next day he called together the wisest of the Egyptians to learn from them the meaning of his dreams.
076When they were at a loss the king was even more troubled. Seeing Pharaothes in turmoil the wine-waiter recalled the memory of Joseph and his understanding of dreams.
077So he went to him to tell of Joseph and the vision he had seen in prison and how the upshot proved to be just as he had said; and how the chief baker was crucified on the same day, also according to Joseph's prediction, based on his dream.
078He told how the man, born to a noble Hebrew family and whose father was renowned, was kept chained as a slave by the head cook, Pentephres. "If you just send for this man and not scorn his present misfortune, you will learn the meaning of your dreams ."
079So the king told them to bring Joseph into his presence, and his servants went as ordered and having taken care of him, brought him in, according to the royal command .

[80] δὲ τῆς δεξιᾶς αὐτοῦ‎ λαβόμενος " νεανία , φησί , σὺ γάρ μοι νῦν ἄριστος καὶ συνίσειν ἱκανώτατος ὑπὸ οἰκέτου τοὐμοῦ μεμαρτύρησαι , τῶν αὐτῶν ἀγαθῶν , ὧν καὶ τούτῳ μετέδωκας ἀξίωσον κἀμὲ φράσας ὅσα μοι κατὰ τοὺς ὕπνους ὀνειράτων ὄψεις προδηλοῦσι · βούλομαι δέ σε μηδὲν ὑποστελλόμενον φόβῳ κολακεῦσαι ψευδεῖ λόγῳ καὶ τῷ πρὸς ἡδονήν , ἂν τἀληθὲς σκυθρωπότερον .
[81] ἔδοξα γὰρ παρὰ ποταμὸν βαδίζων βόας ἰδεῖν εὐτραφεῖς ἅμα καὶ μεγέθει διαφερούσας ἑπτὰ τὸν ἀριθμὸν ἀπὸ τοῦ νάματος χωρεῖν ἐπὶ τὸ ἕλος , ἄλλας δὲ ταύταις τὸν ἀριθμὸν παραπλησίας ἐκ τοῦ ἕλους ὑπαντῆσαι λίαν κατισχνωμένας καὶ δεινὰς ὁραθῆναι , αἳ κατεσθίουσαι τὰς εὐτραφεῖς καὶ μεγάλας οὐδὲν ὠφελοῦντο χαλεπῶς ὑπὸ τοῦ λιμοῦ τετρυχωμέναι .
[82] μετὰ δὲ ταύτην τὴν ὄψιν διεγερθεὶς ἐκ τοῦ ὕπνου καὶ τεταραγμένος ὢν καὶ τί ποτ’ εἴη τὸ φάντασμα παρ’ ἐμαυτῷ σκοπῶν καταφέρομαι πάλιν εἰς ὕπνον καὶ δεύτερον ὄναρ ὁρῶ πολὺ τοῦ προτέρου θαυμασιώτερον , με καὶ μᾶλλον ἐκφοβεῖ καὶ ταράττει .
[83] στάχυας ἑπτὰ ἑώρων ἀπὸ μιᾶς ῥίζης ἐκφυέντας καρηβαροῦντας ἤδη καὶ κεκλιμένους ὑπὸ τοῦ καρποῦ καὶ τῆς πρὸς ἄμητον ὥρας καὶ τούτοις ἑτέρους ἑπτὰ στάχυας πλησίον λιφερνοῦντας καὶ ἀσθενεῖς ὑπὸ ἀδροσίας , οἳ δαπανᾶν καὶ κατεσθίειν τοὺς ὡραίους τραπέντες ἔκπληξίν μοι παρέσχον ."

[80]
80The king took him by the hand and said, "Young man, my servant says you are now the best and most competent person I can consult; do me the same favour you did for my servant and tell me what is foretold by these visions in my sleep. I want you to suppress nothing out of fear, nor flatter me with lies designed to please.
081I seemed to be walking along the river and saw seven well-fed cows of extraordinary size, going from the river to the marshland. The same number of other cows met them, coming from the marshes, emaciated and terrible to see, which ate up the fat, large cows and were still not improved, so wretchedly hollow were they with hunger.
082After this vision I woke from sleep troubled and puzzling about what this fantasm could mean. Then I fell asleep again and saw another dream, far stranger than the former, which scared and troubled me still more.
083I saw seven ears of corn growing from one root, weighed down and bent with fruit, which was now ripe and ready for reaping. Beside them I saw seven other ears of corn, thin and weak for lack of rain, which began eating and devouring the ripe ears, putting me in a state of shock ."

[84] Ἰώσηπος δὲ ὑπολαβών , " ὄνειρος μὲν οὗτος , εἶπεν , βασιλεῦ , καίπερ ἐν δυσὶ μορφαῖς ὀφθεὶς μίαν καὶ τὴν αὐτὴν ἀποσημαίνει τελευτὴν τῶν ἐσομένων . [ τό τε γὰρ ] τὰς βοῦς ἰδεῖν ζῷον ἐπ’ ἀρότρῳ πονεῖν γεγενημένον ὑπὸ τῶν χειρόνων κατεσθιομένας ,
[85] καὶ οἱ στάχυες ὑπὸ τῶν ἐλαττόνων δαπανώμενοι λιμὸν Αἰγύπτῳ καὶ ἀκαρπίαν ἐπὶ τοσαῦτα προκαταγγέλλουσιν ἔτη τοῖς ἴσοις πρότερον εὐδαιμονησάσῃ , ὡς τὴν τούτων εὐφορίαν τῶν ἐτῶν ὑπὸ τῆς τῶν μετὰ τοσοῦτον ἀριθμὸν ἴσων ἀφορίας ὑπαναλωθῆναι . γενήσεται δὴ σπάνις τῶν ἀναγκαίων σφόδρα δυσκατόρθωτος .
[86] σημεῖον δέ · αἱ γὰρ κατισχνωμέναι βόες δαπανήσασαι τὰς κρείττονας οὐκ ἴσχυσαν κορεσθῆναι . μέντοι θεὸς οὐκ ἐπὶ τῷ λυπεῖν τὰ μέλλοντα τοῖς ἀνθρώποις προδείκνυσιν , ἀλλ’ ὅπως προυγνωκότες κουφοτέρας συνέσει ποιῶνται τὰς πείρας τῶν κατηγγελμένων . σὺ τοίνυν ταμιευσάμενος τἀγαθὰ τὰ κατὰ τὸν πρῶτον χρόνον γενησόμενα ποιήσεις ἀνεπαίσθητον Αἰγυπτίοις τὴν ἐπελευσομένην συμφοράν ."

084After listening to him Joseph replied : "My king, although seen under two forms, this dream refers to the same future event. The sight of the cows, animals made for the plough and for toil, devoured by their inferiors,
085and the ears of corn eaten up by the smaller ears, foretells famine and unfruitfulness for as many years as the former prosperity, for the plenty of these years will be eaten up by the same number of years of scarcity, when it will be very hard to get the necessaries of life.
086The sign of this is that the gaunt cows were still hungry after devouring the better ones. But God fore-shows the future to human beings not to grieve them but that by prudence they may lessen the experience they have foreseen. Therefore, if you carefully ration the plentiful crops to come in the first period, you will protect the Egyptians from feeling the effects of the coming disaster ."

[87] Θαυμάσαντος δὲ τοῦ βασιλέως τὴν φρόνησιν καὶ τὴν σοφίαν τοῦ Ἰωσήπου καὶ πυθομένου , τίνα καὶ τρόπον ἂν προοικονομήσειεν ἐν τοῖς τῆς εὐετηρίας καιροῖς τὰ περὶ τῶν μετὰ ταύτην , ὡς ἂν ἐλαφρότερα γένοιτο τὰ τῆς ἀφορίας ,
[88] ὑπετίθετο καὶ συνεβούλευε φειδὼ τῶν ἀγαθῶν , καὶ μὴ κατὰ περιουσίαν αὐτοῖς χρῆσθαι τοῖς Αἰγυπτίοις ἐπιτρέπειν , ἀλλ’ ὅσα ἂν κατὰ τρυφὴν ἀναλώσωσιν ἐκ περισσοῦ , ταῦτα τηρεῖν εἰς τὸν τῆς ἐνδείας καιρόν , ἀποτίθεσθαί τε παρῄνει λαμβάνοντα τὸν σῖτον παρὰ τῶν γεωργῶν τὰ διαρκῆ μόνον εἰς διατροφὴν χορηγοῦντα .
[89] Φαραώθης δ’ ἀμφοτέρων θαυμάσας Ἰώσηπον τῆς τε κρίσεως τοῦ ὀνείρατος καὶ τῆς συμβουλίας αὐτῷ τὴν οἰκονομίαν παραδίδωσιν , ὥστε πράττειν καὶ τῷ πλήθει τῶν Αἰγυπτίων καὶ τῷ βασιλεῖ συμφέροντα ὑπολαμβάνει , τὸν ἐξευρόντα τὴν τοῦ πράγματος ὁδὸν καὶ προστάτην ἄριστον αὐτῆς ὑπολαβὼν γενήσεσθαι .
[90] δὲ ταύτης αὐτῷ τῆς ἐξουσίας ὑπὸ τοῦ βασιλέως δοθείσης σφραγῖδί τε χρῆσθαι τῇ αὐτοῦ‎ καὶ πορφύραν ἐνδύσασθαι διὰ τῆς γῆς ἁπάσης ἐλαύνων ἐφ’ ἅρματος ἦγε τὸν σῖτον παρὰ τῶν γεωργῶν τὸν ἀρκοῦντα πρός τε σπόρον καὶ διατροφὴν ἑκάστοις ἀπομετρῶν , μηδενὶ σημαίνων τὴν αἰτίαν , ὑφ’ ἧς ταῦτα ἔπραττε .

087Amazed at the shrewdness and wisdom of Joseph, the king asked him in what way the harvests in the plentiful years should be administered, so as to make the time of barrenness more bearable.
088He proposed and advised that the good harvests should be set aside and the Egyptians not allowed to waste them, but to preserve for the time of need the surplus they would have wasted. He should take the corn from the farmers and give them only as much as they needed for food.
089Pharaothes was so impressed not only by Joseph's explanation of the dream but by his advice that he entrusted him with the administration, with the power to do whatever he thought would be best for the people of Egypt and the king, believing that he who first thought out this plan would be the best for carrying it out.
090With this authority given him by the king and permission to use his seal and wear the purple, Joseph drove in his chariot through all the land of Egypt and took the corn of the farmers, allotting to each enought for seed and for food, but without telling anyone the reason why he did so .
Chapter 6

[091-167]
Joseph's brothers come to Egypt for food. He plays a trick on them, then reveals himself

[91] Τριακοστὸν δ’ ἔτος ἤδη τῆς ἡλικίας αὐτῷ διεληλύθει καὶ τιμῆς ἁπάσης ἀπέλαυε τοῦ βασιλέως καὶ προσηγόρευσεν αὐτὸν Ψονθονφάνηχον ἀπιδὼν αὐτοῦ‎ πρὸς τὸ παράδοξον τῆς συνέσεως · σημαίνει γὰρ τὸ ὄνομα κρυπτῶν εὑρετήν . γαμεῖ δὲ καὶ γάμον ἀξιολογώτατον · ἄγεται γὰρ καὶ Πετεφροῦ θυγατέρα τῶν ἐν Ἡλιουπόλει ἱερέων συμπράξαντος αὐτῷ τοῦ βασιλέως ἔτι παρθένον Ἀσέννηθιν ὀνόματι .
[92] ἐκ ταύτης δὲ καὶ παῖδες αὐτῷ γίνονται πρὸ τῆς ἀκαρπίας Μανασσῆς μὲν πρεσβύτερος , σημαίνει δ’ ἐπίληθον , διὰ τὸ εὐδαιμονήσαντα λήθην εὕρασθαι τῶν ἀτυχημάτων , δὲ νεώτερος Ἐφράδης , ἀποδιδοὺς δὲ τοῦτο σημαίνει , διὰ τὸ ἀποδοθῆναι αὐτὸν τῇ ἐλευθερίᾳ τῶν προγόνων .
[93] τῆς δ’ Αἰγύπτου κατὰ τὴν Ἰωσήπου τῶν ὀνειράτων ἐξήγησιν μακαριστῶς ἔτη ἑπτὰ διαγούσης λιμὸς ἥπτετο τῷ ὀγδόῳ ἔτει καὶ διὰ τὸ μὴ προῃσθημένοις ἐπιπεσεῖν τὸ κακὸν πονούμενοι χαλεπῶς ὑπ’ αὐτοῦ‎ πάντες ἐπὶ τὰς βασιλέως θύρας συνέρρεον .
[94] δὲ Ἰώσηπον ἐκάλει , κἀκεῖνος τὸν σῖτον αὐτοῖς ἀπεδίδοτο γεγενημένος σωτὴρ ὁμολογουμένως τοῦ πλήθους , καὶ τὴν ἀγορὰν οὐ τοῖς ἐγχωρίοις προὐτίθει μόνον , ἀλλὰ καὶ τοῖς ξένοις ὠνεῖσθαι παρῆν πάντας ἀνθρώπους κατὰ συγγένειαν ἀξιοῦντος ἐπικουρίας τυγχάνειν Ἰωσήπου παρὰ τῶν εὐδαιμονίᾳ χρωμένων .

091He had now passed his thirtieth year and enjoyed great honours from the king, who called him Psothom-Phanech, in view of his mighty intellect, for the name means the Discoverer of Secrets. With the king's help he also made a very fine marriage, espousing the daughter of Pentephres, one of the priests of Heliopolis; she was a virgin named Asenethis.
092By her he had children before the scarcity began : Manasses, the elder, whose name means "cause of forgetfulness ," for his present prosperity made him forget his former troubles, and the younger Ephraim, meaning "restored ," because he was restored to the freedom of his ancestors.
093When Egypt had happily spent seven years, according to Joseph's interpretation of the dreams, famine seized them in the eighth year. And as this misfortune came on them unforeseen, they felt it all the worse and came running to the king's gates.
094He called on Joseph, who sold them corn and was publicly praised as the people's saviour. Not only did he open this market for the local people, but foreigners also could buy it, since Joseph held that all who are naturally akin to each other should receive help from those who lived in prosperity .

[95] Πέμπει δὲ καὶ Ἰάκωβος τῆς Χαναναίας δεινῶς ἐκτετρυχωμένης , πάσης γὰρ ἥψατο τῆς ἠπείρου τὸ δεινόν , τοὺς υἱοὺς ἅπαντας εἰς τὴν Αἴγυπτον ὠνησομένους σῖτον πεπυσμένος ἐφεῖσθαι τὴν ἀγορὰν καὶ ξένοις · μόνον δὲ κατέσχε Βενιαμὶν ἐκ Ῥαχήλας αὐτῷ γεγονότα ὁμομήτριον δὲ Ἰωσήπῳ .
[96] οἱ μὲν οὖν εἰς τὴν Αἴγυπτον ἐλθόντες ἐνετύγχανον τῷ Ἰωσήπῳ χρῄζοντες ἀγορᾶς · οὐδὲν γὰρ ἦν , μὴ μετὰ γνώμης ἐπράττετο τῆς ἐκείνου · καὶ γὰρ τὸ θεραπεῦσαι τὸν βασιλέα τότε χρήσιμον ἐγίνετο τοῖς ἀνθρώποις , ὅτε καὶ τῆς Ἰωσήπου τιμῆς ἐπιμεληθεῖεν .
[97] δὲ γνωρίσας τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς οὐδὲν ἐνθυμουμένους περὶ αὐτοῦ‎ διὰ τὸ μειράκιον μὲν αὐτὸς ἀπαλλαγῆναι , εἰς τοῦτο δὲ προελθεῖν τῆς ἡλικίας καὶ τῶν χαρακτήρων ἠλλαγμένων ἀγνώριστος αὐτοῖς εἶναι , τῷ δὲ μεγέθει τοῦ ἀξιώματος οὐδ’ εἰς ἐπίνοιαν ἐλθεῖν αὐτοῖς δυνάμενος διεπείραζεν , ὡς ἔχοιεν γνώμης περὶ τῶν ὅλων .
[98] τόν τε γὰρ σῖτον αὐτοῖς οὐκ ἀπεδίδοτο κατασκόπους τε τῶν βασιλέως πραγμάτων ἔλεγεν ἥκειν καὶ πολλαχόθεν μὲν αὐτοὺς συνεληλυθέναι , προφασίζεσθαι δὲ συγγένειαν · οὐ γὰρ εἶναι δυνατὸν ἀνδρὶ ἰδιώτῃ τοιούτους παῖδας καὶ τὰς μορφὰς οὕτως ἐπιφανεῖς ἐκτραφῆναι , δυσκόλου καὶ βασιλεῦσιν οὔσης τοιαύτης παιδοτροφίας .
[99] ὑπὲρ δὲ τοῦ γνῶναι τὰ κατὰ τὸν πατέρα καὶ τὰ συμβεβηκότα αὐτῷ μετὰ τὴν ἰδίαν ἀπαλλαγὴν ταῦτ’ ἔπραττε μαθεῖν τε βουλόμενος καὶ τὰ περὶ Βενιαμὶν τὸν ἀδελφόν · ἐδεδίει γάρ , μὴ κἀκεῖνον ὁμοίως οἷς εἰς αὐτὸν ἐτόλμησαν εἶεν ἀπεσκευασμένοι τοῦ γένους .

095When Jacob learned that the corn market was open to foreigners, he sent all his sons into Egypt to buy corn, for Canaan was grievously hit by the famine, and the misery afflicted the whole region. He kept back only Benjamin, born to him by Rachel and who had the same mother as Joseph.
096These then came into Egypt and asked Joseph's permission to buy corn, for nothing of this kind was done without his approval. Even showing honour to the king himself was of benefit only to those who also showed homage to Joseph.
097He recognised his brothers, but they never thought about him, for he was only a youth when he left them and he now had reached an age when his features had changed. His rank prevented them from suspecting his identity, so he was not known by them, and he began testing their feelings about the whole affair.
098He refused to sell them corn and said they had come to spy upon the king's business. He alleged that they had come from several countries and banded together, pretending to be relatives, for it was difficult for a king, let alone an individual man to rear so many fine-looking sons as this.
099He did this to find out about his father and what had happened after his own departure, and wanting to know what had become of his brother Benjamin, for he feared that they had dared to rid the family of him, as they had done to him .

[100] Οἱ δ’ ἦσαν ἐν ταραχῇ καὶ φόβῳ κίνδυνον τὸν μέγιστον αὐτοῖς ἐπηρτῆσθαι νομίζοντες καὶ μηδὲν περὶ τἀδελφοῦ κατὰ νοῦν λαμβάνοντες , καταστάντες τε πρὸς τὰς αἰτίας ἀπελογοῦντο Ῥουβήλου προηγοροῦντος , ὃς ἦν πρεσβύτατος αὐτῶν ·
[101] " ἡμεῖς γὰρ , εἶπεν , οὐ κατὰ ἀδικίαν δεῦρο ἤλθομεν οὐδὲ κακουργήσοντες τὰ βασιλέως πράγματα , σωθῆναι δὲ ζητοῦντες καὶ καταφυγὴν τῶν ἐπεχόντων τὴν χώραν ἡμῶν κακῶν τὴν ὑμετέραν φιλανθρωπίαν ὑπολαβόντες , οὓς οὐχὶ πολίταις μόνοις τοῖς αὐτῶν , ἀλλὰ καὶ ξένοις ἠκούομεν τὴν ἀγορὰν τοῦ σίτου προτεθεικέναι πᾶσι τὸ σώζεσθαι τοῖς δεομένοις παρέχειν διεγνωκότας .
[102] ὅτι δ’ ἐσμὲν ἀδελφοὶ καὶ κοινὸν ἡμῖν αἷμα , φανερὸν μὲν καὶ τῆς μορφῆς τὸ οἰκεῖον καὶ μὴ πολὺ παρηλλαγμένον ποιεῖ , πατὴρ δ’ ἐστὶν ἡμῖν Ἰάκωβος ἀνὴρ Ἑβραῖος , γινόμεθα δώδεκα παῖδες ἐκ γυναικῶν τεσσάρων , ὧν πάντων περιόντων ἦμεν εὐδαίμονες .
[103] ἀποθανόντος δὲ ἑνὸς τῶν ἀδελφῶν Ἰωσήπου τὰ πράγματα ἡμῖν ἐπὶ τὸ χεῖρον μετέβαλεν · τε γὰρ πατὴρ μακρὸν ἐπ’ αὐτῷ πένθος ἦρται καὶ ἡμεῖς ὑπό τε τῆς ἐπὶ τῷ τεθνηκότι συμφορᾶς καὶ τῆς τοῦ πρεσβύτου ταλαιπωρίας κακοπαθοῦμεν .
[104] ἥκομέν τε νῦν ἐπ’ ἀγορὰν σίτου τήν τε τοῦ πατρὸς ἐπιμέλειαν καὶ τὴν κατὰ τὸν οἶκον πρόνοιαν Βενιαμεῖ τῷ νεωτάτῳ τῶν ἀδελφῶν πεπιστευκότες · δύνασαι δὲ πέμψας εἰς τὸν ἡμέτερον οἶκον μαθεῖν , εἴ τι ψευδές ἐστι τῶν λεγομένων ."

100They were quaking with fear and thought themselves in great danger, never thinking him to be their brother, but rejecting his charges against them. They made their defense using Rubel, the eldest, as their spokesman.
101"We did not come here ," he said, "with any bad intention, or to harm to the king's business in any way, but merely to save our lives, hoping that your kindness might provide us a respite from the woes of our country; for we heard of your selling corn, not only to your own countrymen, but also to strangers and so providing a means of survival to all in need of it.
102That we are brothers and of the same common blood, the features of our faces plainly show, since we are so alike. Our father's name is Jacob, a Hebrew, to whom we twelve children were born by four wives, and we were happy while all twelve of us were alive.
103However, when Joseph, one of our brothers, died, our affairs changed for the worse. Our father mourned a long time for him and we are saddened both by our brother's death and the old man's misery.
104Now we come to buy corn, having entrusted the care of our father and charge of the household, to our youngest brother, Benjamin. You have only to send to our house, to learn if there is any falsehood in what we say ."

[105] Καὶ Ῥουβῆλος μὲν τούτοις ἐπειρᾶτο πείθειν τὸν Ἰώσηπον περὶ αὐτῶν τὰ ἀμείνω φρονῆσαι , δὲ τὸν Ἰάκωβον ζῶντα μαθὼν καὶ τὸν ἀδελφὸν οὐκ ἀπολωλότα τότε μὲν εἰς τὴν εἱρκτὴν αὐτοὺς ὡς ἐπὶ σχολῆς βασανίσων ἐνέβαλε , τῇ δὲ τρίτῃ τῶν ἡμερῶν προαγαγὼν αὐτούς ,
[106] " ἐπεί , φησί , διισχυρίζεσθε μήτ’ ἐπὶ κακουργίᾳ τῶν βασιλέως ἥκειν πραγμάτων εἶναί τε ἀδελφοὶ καὶ πατρὸς οὗ λέγετε , πείσαιτ’ ἄν με ταῦθ’ οὕτως ἔχειν , εἰ καταλίποιτε μὲν ἐξ αὑτῶν ἕνα παρ’ ἐμοὶ μηδὲν ὑβριστικὸν πεισόμενον , ἀποκομίσαντες δὲ τὸν σῖτον πρὸς τὸν πατέρα πάλιν ἔλθοιτε πρὸς ἐμὲ τὸν ἀδελφόν , ὃν καταλιπεῖν ἐκεῖ φατε , μεθ’ ἑαυτῶν ἄγοντες · τοῦτο γὰρ ἔσται πί
[107] στωμα τῆς ἀληθείας . οἱ δ’ ἐν μείζοσι κακοῖς ἦσαν ἔκλαιόν τε καὶ συνεχῶς πρὸς ἀλλήλους ἀνωλοφύροντο τὴν Ἰωσήπου συμφοράν , ὡς διὰ τὰ κατ’ ἐκείνου βουλευθέντα τιμωροῦντος αὐτοὺς τοῦ θεοῦ τούτοις περιπέσοιεν , Ῥουβῆλος δὲ πολὺς ἦν ἐπιπλήττων αὐτοῖς τῆς μετανοίας , ἐξ ἧς ὄφελος οὐδὲν Ἰωσήπῳ γίνεται · φέρειν δ’ αὐτοὺς πᾶν τι καὶ πάθοιεν κατ’ ἐκδικίαν ἐκείνου δρῶντος αὐτὰ τοῦ θεοῦ καρτερῶς ἠξίου .
[108] ταῦτα δ’ ἔλεγον πρὸς ἀλλήλους οὐχ ἡγούμενοι τὸν Ἰώσηπον γλώσσης τῆς αὐτῶν συνιέναι . κατήφεια δὲ πάντας εἶχε πρὸς τοὺς Ῥουβήλου λόγους καὶ τῶν πραγμάτων μετάμελος , ὥσπερ οὖν καὶ τῶν ταῦτα ψηφισαμένων , ἐφ’ οἷς δίκαιον ἔκρινον τὸν θεὸν κολαζόμενοι .
[109] βλέπων δ’ οὕτως ἀμηχανοῦντας Ἰώσηπος ὑπὸ τοῦ πάθους εἰς δάκρυα προύπιπτε καὶ μὴ βουλόμενος τοῖς ἀδελφοῖς γενέσθαι καταφανὴς ὑπεχώρει καὶ διαλιπὼν πάλιν ἧκε πρὸς αὐτούς .
[110] καὶ Σεμεῶνα κατασχὼν ὅμηρον τῆς ἐπανόδου τῶν ἀδελφῶν γενησόμενον ἐκείνους μεταλαβόντας τῆς ἀγορᾶς τοῦ σίτου προσέταξεν ἀπιέναι , κελεύσας τῷ ὑπηρέτῃ τἀργύριον , πρὸς τὴν ὠνὴν εἶεν τοῦ σίτου κεκομικότες , κρύφα τοῖς φορτίοις ἐνθέντι ἀπολύειν κἀκεῖνο κομίζοντας . καὶ μὲν τὰ ἐντεταλμένα ἔπραττεν .

105In this way Rubel tried to persuade Joseph to think better of them. But learning that Jacob was alive and that his brother was not dead, he put them in prison, as though to examine them at leisure.
106On the third day he brought them out and said, "Since you insist that you come with no malice towards to the king's realm and that you are brothers born to the father you spoke about, you can convince me of this by leaving with me one of your company, who will not be maltreated here. Then if, after bringing corn to your father, you return to me with you your brother, whom you say you left there, to support the truth of what you say ."
107This grieved them more and they wept and began blaming each other for Joseph's fate, saying that this misery was God's punishment for their plots against him. Rubel sharply rebuked them that this repentance came too late to help Joseph. He urged them to patiently bear whatever they might suffer, since it was God's vengeance for him.
108This is how they spoke to each another, not imagining that Joseph understood their language. At Rubel's words sadness and remorse gripped them for what they had done, and they condemned the wrong for which God was justly punishing them.
109Seeing them so distressed, Joseph was moved to tears, but not wanting it noticed by the brothers, he withdrew and after a while returned to them again.
110Then taking Symeon as a hostage for the brothers' return, he bade them take the corn they had bought and leave, telling his steward to secretly put the money they had brought to purchase the corn into their sacks and to dismiss them with it, and these orders he duly carried out .

[111] Οἱ δὲ Ἰακώβου παῖδες ἐλθόντες εἰς τὴν Χαναναίαν ἀπήγγελλον τῷ πατρὶ τὰ κατὰ τὴν Αἴγυπτον αὐτοῖς συμπεσόντα , καὶ ὅτι κατάσκοποι δόξειαν ἀφῖχθαι τοῦ βασιλέως καὶ λέγοντες ἀδελφοί τε εἶναι καὶ τὸν ἑνδέκατον οἴκοι καταλιπεῖν παρὰ τῷ πατρὶ ἀπιστηθεῖεν , ὡς καταλίποιέν τε Σεμεῶνα παρὰ τῷ στρατηγῷ μέχρι Βενιαμὶς ὡς αὐτὸν ἀπιὼν πίστις αὐτοῖς τῶν εἰρημένων παρ’ αὐτῷ γένοιτο ·
[112] ἠξίουν τε τὸν πατέρα μηδὲν φοβηθέντα πέμπειν σὺν αὐτοῖς τὸν νεανίσκον . Ἰακώβῳ δ’ οὐδὲν ἤρεσκε τῶν τοῖς υἱοῖς πεπραγμένων , καὶ πρὸς τὴν Σεμεῶνος δὲ κατοχὴν λυπηρῶς φέρων ἀνόητον ἡγεῖτο προστιθέναι καὶ τὸν Βενιαμίν .
[113] καὶ μὲν οὐδὲ Ῥουβήλου δεομένου καὶ τοὺς αὑτοῦ παῖδας ἀντιδιδόντος , ἵνα εἴ τι πάθοι Βενιαμὶς κατὰ τὴν ἀποδημίαν ἀποκτείνειεν αὐτοὺς πάππος , πείθεται τοῖς λόγοις . οἱ δ’ ἠπόρουν ἐπὶ τοῖς κακοῖς καὶ μᾶλλον αὐτοὺς ἐτάραττε τἀργύριον ἐν τοῖς σακκίοις τοῦ σίτου κατακεκρυμμένον εὑρεθέν .
[114] τοῦ δὲ σίτου τοῦ κομισθέντος ὑπ’ αὐτῶν ἐπιλιπόντος καὶ τοῦ λιμοῦ μᾶλλον ἁπτομένου βιαζομένης αὐτὸν τῆς ἀνάγκης Ἰάκωβος ἐκπέμπειν ἐγίνωσκε τὸν Βενιαμὶν μετὰ τῶν ἀδελφῶν ·
[115] οὐ γὰρ ἦν αὐτοῖς εἰς Αἴγυπτον ἀπελθεῖν μὴ μετὰ τῶν ἐπαγγελιῶν ἀπερχομένοις , καὶ τοῦ πάθους οὖν χείρονος καθ’ ἑκάστην ἡμέραν γινομένου καὶ τῶν υἱῶν δεομένων οὐκ εἶχεν , τι χρήσαιτο τοῖς παροῦσιν .
[116] Ἰούδα δὲ τολμηροῦ τἆλλα τὴν φύσιν ἀνδρὸς χρησαμένου πρὸς αὐτὸν παρρησίᾳ , ὡς οὐ προσῆκε μὲν αὐτὸν περὶ τἀδελφοῦ δεδιέναι οὐδὲ τὰ μὴ δεινὰ δι’ ὑποψίας λαμβάνειν , πραχθήσεται γὰρ οὐδὲν αὐτῶν περὶ τὸν ἀδελφόν , μὴ παρέσται θεός , τοῦτο δὲ συμβήσεσθαι πάντως καὶ παρ’ αὐτῷ μένοντι ·
[117] φανερὰν δ’ οὕτως αὐτῶν ἀπώλειαν μὴ καταδικάζειν μηδὲ τὴν ἐκ Φαραώθου τῆς τροφῆς αὐτῶν εὐπορίαν αὐτοὺς ἀφαιρεῖσθαι ἀλόγως περὶ τοῦ παιδὸς δεδιότα , φροντίζειν δὲ καὶ τῆς Σεμεῶνος σωτηρίας , μὴ φειδοῖ τῆς Βενιαμὶν ἀποδημίας ἐκεῖνος ἀπόληται · πιστεῦσαι δὲ περὶ αὐτοῦ‎ τῷ θεῷ παραινοῦντος καὶ αὐτῷ , ὡς σῶον ἐπανάξοντος αὐτῷ τὸν υἱὸν συγκαταστρέψοντος ἅμα ἐκείνῳ τὸν βίον ,
[118] πεισθεὶς Ἰάκωβος παρεδίδου τὸν Βενιαμὶν καὶ τὴν τιμὴν τοῦ σίτου διπλασίονα τῶν τε παρὰ τοῖς Χαναναίοις γεννωμένων τό τε τῆς βαλάνου μύρον καὶ στακτὴν τερέβινθόν τε καὶ μέλι δωρεὰς Ἰωσήπῳ κομίζειν . πολλὰ δὲ ἦν παρὰ τοῦ πατρὸς ἐπὶ τῇ τῶν παίδων ἐξόδῳ δάκρυα κἀκείνων αὐτῶν .
[119] μὲν γὰρ τοὺς υἱοὺς εἰ κομιεῖται σώους ἐκ τῆς ἀποδημίας ἐφρόντιζεν , οἱ δ’ εἰ τὸν πατέρα καταλάβοιεν ἐρρωμένον καὶ μηδὲν ὑπὸ τῆς ἐπ’ αὐτοῖς λύπης κακωθέντα . ἡμερήσιον δὲ αὐτοῖς ἠνύσθη τὸ πένθος , καὶ μὲν πρεσβύτης κοπωθεὶς ὑπέμενεν , οἱ δὲ ἐχώρουν εἰς Αἴγυπτον μετὰ κρείττονος ἐλπίδος τὴν ἐπὶ τοῖς παροῦσι λύπην ἰώμενοι .

111When Jacob's sons returned to Canaan, they told their father what had happened to them in Egypt and how they were suspected as spies against the king, and how they had said they were brothers and had left their eleventh brother behind with their father, but were not believed, and how they had left Symeon behind with the ruler, til Benjamin should go there and prove what they said was true.
112They begged their father to fear nothing, but to send the lad with them. But Jacob was not pleased with what his sons had done; he took hard the detention of Symeon and thought it foolish to hand over Benjamin too.
113Rubel implored him in vain, offering his own sons in exchange, saying that their grandfather could kill them in reprisal, if any harm came to Benjamin in the journey. They did not know what to do, being futher troubled when the money was found hidden in their sacks of corn.
114Yet when the corn they had brought gave out and they were still under the famine, Jacob was forced to send Benjamin with his brothers,
115since there was no returning to Egypt without bringing what they had promised. As things grew daily worse and his sons continued to beg him, he had no other choice in the circumstances,
116for Judas, who was of daring temperament in other things, spoke his mind freely to him, not to be afraid on account of to his son, or go on suspecting the worst, for nothing would happen his son but what God sent, which would equally happen if he stayed home with him.
117He ought not, out of unreasonable fear for his son Benjamin, condemn them to certain death, depriving them of the abundant food they could have from Pharaothes. He should rather care for Symeon's safety, and not let him die by delaying Benjamin's journey. Let him entrust him to God, for he would either bring his son back to him safe, or would lay down his own life along with him.
118Jacob was finally persuaded and gave Benjamin to them, along with double the price of the corn. He also sent gifts to Joseph of the fruits of the land of Canaan, balsam and myrrh, and turpentine and honey. Their father shed many tears at the departure of his sons, and so did they.
119His care was to receive his sons back safe after their journey, and theirs was to find their father still well and not stricken with grief on their behalf. This grieving lasted all day, and the old man was left behind mournful, but they went to Egypt, trying to ease their grief at their present troubles with the hope of a better future .

[120] ὡς δ’ ἦλθον εἰς τὴν Αἴγυπτον κατάγονται μὲν παρὰ τὸν Ἰώσηπον , φόβος δὲ αὐτοὺς οὐχ τυχὼν διετάραττε , μὴ περὶ τῆς τοῦ σίτου τιμῆς ἐγκλήματα λάβωσιν ὡς αὐτοί τι κεκακουργηκότες , καὶ πρὸς τὸν ταμίαν τοῦ Ἰωσήπου πολλὴν ἀπολογίαν ἐποιοῦντο κατ’ οἶκόν τε φάσκοντες εὑρεῖν ἐν τοῖς σάκκοις τὸ ἀργύριον καὶ νῦν ἥκειν ἐπανάγοντες αὐτό .
[121] τοῦ δὲ μηδ’ τι λέγουσιν εἰδέναι φήσαντος ἀνείθησαν τοῦ δέους . [ λύσας τε τὸν Συμεῶνα ἐτημέλει συνεσόμενον τοῖς ἀδελφοῖς . ] ἐλθόντος δὲ ἐν τούτῳ καὶ Ἰωσήπου ἀπὸ τῆς θεραπείας τοῦ βασιλέως τά τε δῶρα παρῆγον αὐτῷ καὶ πυθομένου περὶ τοῦ πατρὸς ἔλεγον , ὅτι καταλάβοιεν αὐτὸν ἐρρωμένον .
[122] δὲ μαθὼν περιόντα καὶ περὶ τοῦ Βενιαμὶν εἰ οὗτος νεώτερος ἀδελφὸς αὐτῶν εἴη , καὶ γὰρ ἦν αὐτὸν ἑωρακώς , ἀνέκρινε . τῶν δὲ φησάντων αὐτὸν εἶναι οἰκέτην αὐτοῦ‎ θεὸν μὲν ἐπὶ πᾶσι προστάτην εἶπεν ,
[123] ὑπὸ δὲ τοῦ πάθους προαγόμενος εἰς δάκρυα μεθίστατο μὴ βουλόμενος καταφανὴς εἶναι τοῖς ἀδελφοῖς , ἐπὶ δεῖπνόν τε αὐτοὺς παραλαμβάνει καὶ κατακλίνονται οὕτως ὡς καὶ παρὰ τῷ πατρί . πάντας δὲ αὐτοὺς Ἰώσηπος δεξιούμενος διπλασίοσι μοίραις τῶν αὐτῷ παρακειμένων τὸν Βενιαμὶν ἐτίμα .

120On reaching Egypt, they were brought to Joseph, deeply afraid of being accused about the price of the corn, as if they had done wrong. They made profuse apology to Joseph's steward, saying how on arriving home they found the money in their sacks and that they were now bringing it back.
121He said he did not know what they meant, and so relieved them of that fear, and after releasing Symeon and giving him clothing, he allowed him to be with his brothers. Meanwhile Joseph came from attending on the king, so they offered him their gifts, and when he asked them about their father, they replied that they found him well.
122He asked whether the one he had seen was Benjamin, their younger brother. When they said he was, he replied that the God who is over all was his protector.
123But his affection for him made him shed tears, and he hid himself, not wanting his brothers to see him. Then he took them to supper and they sat just as they used to sit at their father's table. And while he treated them all kindly, Joseph honoured Benjamin with double of what the other guests got .

[124] Ἐπεὶ δὲ μετὰ τὸ δεῖπνον εἰς ὕπνον ἐτράποντο , κελεύει τῷ ταμίᾳ τόν τε σῖτον αὐτοῖς δοῦναι μεμετρημένον καὶ τὴν τιμὴν πάλιν ἐγκρύψαι τοῖς σακκίοις , εἰς δὲ τὸ τοῦ Βενιαμὶν φορτίον καὶ σκύφος ἀργυροῦν , πίνων ἔχαιρε , βαλόντα καταλιπεῖν .
[125] ἐποίει δὲ ταῦτα διάπειραν βουλόμενος τῶν ἀδελφῶν λαβεῖν , πότερόν ποτε βοηθήσουσι τῷ Βενιαμὶν κλοπῆς ἀγομένῳ καὶ δοκοῦντι κινδυνεύειν , καταλιπόντες ὡς οὐδὲν αὐτοὶ κεκακουργηκότες ἀπίασι πρὸς τὸν πατέρα .
[126] ποιήσαντος δὲ τοῦ οἰκέτου τὰ ἐντεταλμένα μεθ’ ἡμέραν οὐδὲν τούτων εἰδότες οἱ τοῦ Ἰακώβου παῖδες ἀπῄεσαν ἀπειληφότες τὸν Σεμεῶνα καὶ διπλῆν χαρὰν χαίροντες ἐπί τε τούτῳ κἀπὶ τῷ Βενιαμὶν ἀποκομίζειν τῷ πατρί , καθὼς ὑπέσχοντο . περιελαύνουσι δ’ αὐτοὺς ἱππεῖς ἄγοντες τὸν οἰκέτην , ὃς ἐναπέθετο τῷ τοῦ Βενιαμὶν φορτίῳ τὸν σκύφον .
[127] ταραχθέντας δὲ ὑπὸ τῆς ἀδοκήτου τῶν ἱππέων ἐφόδου καὶ τὴν αἰτίαν πυθομένους δι’ ἣν ἐπ’ ἄνδρας ἐληλύθασιν ,
[128] οἳ μικρὸν ἔμπροσθεν τιμῆς καὶ ξενίας τετυχήκασιν αὐτῶν παρὰ τοῦ δεσπότου , κακίστους ἀπεκάλουν , οἳ μηδ’ αὐτὸ τοῦτο τὴν ξενίαν καὶ τὴν φιλοφροσύνην τὴν Ἰωσήπου διὰ μνήμης λαβόντες οὐκ ὤκνησαν εἰς αὐτὸν ἄδικοι γενέσθαι , σκύφον δὲ , φιλοτησίας αὐτοῖς προύπιεν , ἀράμενοι φέροιεν κέρδους ἀδίκου τήν τε πρὸς Ἰώσηπον φιλίαν τόν τε ἑαυτῶν εἰ φωραθεῖεν κίνδυνον ἐν δευτέρῳ θέμενοι ·
[129] τιμωρίαν τε αὐτοὺς ὑφέξειν ἠπείλουν οὐ λανθάνοντας τὸν θεὸν οὐδ’ ἀποδράντας μετὰ τῆς κλοπῆς , εἰ καὶ τὸν διακονούμενον οἰκέτην διέλαθον . πυνθάνεσθαί τε νῦν , τί παρόντες εἴημεν , ὡς οὐκ εἰδότας · γνώσεσθαι μέντοι κολαζομένους αὐτίκα . καὶ ταῦτα καὶ πέρα τούτων οἰκέτης εἰς αὐτοὺς λέγων ἐνύβριζεν .
[130] οἱ δὲ ὑπὸ ἀγνοίας τῶν περὶ αὐτοὺς ἐχλεύαζον ἐπὶ τοῖς λεγομένοις καὶ τῆς κουφολογίας τὸν οἰκέτην ἐθαύμαζον τολμῶντα αἰτίαν ἐπιφέρειν ἀνδράσιν , οἳ μηδὲ τὴν τοῦ σίτου τιμὴν ἐν τοῖς σακκίοις αὐτῶν εὑρεθεῖσαν κατέσχον , ἀλλ’ ἐκόμισαν μηδενὸς εἰδότος τὸ πραχθέν · τοσοῦτον ἀποδεῖν τοῦ γνώμῃ κακουργῆσαι .
[131] τῆς μέντοι γε ἀρνήσεως ἀξιοπιστοτέραν ὑπολαβόντες τὴν ἔρευναν ἐκέλευον ταύτῃ χρῆσθαι κἂν εὑρεθῇ τις ὑφῃρημένος ἅπαντας κολάζειν · οὐδὲν γὰρ αὑτοῖς συνειδότες ἦγον παρρησίαν , ὡς ἐδόκουν , ἀκίνδυνον . δὲ τὴν ἔρευναν μὲν ἠξίωσε ποιήσασθαι , τὴν μέντοι τιμωρίαν ἑνὸς ἔφασκεν εἶναι τοῦ τὴν κλοπὴν εὑρεθέντος πεποιημένου .
[132] τὴν δὲ ζήτησιν ποιούμενοι καὶ πάντας τοὺς ἄλλους ἐκπεριελθόντες κατὰ τὴν ἔρευναν ἐπὶ τὸν τελευταῖον Βενιαμὶν ἧκον οὐκ ἀγνοοῦντες , ὅτι εἰς τὸ ἐκείνου σακκίον τὸν σκύφον εἶεν ἀποκεκρυφότες , ἀλλ’ ἀκριβῆ τὴν ζήτησιν βουλόμενοι ποιεῖσθαι δοκεῖν .
[133] οἱ μὲν οὖν ἄλλοι τοῦ κατ’ αὐτοὺς ἀπηλλαγμένοι δέους ἐν τῇ περὶ τὸν Βενιαμὶν φροντίδι τὸ λοιπὸν ἦσαν , ἐθάρρουν δ’ ὡς οὐδ’ ἐν ἐκείνῳ τῆς κακουργίας εὑρεθησομένης ἐκάκιζόν τε τοὺς ἐπιδιώξαντας ὡς ἐμποδίσαντας αὐτοῖς τὴν ὁδὸν δυναμένοις ἤδη προκεκοφέναι .
[134] ὡς δὲ τὸ τοῦ Βενιαμὶν φορτίον ἐρευνῶντες λαμβάνουσι τὸν σκύφον εἰς οἰμωγὰς καὶ θρήνους εὐθὺς ἐτράπησαν καὶ τὰς στολὰς ἐπικαταρρήξαντες ἔκλαιόν τε τὸν ἀδελφὸν ἐπὶ τῇ μελλούσῃ κολάσει τῆς κλοπῆς αὐτούς τε διαψευσομένους τὸν πατέρα περὶ τῆς Βενιαμὶν σωτηρίας .
[135] ἐπέτεινε δὲ τὸ δεινὸν αὐτοῖς καὶ τὸ δόξαντας ἤδη διαφυγεῖν τὰ σκυθρωπὰ διαφθονηθῆναι , τῶν δὲ περὶ τὸν ἀδελφὸν κακῶν καὶ τῆς τοῦ πατρὸς ἐπ’ αὐτῷ λύπης ἐσομένους αὑτοὺς αἰτίους ἔλεγον βιασαμένους ἄκοντα τὸν πατέρα συναποστεῖλαι .

124When after supper they had gone off to sleep, Joseph ordered his steward to give them their measures of corn and to hide the money again in their sacks, and put into Benjamin's sack his favourite golden cup from which he liked to drink.
125This he did to test whether his brothers would help Benjamin when he was accused of theft and seemed in danger, or if, innocent themselves, they would abandon him and return to their father.
126When the servant did as he was told, the sons of Jacob, knowing nothing of it, went their way and took Symeon with them and had a double cause for joy, in getting him back and taking Benjamin back to their father as they had promised. But soon a cavalry troop surrounded them, with Joseph's servant, who had put the cup in Benjamin's sack.
127They were troubled by the unexpected cavalry, and asked why they came in this way against those whom not long before their master had honoured with a hospitable reception?
128He replie that they were wicked wretches who had forgotten the kind hospitality Joseph had shown them and did not scruple to harm him by stealing the very cup from which he had so amicably drunk to them. Had they no regard for their friendship with Joseph, or the risk they ran if they were caught, compared with their wrongful gain?
129He threatened them with punishment, for though they might escape the notice of a servant, yet they had not escaped God's notice, nor gotten away with the theft. "They ask, indeed, why we have come after them, as if they knew nothing of it!" - but when they were punished they would know it! This and more the servant said, insulting them.
130But unaware of the situation they laughed at what the servant said and were amazed at his abusive language, boldly accusing men who previously did not even keep the price of their corn, which was found in their sacks, but brought it back again, although nobody else knew anything about it, so far were they from any harmful intentions.
131But thinking that a search would vindicate them more than mere denial of the fact, they invited him to search. In no way aware of any crime, and thinking it quite safe, they said that if any of them were found guilty of theft, he could punish them all! He said that yes, a search would be made, but the punishment would apply only to the one found guilty of the theft.
132So they searched, and finally came to Benjamin, knowing it was in his sack they had hidden the cup, and indeed the rest were only searched in pretence.
133They had no fear for themselves and were now concerned only about Benjamin, still feeling sure that he too would be found innocent, and they reprimanded their pursuers for delaying them, since they might have meanwhile gone a good part of their journey.
134But on searching Benjamin's sack, they found the cup and took it from him and all was changed into mourning and lamentation. They rent their clothing and wept for the penalty their brother must suffer for his theft, and for misleading their father with their promise to bring Benjamin safely back to him.
135Their misery was sharper because this awful thing came when they thought they were in the clear, but they confessed that their brother's misfortune, and the grief of their father for him, was their fault, since it was they who pressed their father to send him along, against his wishes .

[136] Οἱ μὲν οὖν ἱππεῖς παραλαβόντες τὸν Βενιαμὶν ἦγον πρὸς Ἰώσηπον καὶ τῶν ἀδελφῶν ἑπομένων , δὲ τὸν μὲν ἰδὼν ἐν φυλακῇ , τοὺς δ’ ἐν πενθίμοις σχήμασι , " τί δή , φησίν , κάκιστοι , φρονήσαντες περὶ τῆς ἐμῆς φιλανθρωπίας περὶ τοῦ θεοῦ τῆς προ
[137] νοίας τοιαῦτα πράττειν εἰς εὐεργέτην καὶ ξένον ἐτολμήσατε ; τῶν δὲ παραδιδόντων αὑτοὺς εἰς κόλασιν ἐπὶ τῷ σώζεσθαι Βενιαμὶν καὶ πάλιν ἀναμιμνησκομένων τῶν εἰς Ἰώσηπον τετολμημένων κἀκεῖνον ἀποκαλούντων μακαριώτερον , εἰ μὲν τέθνηκεν ὅτι τῶν κατὰ τὸν βίον ἀπήλλακται σκυθρωπῶν , εἰ δὲ περίεστιν ὅτι τῆς παρὰ τοῦ θεοῦ κατ’ αὐτῶν ἐκδικίας τυγχάνει , λεγόντων δ’ αὑτοὺς ἀλιτηρίους τοῦ πατρός , ὅτι τῇ λύπῃ ἣν ἐπ’ ἐκείνῳ μέχρι νῦν ἔχει καὶ τὴν ἐπὶ Βενιαμὶν προσθήσουσι , πολὺς ἦν κἀνταῦθ’ Ῥουβῆλος αὐτῶν καθαπτόμενος .
[138] Ἰωσήπου δὲ τοὺς μὲν ἀπολύοντος , οὐδὲν γὰρ αὐτὸν ἀδικεῖν , ἀρκεῖσθαι δὲ μόνῃ τῇ τοῦ παιδὸς τιμωρίᾳ λέγοντος , οὔτε γὰρ τοῦτον ἀπολύειν διὰ τοὺς οὐδὲν ἐξαμαρτόντας σῶφρον ἔλεγεν οὔτε συγκολάζειν ἐκείνους τῷ τὴν κλοπὴν εἰργασμένῳ , βαδιοῦσι δὲ παρέξειν ἀσφάλειαν ἐπαγγελλομένου ,
[139] τοὺς μὲν ἄλλους ἔκπληξις ἔλαβε καὶ πρὸς τὸ πάθος ἀφωνία , Ἰούδας δὲ καὶ τὸν πατέρα πείσας ἐκπέμψαι τὸ μειράκιον καὶ τἆλλα δραστήριος ὢν ἀνὴρ ὑπὲρ τῆς τἀδελφοῦ σωτηρίας ἔκρινε παραβάλλεσθαι ,
[140] καί " δεινὰ μέν , εἶπεν , στρατηγέ , τετολμήκαμεν εἰς σὲ καὶ τιμωρίας ἄξια καὶ τοῦ κόλασιν ὑποσχεῖν ἅπαντας ἡμᾶς δικαίως , εἰ καὶ τὸ ἀδίκημα μὴ ἄλλου τινός , ἀλλ’ ἑνὸς τοῦ νεωτάτου γέγονεν . ὅμως δὲ ἀπεγνωκόσιν ἡμῖν τὴν δι’ αὐτοῦ‎ σωτηρίαν ἐλπὶς ὑπολέλειπται παρὰ τῆς σῆς χρηστότητος ἐγγυωμένη τὴν τοῦ κινδύνου διαφυγήν .

136The cavalry took Benjamin and brought him to Joseph, while his brothers followed him and seeing him in chains and them in mourning dress, he said, "Vile wretches, what strange notion have you of my kindness to you and of God's providence? Is this your return to me for treating you so hospitably?"
137So, in order to save Benjamin, they gave themselves up to be punished, remembering the outrages they had done to Joseph. They also said that, if he was dead, he was better off than themselves, set free from the miseries of this life, and if he were alive, he could enjoyed the pleasure of seeing them punished by God. They added that they were a plague on their father, now adding this grief for Benjamin to his former grief for Joseph, and Rubel was loud in blaming them.
138But Joseph dismissed them, declaring that they had committed no offense and that he would be content with punishing the lad. He said it was not right to let him go free just because the otherse were innocent, nor should they be punished along with the one who had stolen. When he promised to let them leave in safety, the rest of them were woebegone and unable to speak for sadness.
139But Judas, the very courageous man of action who had persuaded their father to send the boy off, decided to risk himself for the survival of his brother.
140"It is true, lord ruler ," he said, "that we have been very wicked with regard to you, and deserve punishment on account of it. We may all be justly punished, though the theft was not committed by all, but only by the youngest of us. Yet still we have hope in our despair, for your goodness offers us a refuge from our present danger .

[141] καὶ νῦν μὴ πρὸς τὸ ἡμέτερον ἀφορῶν μηδὲ τὸ κακούργημα σκοπῶν , ἀλλὰ πρὸς τὴν σαυτοῦ φύσιν καὶ τὴν ἀρετὴν σύμβουλον ποιησάμενος ἀντὶ τῆς ὀργῆς , ἣν οἱ τἆλλα μικροὶ πρὸς ἰσχύος λαμβάνουσιν οὐκ ἐν τοῖς μεγάλοις μόνον ἀλλὰ καὶ ἐπὶ τοῖς τυχοῦσιν αὐτῇ χρώμενοι , γενοῦ πρὸς αὐτὴν μεγαλόφρων καὶ μὴ νικηθῇς ὑπ’ αὐτῆς , ὥστε ἀποκτεῖναι τοὺς οὐδ’ αὐτοὺς ὡς ἰδίας ἔτι τῆς σωτηρίας ἀντιποιουμένους , ἀλλὰ παρὰ σοῦ λαβεῖν αὐτὴν ἀξιοῦντας .
[142] καὶ γὰρ οὐδὲ νῦν πρῶτον ἡμῖν αὐτὴν παρέξεις , ἀλλὰ τάχιον ἐλθοῦσιν ἐπὶ τὴν ἀγορὰν τοῦ σίτου καὶ τὴν εὐπορίαν τῆς τροφῆς ἐχαρίσω δοὺς ἀποκομίζειν καὶ τοῖς οἰκείοις ὅσα κινδυνεύοντας αὐτοὺς ὑπὸ τοῦ λιμοῦ διαφθαρῆναι περιέσωσε .
[143] διαφέρει δ’ οὐδὲν μὴ περιιδεῖν ἀπολλυμένους ὑπ’ ἐνδείας τῶν ἀναγκαίων , μὴ κολάσαι δόξαντας ἁμαρτεῖν καὶ περὶ τὴν εὐεργεσίαν τὴν ἀπὸ σοῦ λαμπρὰν γενομένην φθονηθέντας , δ’ αὐτὴ χάρις ἄλλῳ μέντοι τρόπῳ διδομένη ·
[144] σώσεις γὰρ οὓς εἰς τοῦτο καὶ ἔτρεφες καὶ ψυχάς , ἃς ὑπὸ λιμοῦ καμεῖν οὐκ εἴασας , τηρήσεις ταῖς σαυτοῦ δωρεαῖς , ὡς θαυμαστὸν ἅμα καὶ μέγα δοῦναί τε ψυχὰς ἡμῖν καὶ παρασχεῖν δι’ ὧν αὗται μενοῦσιν ἀπορουμένοις .
[145] οἶμαί τε τὸν θεὸν αἰτίαν παρασκευάσαι βουλόμενον εἰς ἐπίδειξιν τοῦ κατὰ τὴν ἀρετὴν περιόντος ἡμᾶς εἰς τοῦτο περιστῆσαι συμφορᾶς , ἵνα καὶ τῶν εἰς αὑτὸν ἀδικημάτων συγγινώσκων φανῇς τοῖς ἐπταικόσιν , ἀλλὰ μὴ πρὸς μόνους τοὺς κατ’ ἄλλην πρόφασιν δεομένους ἐπικουρίας φιλάνθρωπος δοκοίης .
[146] ὡς μέγα μὲν καὶ τὸ ποιῆσαί τινας εὖ καταστάντας εἰς χρείαν , ἡγεμονικώτερον δὲ σῶσαι τοὺς ὑπὲρ τῶν εἰς ἑαυτὸν τετολμημένων δίκην ὀφείλοντας · εἰ γὰρ τὸ περὶ μικρῶν ζημιωμάτων ἀφεῖναι τοὺς πλημμελήσαντας ἔπαινον ἤνεγκε τοῖς ὑπεριδοῦσι , τό γε περὶ τούτων ἀόργητον , ὑπὲρ ὧν τὸ ζῆν ὑπεύθυνον τῇ κολάσει γίνεται τῶν ἠδικηκότων , θεοῦ φύσει προσετέθη .

141I beg you not to consider our unworthiness or our crime but your own excellent nature; take advice from your own virtue, not from that anger you have against us-a passion indulged by those who otherwise are of lower character, as they apply their power not only on great, but also on very trifling occasions. Overcome that passion, sir, and do not be subdued by it, nor let it kill those who cannot protect their own safety, but wish to accept it from you.
142Indeed, this is not the first time that you will grant it on us, but earlier, when we came to buy corn, you gave us great plenty of food and allowed us to bring as much home to our family as has saved them from dying by famine.
143There is no difference between neglecting men who were dying for lack of necessities, and not punishing those apparent offenders who have so unfortunately lost the benefit of that glorious goodwill you showed them. This will be an instance of equal favour, though bestowed in a different way.
144In this way you will save those whom you fed in the other and by your bounty you will keep alive those souls whom you did not allow to be ruined by famine. Indeed it is a wonderful and a great thing to sustain our lives with corn and, now in our distress, bestow on us that pardon by which we may continue those lives.
145I may suppose that, by bringing us to this disaster, God is giving you a chance to show your virtue so that it may be seen how you can forgive wrongs done to yourself and show benevolence to those who, in various ways, need your help.
146For it is a fine thing to do good to those who are in need, but a still more glorious one to save those who deserve to be punished for offenses against yourself. For if it is commendable to forgive and overlook people's small offenses, to restrain one’s passion towards the guilty whose very life is at stake is to be like the most excellent nature of God himself .

[147] καὶ ἔγωγε , εἰ μὴ πατὴρ ἡμῖν ἦν πῶς ἐπὶ παίδων ἀποβολῇ ταλαιπωρεῖ διὰ τῆς ἐπὶ Ἰωσήπῳ λύπης ἐπιδεδειγμένος , οὐκ ἂν τοῦ γε καθ’ ἡμᾶς ἕνεκα περὶ τῆς σωτηρίας λόγους ἐποιησάμην , εἰ μὴ ὅσον τῷ σῷ χαριζόμενος ἤθει σώζειν αὐτῷ καλῶς ἔχοντι , καὶ τούτους οἳ λυπήσονται τεθνηκότων οὐκ ἔχοντες παρείχομεν ἂν αὑτοὺς πεισομένους τι καὶ θελήσειας ·
[148] νῦν δ’ , οὐ γὰρ αὑτοὺς ἐλεοῦντες , εἰ καὶ νέοι καὶ μήπω τῶν κατὰ τὸν βίον ἀπολελαυκότες τεθνηξόμεθα , τὸ δὲ τοῦ πατρὸς λογιζόμενοι καὶ τὸ γῆρας οἰκτείροντες τὸ ἐκείνου ταύτας σοι τὰς δεήσεις προσφέρομεν καὶ παραιτούμεθα ψυχὰς τὰς αὑτῶν , ἅς σοι τὸ ἡμέτερον κακούργημα πρὸς τιμωρίαν παρέδωκεν ,
[149] οὔτε πονηρὸς αὐτὸς οὔτε τοιούτους ἐσομένους ἐγέννησεν ἀλλὰ χρηστὸς ὢν καὶ πειραθῆναι τοιούτων οὐχὶ δίκαιος καὶ νῦν μὲν ἀποδημούντων ταῖς ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν φροντίσι κακοπαθεῖ , πυθόμενος δὲ ἀπολωλότας καὶ τὴν αἰτίαν οὐχ ὑπομενεῖ ἀλλὰ διὰ ταύτην πολὺ μᾶλλον τὸν βίον καταλείπει ,
[150] καὶ τὸ ἄδοξον αὐτὸν τῆς ἡμετέρας καταστροφῆς φθήσεται διαχρησάμενον καὶ κακὴν αὐτῷ ποιήσει τὴν ἐκ τοῦ ζῆν ἀπαλλαγήν , πρὶν εἰς ἄλλους φοιτῆσαι τὰ καθ’ ἡμᾶς σπεύσαντος αὑτὸν εἰς ἀναισθησίαν μεταγαγεῖν .
[151] γενόμενος οὖν ἐν τούτῳ τὸν λογισμόν , εἰ καὶ κακία σε παροξύνει νῦν ἡμετέρα , τὸ κατ’ αὐτῆς δίκαιον χάρισαι τῷ πατρὶ καὶ δυνηθήτω πλέον πρὸς ἐκεῖνον ἔλεος τῆς ἡμετέρας πονηρίας καὶ γῆρας ἐν ἐρημίᾳ βιωσόμενον καὶ τεθνηξόμενον ἡμῶν ἀπολομένων αἴδεσαι , τῷ πατέρων ὀνόματι ταύτην χαριζόμενος τὴν δωρεάν .
[152] ἐν γὰρ τούτῳ καὶ τὸν σὲ φύσαντα τιμᾷς καὶ σαυτῷ δίδως , ἀπολαύων μὲν ἤδη τῆς προσηγορίας , ἀπαθὴς δ’ ἐπ’ αὐτῇ φυλαχθησόμενος ὑπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ τοῦ πάντων πατρός , εἰς ὃν κατὰ κοινωνίαν καὶ αὐτὸς τοῦ ὀνόματος εὐσεβεῖν δόξεις τοῦ ἡμετέρου πατρὸς οἶκτον λαβὼν ἐφ’ οἷς πείσεται τῶν παίδων στερούμενος .
[153] σὸν οὖν , παρέσχεν ἡμῖν θεὸς ταῦτ’ ἔχοντ’ ἐξουσίαν ἀφελέσθαι δοῦναι καὶ μηδὲν ἐκείνου διενεγκεῖν τῇ χάριτι · τῆς γὰρ ἐπαμφότερον δυνάμεως τετυχηκότα καλὸν ταύτην ἐν τοῖς ἀγαθοῖς ἐπιδείκνυσθαι , καὶ παρὸν καὶ ἀπολλύειν τῆς μὲν κατὰ τοῦτο ἐξουσίας ὡς μηδ’ ὑπαρχούσης ἐπιλανθάνεσθαι , μόνον δ’ ἐπιτετράφθαι τὸ σώζειν ὑπολαμβάνειν , καὶ ὅσῳ τις πλείοσι τοῦτο παρέξει μᾶλλον αὐτῷ φαίνεσθαι διδόντα .
[154] σὺ δὲ πάντας ἡμᾶς σώσεις τἀδελφῷ συγγνοὺς ὑπὲρ ὧν ἠτύχηκεν · οὐδὲ γὰρ ἡμῖν βιώσιμα τούτου κολασθέντος , οἷς γε πρὸς τὸν πατέρα μὴ ἔξεστιν ἀνασωθῆναι μόνοις , ἀλλ’ ἐνθάδε δεῖ κοινωνῆσαι τούτῳ τῆς αὐτῆς καταστροφῆς τοῦ βίου .
[155] καὶ δεησόμεθά σου , στρατηγέ , κατακρίναντος τὸν ἀδελφὸν ἡμῶν ἀποθανεῖν συγκολάσαι καὶ ἡμᾶς ὡς τοῦ ἀδικήματος κεκοινωνηκότας · οὐ γὰρ ἀξιώσομεν ἡμεῖς ὡς ἐπὶ λύπῃ τεθνηκότος αὑτοὺς ἀνελεῖν , ἀλλ’ ὡς ὁμοίως αὐτῷ πονηροὶ γεγονότες οὕτως ἀποθανεῖν .
[156] καὶ ὅτι μὲν καὶ νέος ὢν ἥμαρτε καὶ μήπω τὸ φρονεῖν ἐρηρεισμένος καὶ ὡς ἀνθρώπινον τοῖς τοιούτοις συγγνώμην νέμειν , σοὶ καταλιπὼν παύομαι περαιτέρω λέγειν , ἵν’ εἰ μὲν κατακρίνειας ἡμῶν , τὰ μὴ λεχθέντα δόξῃ βεβλαφέναι πρὸς τὸ σκυθρωπότερον ἡμᾶς ,
[157] εἰ δ’ ἀπολύσειας , κἀκεῖνα τῇ σαυτοῦ χρηστότητι συνιδὼν ἀπεψηφίσθαι νομισθῇς , οὐ σώσας μόνον ἡμᾶς ἀλλὰ καὶ δι’ οὗ δικαιότεροι μᾶλλον φανούμεθα τυχεῖν χαριζόμενος καὶ πλέον ἡμῶν αὐτῶν ὑπὲρ τῆς ἡμετέρας νοήσας σωτηρίας .
[158] εἴτ’ οὖν κτείνειν αὐτὸν θέλεις , ἐμὲ τιμωρησάμενος ἀντὶ τούτου τῷ πατρὶ τοῦτον ἀπόπεμψον , εἴτε καὶ κατέχειν σοι δοκεῖ δοῦλον , ἐγὼ πρὸς τὰς χρείας σοι ὑπηρετικώτερος , ἀμείνων ὡς ὁρᾷς πρὸς ἑκάτερον τῶν παθῶν ὑπάρχων .
[159] Ἰούδας μὲν οὖν πάντα ὑπομένειν ὑπὲρ τῆς τἀδελφοῦ σωτηρίας ἡδέως ἔχων ῥίπτει πρὸ τῶν Ἰωσήπου ποδῶν ἑαυτόν , εἴ πως ἐκμαλάξειε τὴν ὀργὴν αὐτοῦ‎ καὶ καταπραύνειεν ἀγωνιζόμενος , προύπεσον δὲ καὶ οἱ ἀδελφοὶ πάντες δακρύοντες καὶ παραδιδόντες ἑαυτοὺς ὑπὲρ τῆς Βενιαμὶν ψυχῆς ἀπολουμένους .

147For myself, if our father had not shown at Joseph's death how terribly he feels the loss of his children, I would say nothing about sparing our own lives, other than that it would be a fine quality in yourself to spare those who would have nobody to mourn them after their death; but we would yield ourselves to whatever you wish.
148But now ( for we do not plead for mercy for ourselves, even if we die so young before having properly enjoyed life, ) thinking of our father and out of pity for his old age, we petition you for his sake. We beg for our lives, which our wrongdoing has made liable to your punishment.
149He is neither a criminal himself nor did he raise us to be wicked, but a good man who should not have to bear such trials, and now while we are away, he suffers from anxiety for us; and if he hears of our death and the reason for it, he will die.
150The ignominy of our ruin will be the death of him, for he will hurry from from this life into insensibility, before the sad story of our end is heard in the rest of the world.
151In light of this, although our misdeed now infuriates you, forgive it for our father's sake, and let your pity for him outweigh our wickedness. Pity his old age, who if we die, will be lonely while he lives and will soon die too, and grant it in honour of fathers.
152By this you will honour him that begot you, as well as yourself, who are already a father. For it you will be protected unharmed by God, the Father of all, for joining him in cordially showing mercy to our father, so that he is not bereft of his sons!
153It is in your power to concede to us what God has given us, though you have the right to take it away, and so to resemble him in charity, for it is good to use on the merciful side the power to give or take away, and though you have the power to kill, to forget that you have it and to see yourself as only given power for saving others, and that the more one uses this power, the better reputation he gains.
154You will save us all by forgiving our brother his misfortune, for we cannot go on living if he is put to death, since we dare not show ourselves alive to our father without our brother, but must here share in his fate.
155So we beg you, general, if you condemn our brother to die, to punish us along with him, as partners in his crime. We do not wish to live only in order to die of grief at our brother's death but would rather die as equally guilty with him.
156Remember that he was young and immature when sinned and how one naturally forgives such young persons. I end here and will say no more than this : if you condemn us, it may be what I have failed to say that brings this severity on us,
157but if you set us free, let it be attributed to your own goodness, aware that you freed us from condemnation, not merely by sparing us but by granting us to appear more righteous than we really are, finding more reasons than ourselves to save us.
158So if you wish to execute him, lay the penalty on me instead and send him back to his father.If you intended to keep him with you as a slave, I am fitter for you in that capacity too, for you see I am more suited for either of those penalties ."
159So Judas, being quite willing to undergo anything for the saving of his brother, fell down at Joseph's feet, struggling to assuage his anger and pacify him. And all his brothers fell down before him, weeping and offering themselves up to destruction for the sake of Benjamin .

[160] δὲ Ἰώσηπος ἐλεγχόμενος ὑπὸ τοῦ πάθους καὶ μηκέτι δυνάμενος τὴν τῆς ὀργῆς φέρειν ὑπόκρισιν κελεύει μὲν ἀπελθεῖν τοὺς παρόντας , ἵνα μόνοις αὑτὸν τοῖς ἀδελφοῖς ποιήσῃ φανερόν , ἀναχωρησάντων δὲ ποιεῖ γνώριμον αὑτὸν τοῖς ἀδελφοῖς καί φησι ·
[161] " τῆς μὲν ἀρετῆς ὑμᾶς καὶ τῆς εὐνοίας τῆς περὶ τὸν ἀδελφὸν ἡμῶν ἐπαινῶ καὶ κρείττονας προσεδόκων ἐκ τῶν περὶ ἐμὲ βεβουλευμένων εὑρίσκω ταῦτα πάντα ποιήσας ἐπὶ πείρᾳ τῆς ὑμετέρας φιλαδελφίας · φύσει δὲ οὐδὲ περὶ ἐμὲ νομίζω πονηροὺς γεγονέναι , θεοῦ δὲ βουλήσει τήν τε νῦν πραγματευομένου τῶν ἀγαθῶν ἀπόλαυσιν καὶ τὴν ἐς ὕστερον , ἂν εὐμενὴς ἡμῖν παραμείνῃ .
[162] πατρός τε οὖν σωτηρίαν ἐγνωκὼς οὐδ’ ἐλπισθεῖσαν καὶ τοιούτους ὑμᾶς ὁρῶν περὶ τὸν ἀδελφὸν οὐδ’ ὧν εἰς ἐμὲ δοκεῖτε ἁμαρτεῖν ἔτι μνημονεύω , παύσομαι δὲ τῆς ἐπ’ αὐτοῖς μισοπονηρίας καὶ ὡς συναιτίοις τῶν τῷ θεῷ βεβουλευμένων εἰς τὰ παρόντα χάριν ἔχειν ὁμολογῶ .
[163] ὑμᾶς τε βούλομαι καὶ αὐτοὺς λήθην ἐκείνων λαβόντας ἥδεσθαι μᾶλλον τῆς τότε ἀβουλίας εἰς τοιοῦτον ἐπελθούσης τέλος δυσφορεῖν αἰσχυνομένους ἐπὶ τοῖς ἡμαρτημένοις . μὴ οὖν δόξῃ λυπεῖν ὑμᾶς τὸ κατ’ ἐμοῦ ψῆφον ἐνεγκεῖν πονηρὰν καὶ ἐπ’ αὐτῇ μετάνοια τῷ γε μὴ προχωρῆσαι τὰ βεβουλευμένα .
[164] χαίροντες οὖν ἐπὶ τοῖς ἐκ θεοῦ γεγενημένοις ἄπιτε ταῦτα δηλώσοντες τῷ πατρί , μὴ καὶ ταῖς ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν φροντίσιν ἀναλωθεὶς ζημιώσῃ μου τὸ κάλλιστον τῆς εὐδαιμονίας πρὶν εἰς ὄψιν ἐλθεῖν τὴν ἐμὴν καὶ μεταλαβεῖν τῶν παρόντων ἀποθανών .
[165] αὐτὸν δὲ τοῦτον καὶ γυναῖκας ὑμετέρας καὶ τὰ τέκνα καὶ πᾶσαν τὴν συγγένειαν ὑμῶν ἀναλαβόντες ἐνθάδε μετοικίζεσθε · οὐδὲ γὰρ ἀποδήμους εἶναι δεῖ τῶν ἀγαθῶν τῶν ἡμετέρων τοὺς ἐμοὶ φιλτάτους ἄλλως τε καὶ τοῦ λιμοῦ λοιπὴν ἔτι πενταετίαν περιμενοῦντος . ταῦτ’ εἰπὼν Ἰώσηπος περιβάλλει τοὺς ἀδελφούς ·
[166] οἱ δ’ ἐν δάκρυσιν ἦσαν καὶ λύπῃ τῶν ἐπ’ αὐτῷ βεβουλευμένων τιμωρίας τ’ οὐδὲν αὐτοῖς ἀπολιπεῖν ἐδόκει τὸ εὔγνωμον τἀδελφοῦ . καὶ τότε μὲν ἦσαν ἐν εὐωχίᾳ ·
[167] βασιλεὺς δ’ ἀκούσας ἥκοντας πρὸς τὸν Ἰώσηπον τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς ἥσθη τε μεγάλως καὶ ὡς ἐπ’ οἰκείῳ διατεθεὶς ἀγαθῷ παρεῖχεν αὐτοῖς ἁμάξας σίτου πλήρεις καὶ χρυσὸν καὶ ἄργυρον ἀποκομίζειν τῷ πατρί . λαβόντες δὲ πλείω παρὰ τἀδελφοῦ τὰ μὲν τῷ πατρὶ φέρειν τὰ δὲ αὐτοὶ δωρεὰς ἔχειν ἕκαστος ἰδίας , πλειόνων ἠξιωμένου Βενιαμὶν παρ’ αὐτούς , ἀπῄεσαν .

160But Joseph, by now overcome by his feelings and no longer able to play the part of an angry man, ordered all present to leave, in order to make himself known to his brothers in private. When the rest had left he made himself known to his brothers, saying,
161"I commend your virtue and your kindness to our brother and find you better men than I could have expected after what you did to me. Indeed, I did all this to test your brotherly love, so I believe you were not wicked by nature in what you did to me, but that all has happened according to the will of God, who secures our enjoyment of the good things we have, and, if his favour continues to us, our future good too.
162Therefore since I know that our father is safe and well beyond what I expected and I see you so good to your brother, I will no longer remember your sin against me, and end my grievance, and rather thank you for playing your part in God's plan to bring things to their present state.
163I want you also to forget about it, since that foolishness of yours led to such a happy ending, rather than be ill-at-ease and ashamed of your offenses. Do not now grieve about the sentence you passed on me or the bitter remorse of it, since what you planned did not happen.
164So go your way with joy at what divine Providence has done and tell it to your father, lest he fade away with worry on your behalf and deprives me of the best part of my happiness and dies before he comes into my sight and tastes the good things we now enjoy.
165Bring our father and your wives and children and all your relatives and come and live here, for it is not right for those dearest to me to live far from me, now that my affairs are prospering, especially when they have five more years of famine to come ."
166Saying this, Joseph embraced his brothers, who were in tears and sorrow, but their brother's goodwill seemed to leave no fear of their being punished for what they had conspired and done against him and they were elated.
167The king, when he heard that Joseph's brothers had come to him, was as glad as if it had been his personal good fortune, and gave them wagons full of corn and gold and silver, to bring to their father. After receiving still more from their brother, some for their father and some as gifts for each of them, with Benjamin getting even more than the rest, they left
Chapter 7
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[168-193]
Jacob and family go down to Egypt, to escape a famine

[168] ὡς δ’ ἀφικομένων τῶν παίδων Ἰάκωβος τὰ περὶ τὸν Ἰώσηπον ἔμαθεν , ὅτι μὴ μόνον εἴη τὸν θάνατον διαπεφευγὼς ἐφ’ πενθῶν διῆγεν , ἀλλὰ καὶ ζῇ μετὰ λαμπρᾶς εὐδαιμονίας βασιλεῖ συνδιέπων τὴν Αἴγυπτον καὶ τὴν ἅπασαν σχεδὸν ἐγκεχειρισμένος αὐτῆς ἐπιμέλειαν ,
[169] ἄπιστον μὲν οὐδὲν ἐδόκει τῶν ἠγγελμένων λογιζόμενος τοῦ θεοῦ τὴν μεγαλουργίαν καὶ τὴν πρὸς αὐτὸν εὔνοιαν , εἰ καὶ τῷ μεταξὺ χρόνῳ διέλιπεν , ὥρμητο δ’ εὐθὺς πρὸς τὸν Ἰώσηπον .

168When on his sons' return Jacob learned that Joseph not only had escaped the death his father had been mourning for so long, but actually lived in splendor and prosperity, ruling Egypt alongside its king, who had entrusted almost everything to his care
169he no longer considered anything to be incredible, in light of the greatness of the works of God and his kindness to him, though at times it was less visible; so he instantly and eagerly set out to go to Joseph .

[170] ὡς δὲ κατέσχεν ἐπὶ τὸ Ὅρκιον φρέαρ θύσας αὐτόθι τῷ θεῷ καὶ φοβούμενος διὰ τὴν εὐδαιμονίαν τὴν ἐν Αἰγύπτῳ τῶν παίδων ἐμφιλοχωρησάντων τῇ οἰκήσει τῇ ἐν αὐτῇ , μὴ οὐκέτ’ εἰς τὴν Χαναναίαν οἱ ἔγγονοι μετελθόντες κατάσχωσιν αὐτήν , ὡς θεὸς ἦν ὑπεισχημένος ,
[171] ἅμα τε μὴ δίχα θεοῦ βουλήσεως γενομένης τῆς εἰς Αἴγυπτον ἀφόδου διαφθαρῇ τὸ γένος αὐτοῦ‎ , πρὸς δὲ τούτοις δεδιώς , μὴ προεξέλθῃ τοῦ βίου πρὶν εἰς ὄψιν Ἰωσήπου παραγενέσθαι , καταφέρεται στρέφων ἐν ἑαυτῷ τοῦτον τὸν λογισμὸν εἰς ὕπνον .

170When he reached the Well of the Oath he offered sacrifice to God, afraid that the prosperity in Egypt might tempt his descendants to fall in love with it and settle in it and no more think of moving to the land of Canaan and possessing it, as God had promised them.
171He also feared that if this descent into Egypt was against the will of God, his family might be destroyed and he might depart this life before seeing Joseph again. Revolving these doubts in his mind, he fell asleep .

[172] Ἐπιστὰς δὲ θεὸς αὐτῷ καὶ δὶς ὀνομαστὶ καλέσας πυνθανομένῳ τίς ἐστιν , " ἀλλ’ οὐ δίκαιον , εἶπεν , Ἰακώβῳ θεὸν ἀγνοεῖσθαι τὸν ἀεὶ παραστάτην καὶ βοηθὸν προγόνοις τε τοῖς σοῖς καὶ μετ’ αὐτοὺς σοὶ γενόμενον .
[173] στερουμένῳ τε γάρ σοι τῆς ἀρχῆς ὑπὸ τοῦ πατρὸς ταύτην ἐγὼ παρέσχον , καὶ κατ’ ἐμὴν εὔνοιαν εἰς τὴν Μεσοποταμίαν μόνος σταλεὶς γάμων τε ἀγαθῶν ἔτυχες καὶ παίδων ἐπαγόμενος πλῆθος καὶ χρημάτων ἐνόστησας .
[174] παρέμεινέ τέ σοι γενεὰ πᾶσα προνοίᾳ τῇ ἐμῇ , καὶ ὃν ἀπολωλέναι τῶν υἱῶν ἐδόκεις Ἰώσηπον εἰς ἀπόλαυσιν μειζόνων ἀγαθῶν ἤγαγον καὶ τῆς Αἰγύπτου κύριον , ὡς ὀλίγῳ διαφέρειν τοῦ βασιλέως , ἐποίησα .
[175] ἥκω τε νῦν ὁδοῦ τε ταύτης ἡγεμὼν ἐσόμενος καὶ βίου σου τελευτὴν ἐν ταῖς Ἰωσήπου χερσὶ γενησομένην προδηλῶν καὶ μακρὸν αἰῶνα τῶν σῶν ἐγγόνων ἐν ἡγεμονίᾳ καὶ δόξῃ καταγγέλλων καταστήσων τε αὐτοὺς εἰς τὴν γῆν ἣν ὑπέσχημαι ."

172But God stood near him and twice called him by name, and as he asked who he was, said, "Surely Jacob, you cannot fail to know the God who has always protected and helped your ancestors, and now you too.
173For when your father would have denied you the leadership, I gave it to you, and it was by my kindness that, when you were sent all alone into Mesopotamia, you met good wives and returned with many children and much wealth.
174Your whole family has been upheld by my providence, and it was I who led Joseph, your son, whom you gave up for lost, to enjoy such great prosperity as lord of Egypt that he differs but little from a king.
175I now come as a guide to you in this journey, and foretell that you will die in the arms of Joseph : and that your descendants shall be in authority and glory over long ages, as I will settle them in the land which I have promised ."

[176] Τούτῳ θαρρήσας τῷ ὀνείρατι προθυμότερον εἰς τὴν Αἴγυπτον σὺν τοῖς υἱοῖς καὶ παισὶν τοῖς τούτων ἀπηλλάττετο . ἦσαν δ’ οἱ πάντες [ πέντε καὶ ] ἑβδομήκοντα . τὰ μὲν οὖν ὀνόματα δηλῶσαι τούτων οὐκ ἐδοκίμαζον καὶ μάλιστα διὰ τὴν δυσκολίαν αὐτῶν ·
[177] ἵνα μέντοι παραστήσω τοῖς οὐχ ὑπολαμβάνουσιν ἡμᾶς ἐκ τῆς Μεσοποταμίας ἀλλ’ Αἰγυπτίους εἶναι , ἀναγκαῖον ἡγησάμην μνησθῆναι τῶν ὀνομάτων . Ἰακώβου μὲν οὖν παῖδες ἦσαν δώδεκα · τούτων Ἰώσηπος ἤδη προαφῖκτο · τοὺς οὖν μετ’ αὐτὸν καὶ τοὺς ἐκ τούτων γεγονότας δηλώσομεν .
[178] Ῥουβήλου μὲν ἦσαν παῖδες τέσσαρες , Ἀνώχης Φαλοὺς Ἐσσαρὼν Χάρμισος · Σεμεῶνος δ’ ἕξ , Ἰούμηλος Ἰάμεινος Πούθοδος Ἰαχῖνος Σόαρος Σααρᾶς · τρεῖς δὲ Λευὶ γεγόνασιν υἱοί , Γολγόμης Κάαθος Μαράιρος · Ἰούδᾳ δὲ παῖδες ἦσαν τρεῖς , Σάλας Φάρεσος Ἐζελοός , υἱωνοὶ δὲ δύο γεγονότες ἐκ Φαρέσου , Ἐσρὼν καὶ Ἄμουρος . Ἰσακχάρου δὲ τέσσαρες , Θούλας Φρουρᾶς Ἴωβος Σαμάρων .
[179] τρεῖς δὲ Ζαβουλὼν ἦγεν υἱούς , Σάραδον Ἥλωνα Ἰάνηλον . τοῦτο μὲν τὸ ἐκ Λείας γένος · καὶ αὐτῇ συνανῄει καὶ θυγάτηρ αὐτῆς Δεῖνα .
[180] τρεῖς οὗτοι καὶ τριάκοντα . Ῥαχήλας δὲ παῖδες ἦσαν δύο · τούτων Ἰωσήπῳ μὲν γεγόνεισαν υἱοὶ Μανασσῆς καὶ Ἐφράνης . Βενιαμεῖ δὲ τῷ ἑτέρῳ δέκα , Βόλος Βάκχαρις Ἀσαβῆλος Γήλας Νεεμάνης Ἴης Ἄρως Νομφθὴς Ὀππαῖς Ἄροδος . οὗτοι τέσσαρες καὶ δέκα πρὸς τοῖς πρότερον κατειλεγμένοις εἰς ἑπτὰ καὶ τεσσαράκοντα γίνονται τὸν ἀριθμόν .
[181] καὶ τὸ μὲν γνήσιον γένος τῷ Ἰακώβῳ τοῦτο ἦν , ἐκ Βάλλας δὲ αὐτῷ γίνονται τῆς Ῥαχήλας θεραπαινίδος Δάνος καὶ Νεφθαλίς , τέσσαρες εἵποντο παῖδες , Ἐλιῆλος Γοῦνις Σάρης τε καὶ Σέλλιμος , Δάνῳ δὲ μονογενὲς ἦν παιδίον Οὖσις .
[182] τούτων προσγινομένων τοῖς προειρημένοις πεντήκοντα καὶ τεσσάρων πληροῦσιν ἀριθμόν . Γάδης δὲ καὶ Ἀσῆρος ἐκ Ζελφᾶς μὲν ἦσαν , ἦν Λείας δὲ αὕτη θεραπαινίς , παῖδας δ’ ἐπήγοντο Γάδης μὲν ἑπτά , Ζοφωνίαν Οὔγιν Σοῦνιν Ζάβρωνα Εἰρήνην Ἐρωίδην Ἀριήλην ·
[183] Ἀσήρωνός τε ἦν θυγάτηρ καὶ ἄρσενες ἀριθμὸν ἕξ , οἷς ὀνόματα Ἰώμνης Ἰσούσιος Ἠιούβης Βάρης Ἀβαρός τε καὶ Μελχιῆλος . τούτων ἑκκαίδεκα ὄντων καὶ προστιθεμένων τοῖς πεντήκοντα τέσσαρσιν προειρημένος ἀριθμὸς πληροῦται μὴ συγκαταλεγέντος αὐτοῖς Ἰακώβου .

176Encouraged by this dream, he set off more cheerfully for Egypt with his sons and all belonging to them, who were seventy in all. I once thought it best not to set down the names of this family, mainly on account of their difficulty.
177But now I think it necessary to mention the names, to rebut those who claim we originally came not from Mesopotamia but from Egypt. Now Jacob had twelve sons, of whom Joseph had gone ahead; and we will set down the names of his children and grandchildren.
178Rubel had four sons, Anoch, Phallu, Assaron and Charmi. Simeon had six, Jamuel, Jamin, Avod, Jachin, Soar and Saul. Levi had three, Gersom, Caath and Merari. Judas had three, Sala, Phares and Elelos, and by Phares two grandchildren, Esron and Amour. Issachar had four, Thoulas, Phrouras, Jobos and Samaron.
179Zabulon had three, Sarad, Helon and Jalel. Thus far, the descendants of Leah and with her was her daughter Dinah, thirty-three in all.
180Rachel had two sons, one of whom, Joseph, also had two sons, Manasses and Ephraim. The other, Benjamin, had ten sons, Bolos, Baccharis, Asabel, Gelas, Naaman, Jes, Aros, Nomphis, Oppais and Arod. These fourteen added to the thirty-three above-listed, amount to forty-seven.
181These were the legitimate descendants of Jacob. Besides, he had by Bilhah, the serving girl of Rachel, Dan and Nephthali, who in turn had four sons to follow him, Eliel, Gounis, Sares and Sellimos. Dan had just one son, Ousis.
182Along with the above-named, these add up to fifty-four. Gad and Asseron were the sons of Zilpha, Leah's serving girl. Gad had seven children, Sophoniah, Ougis, Sunis, Zabrona, Irene, Eroides and Ariel.
183Aseron had a daughter, Sarah and six boys, whose names were Jomnes, Isousios, Ioubes, Baris, Abaros and Melchielos. If we add these, which are sixteen, to the fifty-four, the cited number is complete, without including Jacob himself .

[184] Μαθὼν δὲ Ἰώσηπος παραγινόμενον τὸν πατέρα , καὶ γὰρ προλαβὼν Ἰούδας ἀδελφὸς ἐδήλωσεν αὐτῷ τὴν ἄφιξιν , ἀπαντησόμενος ἔξεισι καὶ καθ’ Ἡρώων πόλιν αὐτῷ συνέβαλεν . δ’ ὑπὸ τῆς χαρᾶς ἀπροσδοκήτου τε καὶ μεγάλης γενομένης μικροῦ δεῖν ἐξέλιπεν , ἀλλὰ ἀνεζωπύρησεν αὐτὸν Ἰώσηπος οὐδ’ αὐτὸς μὲν κρατῆσαι δυνηθεὶς ὡς μὴ ταὐτὸ παθεῖν ὑφ’ ἡδονῆς , οὐ μέντοι τὸν αὐτὸν τρόπον τῷ πατρὶ γενόμενος ἥττων τοῦ πάθους .
[185] ἔπειτα τὸν μὲν ἠρέμα κελεύσας ὁδεύειν αὐτὸς δὲ παραλαβὼν πέντε τῶν ἀδελφῶν ἠπείγετο πρὸς τὸν βασιλέα φράσων αὐτῷ παραγενόμενον μετὰ τοῦ γένους τὸν Ἰάκωβον . δὲ τοῦτο χαίρων ἤκουσε καὶ τὸν Ἰώσηπον ἐκέλευσεν αὐτῷ λέγειν τίνι βίῳ τερπόμενοι διατελοῦσιν ὡς αὐτοῖς τοῦτον ἐπιτρέψειε διάγειν .
[186] δὲ ποιμένας ἀγαθοὺς αὐτοὺς ἔλεγε καὶ μηδενὶ τῶν ἄλλων τούτῳ μόνῳ προσανέχειν , τοῦ τε μὴ διαζευγνυμένους ἀλλ’ ἐν ταὐτῷ τυγχάνοντας ἐπιμελεῖσθαι τοῦ πατρὸς προνοούμενος τοῦ τε τοῖς Αἰγυπτίοις εἶναι προσφιλεῖς μηδὲν πράττοντας τῶν αὐτῶν ἐκείνοις · Αἰγυπτίοις γὰρ ἀπειρημένον ἦν περὶ νομὰς ἀναστρέφεσθαι .

184When Joseph learned that his father was coming, for his brother Judas went ahead to announce his approach, he went out to meet him and they met together at the City of Heroes. At this great and unexpected joy, the old man almost passed away, but Joseph revived him, though he too could not restrain a similar passion of delight, but he was not as overcome by feeling as was his father.
185Then he bade them to travel on slowly, while he himself took five of his brothers and hurried to the king, to announce the arrival of Jacob and his family. He was glad to hear this news and asked Joseph what sort of life his brothers liked to lead, so as to let them continue it.
186He replied that they were good shepherds, who were used to no other employment, so he provided that they should not be separated, but live in the same region and take care of their father. He also took care that they should be acceptable to the Egyptians, by doing no activity that would interfere with theirs, for the practice shepherding was forbidden to the Egyptians .

[187] Τοῦ δ’ Ἰακώβου παραγενομένου πρὸς τὸν βασιλέα καὶ ἀσπαζομένου τε καὶ κατευχομένου περὶ τῆς βασιλείας αὐτῷ Φαραώθης ἐπυνθάνετο , πόσον ἤδη βεβιωκὼς εἴη χρόνον .
[188] τοῦ δ’ ἑκατὸν ἔτη καὶ τριάκοντα γεγονέναι φήσαντος ἐθαύμασε τοῦ μήκους τῆς ζωῆς τὸν Ἰάκωβον . εἰπόντος δ’ ὡς ἥττονα τῶν προγόνων εἴη βεβιωκὼς ἔτη συνεχώρησεν αὐτῷ ζῆν μετὰ τῶν τέκνων ἐν Ἡλιουπόλει · ἐν ἐκείνῃ γὰρ καὶ οἱ ποιμένες αὐτοῦ‎ τὰς νομὰς εἶχον .

187After Jacob had met and greeted the king and wished prosperity to his realm, Pharaothes asked him how long he had now lived.
188When he replied a hundred and thirty years, he wondered at Jacob's longevity, but he replied that still he had not lived as long as his ancestors. Then he let him and his children live in Heliopolis, the city where the royal shepherds had their pasturage .

[189] δὲ λιμὸς τοῖς Αἰγυπτίοις ἐπετείνετο καὶ τὸ δεινὸν ἀπορώτερον ἔτι καὶ μᾶλλον αὐτοῖς ἐγίνετο μήτε τοῦ ποταμοῦ ἐπάρδοντος , οὐ γὰρ ηὔξανε , μήτε ὕοντος τοῦ θεοῦ πρόνοιάν τε μηδεμίαν αὐτῶν ὑπ’ ἀγνοίας πεποιημένων . καὶ τοῦ Ἰωσήπου τὸν σῖτον ἐπὶ χρήμασιν αὐτοῖς διδόντος , ὡς [ δὲ ] ταῦτ’ αὐτοῖς ἐπέλιπε , τῶν βοσκημάτων ἐωνοῦντο τὸν σῖτον καὶ τῶν ἀνδραπόδων ·
[190] οἷς δὲ καὶ γῆς τις ἦν μοῖρα ταύτην παρεχώρουν ἐπὶ τιμῇ τροφῆς . οὕτως τε τοῦ βασιλέως πάσης αὐτῶν τῆς περιουσίας κυρίου γεγενημένου , μετῳκίσθησαν ἄλλος ἀλλαχοῦ , ὅπως βεβαία γένηται τῷ βασιλεῖ τῆς χώρας τούτων κτῆσις , πλὴν τῶν ἱερέων · τούτοις γὰρ ἔμενεν χώρα αὐτῶν .
[191] ἐδούλου τ’ αὐτῶν οὐ τὰ σώματα μόνον τὸ δεινόν , ἀλλὰ καὶ τὰς διανοίας καὶ τὸ λοιπὸν εἰς ἀσχήμονα τῆς τροφῆς εὐπορίαν αὐτοὺς κατηνάγκαζε . λωφήσαντος δὲ τοῦ κακοῦ καὶ τοῦ τε ποταμοῦ τῆς γῆς ἐπιβάντος καὶ ταύτης τοὺς καρποὺς ἀφθόνως ἐκφερούσης ,
[192] Ἰώσηπος εἰς ἑκάστην παραγενόμενος πόλιν καὶ συλλέγων ἐν αὐταῖς τὸ πλῆθος τήν τε γῆν αὐτοῖς , ἣν ἐκείνων παραχωρούντων βασιλεὺς ἔχειν ἠδύνατο καὶ καρποῦσθαι μόνος , εἰς ἅπαν ἐχαρίζετο καὶ κτῆμα ἴδιον ἡγουμένους φιλεργεῖν παρεκάλει τὴν πέμπτην τῶν καρπῶν τῷ βασιλεῖ τελοῦντας ὑπὲρ τῆς χώρας , ἣν δίδωσιν αὐτοῖς οὖσαν αὐτοῦ‎ .
[193] τοὺς δὲ παρ’ ἐλπίδας κυρίους τῆς γῆς καθισταμένους χαρά τε ἐλάμβανε καὶ ὑφίσταντο τὰ προστάγματα . καὶ τούτῳ τῷ τρόπῳ τό τε ἀξίωμα παρὰ τοῖς Αἰγυπτίοις αὐτοῦ‎ μεῖζον Ἰώσηπος ἀπεργάζεται , καὶ πλείω γε τὴν εὔνοιαν τῷ βασιλεῖ παρ’ αὐτῶν , τε τοῦ τελεῖν τὴν πέμπτην τῶν καρπῶν νόμος ἔμεινε καὶ μέχρι τῶν ὕστερον βασιλέων .

189But the famine extended to the Egyptians and their plight grew more insoluble as the river did not flood; for it had ceased to rise and God send no rain, and they had made no preparations, unsure of what to do. Then Joseph sold them corn for their money, and when their money failed they bought corn with their cows and their slaves.
190Any of them who had a small piece of land gave it up to purchase food, so that the king became owner of all their property, and they were moved here and there so that their land came firmly into the king's possession, except that of the priests, which continued to be their own.
191The crisis enslaved their minds as well as their bodies, and finally forced them to obtain food by shameful means. When the misery ceased and the river overflowed the ground, so that it again became very fruitful,
192Joseph went to every city and assembled the people and gave them back entirely the land which, with their own consent, the king alone might have possessed and enjoyed, urging them to look on it as the possession of all, and to set cheerfully about their farming, paying as a tax to the king one fifth of the fruits of the land which the king, when it was his, restored to them.
193These were glad at unexpectedly recovering their lands and willingly accepted this decree, by means of which Joseph achieved for himself a greater authority among the Egyptians and gained their greater love toward the king. This law, taxing a fifth part of their fruits, continued to later kings .
Chapter83
.
[194-200]
Deaths of Jacob and Joseph, in Egypt

[194] Ἰάκωβος δὲ ἑπτακαιδέκατον ἔτος ἐν Αἰγύπτῳ διατρίψας καὶ νόσῳ χρησάμενος παρόντων αὐτῷ τῶν υἱῶν ἀπέθανεν , ἐπευξάμενος τοῖς μὲν κτῆσιν ἀγαθῶν καὶ προειπὼν αὐτοῖς κατὰ προφητείαν , πῶς μέλλει τῶν ἐκ τῆς γενεᾶς αὐτῶν ἕκαστος κατοικεῖν τὴν Χαναναίαν · τοῦτο δὴ καὶ πολλοῖς ὕστερον χρόνοις ἐγένετο ·
[195] Ἰωσήπου δ’ ἐγκώμιον διεξελθών , ὅτι μὴ μνησικακήσειε τοῖς ἀδελφοῖς , ἀλλὰ καὶ τούτου πλέον χρηστὸς εἰς αὐτοὺς ἐγένετο δωρησάμενος αὐτοὺς ἀγαθοῖς , οἷς οὐδὲ εὐεργέτας τινὲς ἠμείψαντο , προσέταξε τοῖς ἰδίοις παισίν , ἵνα τοὺς Ἰωσήπου παῖδας Ἐφρὴν καὶ Μανασσῆν εἰς τὸν αὐτῶν ἀριθμὸν προσῶνται διαιρούμενοι μετ’ αὐτῶν τὴν Χαναναίαν , περὶ ὧν ὕστερον ἐροῦμεν ·
[196] ἠξίου μέντοι καὶ ταφῆς ἐν Νεβρῶνι τυγχάνειν · τελευτᾷ δὲ βιοὺς ἔτη τὰ πάντα τριῶν δέοντα πεντήκοντα καὶ ἑκατόν , μηδενὸς μὲν τῶν προγόνων ἀπολειφθεὶς ἐπ’ εὐσεβείᾳ τοῦ θεοῦ , τυχὼν δὲ ἀμοιβῆς ἧς δίκαιον ἦν τοὺς οὕτως ἀγαθοὺς γεγονότας . Ἰώσηπος δὲ συγχωρήσαντος αὐτῷ τοῦ βασιλέως τὸν τοῦ πατρὸς νεκρὸν εἰς Νεβρῶνα κομίσας ἐκεῖ θάπτει πολυτελῶς .
[197] τῶν δ’ ἀδελφῶν οὐ βουλομένων αὐτῷ συνυποστρέφειν , δέος γὰρ αὐτοὺς εἶχε μὴ τεθνηκότος αὐτοῖς τοῦ πατρὸς τιμωρήσαιτο τῆς εἰς αὐτὸν ἐπιβουλῆς οὐκέτ’ ὄντος χαρίζοιτο τὴν πρὸς αὐτοὺς μετριότητα , πείθει μηδὲν ὑφορᾶσθαι μηδ’ ἔχειν αὐτὸν δι’ ὑποψίας , ἀγαγὼν δὲ μετ’ αὐτοῦ‎ κτῆσιν πολλὴν ἐχαρίσατο καὶ πάσῃ περὶ αὐτοὺς σπουδῇ χρώμενος οὐκ ἀπέλιπε .

194When Jacob had lived seventeen years in Egypt, he fell ill and died in the presence of his sons, having prayed for their prosperity and foretold in prophecy how each of them would fare in the land of Canaan, as happened many years later.
195He also praised Joseph highly, for not holding his brothers evil doings against them, but treating them kindly, with such gifts as men seldom give even to their benefactors. He told his own sons to count Joseph's sons, Ephraim and Manasses, among their number and give each of them a share in the land of Canaan, as we shall later describe.
196With a request to be buried at Hebron, he died, when he had lived full a hundred and fifty years, less three, having been second to none of his ancestors in religious devotion and having a fitting reward for such goodness. With the king's permission, Joseph brought his father's corpse to Hebron and buried it there, in costly style.
197His brothers were at first unwilling to return with him, afraid of being punished for their plotting, now that their father was dead, for whose sake he had been gracious to them. But persuading them not to fear and not suspect him of this, he brought them with him and lavished them with property and never ceased to be actively concerned for them .

[198] Τελευτᾷ δὲ καὶ οὗτος ἔτη βιώσας ἑκατὸν καὶ δέκα θαυμάσιος τὴν ἀρετὴν γενόμενος καὶ λογισμῷ πάντα διοικῶν καὶ τὴν ἐξουσίαν ταμιευόμενος , δὴ καὶ τῆς τοιαύτης εὐδαιμονίας αἴτιον αὐτῷ παρὰ τοῖς Αἰγυπτίοις ἀλλαχόθεν ἥκοντι καὶ μετὰ τοιαύτης κακοπραγίας , μεθ’ ἧς προειρήκαμεν , ὑπῆρχε .
[199] τελευτῶσι δ’ αὐτοῦ‎ καὶ οἱ ἀδελφοὶ ζήσαντες εὐδαιμόνως ἐπὶ τῆς Αἰγύπτου . καὶ τούτων μὲν τὰ σώματα κομίσαντες μετὰ χρόνον οἱ ἀπόγονοι καὶ οἱ παῖδες ἔθαψαν ἐν Νεβρῶνι ,
[200] τὰ δὲ Ἰωσήπου ὀστᾶ ὕστερον , ὅτε μετανέστησαν ἐκ τῆς Αἰγύπτου οἱ Ἑβραῖοι , εἰς τὴν Χαναναίαν ἐκόμισαν · οὕτως γὰρ αὐτοὺς Ἰώσηπος ἐξώρκισε . τούτων οὖν ἕκαστος ὡς ἔσχε καὶ τίσι πόνοις ἐκράτησαν τῆς Χαναναίας σημανῶ προδιηγησάμενος τὴν αἰτίαν δι’ ἣν τὴν Αἴγυπτον ἐξέλιπον .

198Joseph himself died aged a hundred and ten, a man of admirable virtue who conducted all his affairs by reason, and used his authority fairly, which was why he enjoyed such fortune among the Egyptians, though he came from another country in such a pitiful state, as we have said.
199His brothers also died, after living happily in Egypt. Some time later their children and descendants brought their bodies to Hebron and buried them there.
200But later they brought the bones of Joseph into the land of Canaan, when the Hebrews left Egypt, as Joseph had made them swear to do. I will tell later what happened each of them and of their laborious capture of the land of Canaan, but first I must tell how they left Egypt .
Chapter 9

[201-237]
The plight of the Hebrews in Egypt. Moses' childhood in Pharao's family

[201] Αἰγυπτίοις τρυφεροῖς καὶ ῥᾳθύμοις πρὸς πόνους οὖσι καὶ τῶν τε ἄλλων ἡδονῶν ἥττοσι καὶ δὴ καὶ τῆς κατὰ φιλοκέρδειαν συνέβη δεινῶς πρὸς τοὺς Ἑβραίους διατεθῆναι κατὰ φθόνον τῆς εὐδαιμονίας .
[202] ὁρῶντες γὰρ τὸ τῶν Ἰσραηλιτῶν γένος ἀκμάζον καὶ δι’ ἀρετὴν καὶ τὴν πρὸς τὸ πονεῖν εὐφυίαν πλήθει χρημάτων ἤδη καὶ λαμπρούς , κατ’ αὐτῶν αὔξεσθαι τούτους ὑπελάμβανον , ὧν τ’ ἦσαν ὑπὸ Ἰωσήπου τετυχηκότες διὰ χρόνου μῆκος λήθην λαβόντες καὶ τῆς βασιλείας εἰς ἄλλον οἶκον μετεληλυθυίας δεινῶς ἐνύβριζόν τε τοῖς Ἰσραηλίταις καὶ ταλαιπωρίας αὐτοῖς ποικίλας ἐπενόουν .
[203] τόν τε γὰρ ποταμὸν εἰς διώρυχας αὐτοῖς πολλὰς προσέταξαν διατεμεῖν τείχη τε οἰκοδομῆσαι ταῖς πόλεσι καὶ χώματα , ὅπως ἂν εἴργοι τὸν ποταμὸν μὴ λιμνάζειν ἐπεκβαίνοντα , πυραμίδας τε ἀνοικοδομοῦντες ἐξετρύχουν ἡμῶν τὸ γένος , ὡς τέχνας τε παντοίας ἀναδιδάσκεσθαι καὶ τοῖς πόνοις γενέσθαι συνήθεις .
[204] καὶ τετρακοσίων μὲν ἐτῶν χρόνον διήνυσαν ταῖς ταλαιπωρίαις · ἀντεφιλονείκουν γὰρ οἱ μὲν Αἰγύπτιοι τοῖς πόνοις ἐξαπολέσαι τοὺς Ἰσραηλίτας θέλοντες , οἱ δ’ ἀεὶ κρείττους φαίνεσθαι τῶν ἐπιταγμάτων .

201The Egyptians grew too soft and lazy for hard work and went in pursuit of pleasures instead, and were devoted to profit. They grew harsh towards the Hebrews, envying their prosperity.
202Seeing how through their virtue and love of toil the Israelite nation flourished and grew very wealthy, they regarded their increase as a loss to themselves. Over a long time they forgot what they had gained from Joseph, since the crown had passed to another family, and they much abused the Israelites and devised many ways to afflict them.
203They made them cut many channels and walls and earthworks for the river in their cities, to prevent its waters from stagnating after it had overflowed its banks. They also wore them out with building pyramids, forcing them to learn all sorts of arts and grow used to hard labour.
204Four hundred years they spent under these sufferings in mutual conflict, the Egyptians wanting to destroy the Israelites by these labours and the Israelites wanting to hold out under them to the end .

[205] Ἐν τούτοις δ’ ὄντων αὐτῶν τοῖς πράγμασιν αἰτία τοῦ μᾶλλον σπουδάσαι περὶ τὸν ἀφανισμὸν τοῦ γένους ἡμῶν τοῖς Αἰγυπτίοις προσεγένετο τοιαύτη · τῶν ἱερογραμματέων τις , καὶ γάρ εἰσι δεινοὶ περὶ τῶν μελλόντων τὴν ἀλήθειαν εἰπεῖν , ἀγγέλλει τῷ βασιλεῖ τεχθήσεσθαί τινα κατ’ ἐκεῖνον τὸν καιρὸν τοῖς Ἰσραηλίταις , ὃς ταπεινώσει μὲν τὴν Αἰγυπτίων ἡγεμονίαν , αὐξήσει δὲ τοὺς Ἰσραηλίτας τραφεὶς ἀρετῇ τε πάντας ὑπερβαλεῖ καὶ δόξαν ἀείμνηστον κτήσεται .
[206] δείσας δ’ βασιλεὺς κατὰ γνώμην τὴν ἐκείνου κελεύει πᾶν τὸ γεννηθὲν ἄρσεν ὑπὸ τῶν Ἰσραηλιτῶν εἰς τὸν ποταμὸν ῥιπτοῦντας διαφθείρειν , παραφυλάσσειν τε τὰς ὠδῖνας τῶν Ἑβραίων γυναικῶν καὶ τοὺς τοκετοὺς αὐτῶν παρατηρεῖν τὰς Αἰγυπτίων μαίας ·
[207] ὑπὸ γὰρ τούτων αὐτὰς ἐκέλευε μαιοῦσθαι , αἳ διὰ συγγένειαν ἔμελλον μὴ παραβήσεσθαι τὴν τοῦ βασιλέως βούλησιν · τοὺς μέντοι καταφρονήσαντας τοῦ προστάγματος καὶ σώζειν λάθρα τολμήσαντας τὸ τεχθὲν αὐτοῖς ἀναιρεῖσθαι σὺν τῇ γενεᾷ προσέταξεν .
[208] δεινὸν οὖν τοῖς ὑπομένουσι τὸ πάθος , οὐ καθὸ παίδων ἀπεστεροῦντο καὶ γονεῖς ὄντες αὐτοὶ πρὸς τὴν ἀπώλειαν ὑπούργουν τῶν γεννωμένων , ἀλλὰ καὶ ἐπίνοια τῆς τοῦ γένους αὐτῶν ἐπιλείψεως , φθειρομένων μὲν τῶν τικτομένων , αὐτῶν δὲ διαλυθησομένων , χαλεπὴν αὐτοῖς καὶ δυσπαραμύθητον ἐποίει τὴν συμφοράν .
[209] καὶ οἱ μὲν ἦσαν ἐν τούτῳ τῷ κακῷ · κρατήσειε δ’ ἂν οὐδεὶς τῆς τοῦ θεοῦ γνώμης οὐδὲ μυρίας τέχνας ἐπὶ τούτῳ μηχανησάμενος · τε γὰρ παῖς , ὃν προεῖπεν ἱερογραμματεύς , τρέφεται λαθὼν τὴν τοῦ βασιλέως φυλακὴν καὶ ἀληθὴς ἐπὶ τοῖς ἐξ αὐτοῦ‎ γενησομένοις προειπὼν εὑρέθη . γίνεται δ’ οὕτως .

205While they were in this state, something came up that made the Egyptians wish all the more to obliterate our nation. One of their sacred scribes, adept at foretelling the future, told the king that about this time an Israelite child would be born who if he were reared, would bring down the Egyptians' rule and raise up the Israelites. He would excel all people in virtue and win a glory that would be remembered through all ages.
206This was so feared by the king that, following the man's opinion, he ordered them to throw every male child born to the Israelites into the river and destroy it. Besides, the Egyptian midwives should watch the Hebrew women in labour and observe what is born,
207and those women assigned to the office of midwives among them, because of their relationship with the king, would not transgress his commands. He ordered also, that if any parents disobeyed him and dared to save their male children alive, they and their families should be killed.
208This was a severe hardship to those subject to it, not only by losing their sons and making the parents act to destroy their own children, but also as it was meant to wipe out their nation. To see the destruction of their children and their own gradual extinction was a hard and inconsolable disaster to them.
209Such was their state at the time. But none can resist God's purposes, even by devising thousands of subtle ways. For the child foretold by the sacred scribe was reared, concealed from the king's guards, and the predicter made no mistake about what his survival would mean, as we shall see .

[210] Ἀμαράμης τῶν εὖ γεγονότων παρὰ τοῖς Ἑβραίοις , ὡς δεδιὼς ὑπὲρ τοῦ παντὸς ἔθνους , μὴ σπάνει τῆς ἐπιτραφησομένης νεότητος ἐπιλείπῃ , καὶ χαλεπῶς ἐπ’ αὐτῷ φέρων , ἐκύει γὰρ αὐτῷ τὸ γύναιον , ἐν ἀμηχάνοις ἦν ,
[211] πρὸς ἱκετείαν τοῦ θεοῦ τρέπεται παρακαλῶν οἶκτον ἤδη τινὰ λαβεῖν αὐτὸν ἀνθρώπων μηδὲν τῆς εἰς αὐτὸν θρησκείας παραβεβηκότων δοῦναί τ’ ἀπαλλαγὴν αὐτοῖς ὧν παρ’ ἐκεῖνον ἐκακοπάθουν τὸν καιρὸν καὶ τῆς ἐπ’ ἀπωλείᾳ τοῦ γένους αὐτῶν ἐλπίδος .
[212] δὲ θεὸς ἐλεήσας αὐτὸν καὶ πρὸς τὴν ἱκεσίαν ἐπικλασθεὶς ἐφίσταται κατὰ τοὺς ὕπνους αὐτῷ καὶ μήτε ἀπογινώσκειν αὐτὸν περὶ τῶν μελλόντων παρεκάλει τήν τε εὐσέβειαν αὐτῶν ἔλεγε διὰ μνήμης ἔχειν καὶ τὴν ὑπὲρ αὐτῆς ἀμοιβὴν ἀεὶ παρέξειν , ἤδη μὲν καὶ τοῖς προγόνοις αὐτῶν δωρησάμενος τὸ γενέσθαι τοσοῦτον πλῆθος αὐτοὺς ἐξ ὀλίγων .
[213] καὶ Ἅβραμον μὲν μόνον ἐκ τῆς Μεσοποταμίας εἰς τὴν Χαναναίαν παραγενόμενον εὐδαιμονῆσαι τά τε ἄλλα καὶ τῆς γυναικὸς αὐτῷ πρὸς γονὴν ἀκάρπως ἐχούσης πρότερον ἔπειτα κατὰ τὴν αὐτοῦ‎ βούλησιν ἀγαθῆς πρὸς τοῦτο γενομένης τεκνῶσαι παῖδας καὶ καταλιπεῖν μὲν Ἰσμαήλῳ καὶ τοῖς ἐξ αὐτοῦ‎ τὴν Ἀράβων χώραν , τοῖς δ’ ἐκ Κατούρας τὴν Τρωγλοδῦτιν , Ἰσάκῳ δὲ τὴν Χαναναίαν .
[214] " ὅσα τε πολεμῶν κατὰ τὴν ἐμήν , φησί , συμμαχίαν ἠνδραγάθησε κἂν ἀσεβεῖς εἶναι δόξητε καὶ μὴ διὰ μνήμης ἔχοντες . Ἰάκωβον δὲ καὶ τοῖς οὐχ ὁμοφύλοις γνώριμον εἶναι συμβέβηκεν ἐπί τε μεγέθει τῆς εὐδαιμονίας μεθ’ ἧς ἐβίωσε καὶ παισὶ τοῖς αὐτοῦ‎ κατέλιπεν , οὗ μετὰ ἑβδομήκοντα τῶν πάντων εἰς Αἴγυπτον ἀφικομένου ὑπὲρ ἑξήκοντά που μυριάδας ἤδη γεγόνατε .
[215] νῦν δ’ ἐμὲ τοῦ κοινῇ συμφέροντος ὑμῶν ἴστε προνοούμενον καὶ τῆς σῆς εὐκλείας · παῖς γὰρ οὗτος , οὗ τὴν γένεσιν Αἰγύπτιοι δεδιότες κατέκριναν ἀπολλύναι τὰ ἐξ Ἰσραηλιτῶν τικτόμενα , σὸς ἔσται καὶ λήσεται μὲν τοὺς ἐπ’ ὀλέθρῳ παραφυλάσσοντας ,
[216] τραφεὶς δὲ παραδόξως τὸ μὲν Ἑβραίων γένος τῆς παρ’ Αἰγυπτίοις ἀνάγκης ἀπολύσει , μνήμης δὲ ἐφ’ ὅσον μενεῖ χρόνον τὰ σύμπαντα τεύξεται παρ’ ἀνθρώποις οὐχ Ἑβραίοις μόνον ἀλλὰ καὶ παρὰ τοῖς ἀλλοφύλοις , ἐμοῦ τοῦτο χαριζομένου σοί τε καὶ τοῖς ἐκ σοῦ γενησομένοις . ἔσται δ’ αὐτῷ καὶ ἀδελφὸς τοιοῦτος , ὥστε τὴν ἐμὴν ἕξειν ἱερωσύνην αὐτόν τε καὶ τοὺς ἐγγόνους αὐτοῦ‎ διὰ παντὸς τοῦ χρόνου ."

210Amram, one of the noblest of the Hebrews, feared that his whole nation would die out for lack of young men to carry it on, and was agitated as his wife was with child and he did not know what to do.
211So he devoted himself to prayer to God, imploring him to pity those who had broken none of the laws of his worship and to rescue them from their present affliction and thwart their enemies' hopes of destroying their nation.
212And God had mercy on him and listened to his prayer, standing beside him in his sleep and urging him not to despair of his favour in the future. He added that he did not forgotten their piety towards him and would always reward them for it, as in the past he had favoured their ancestors and made them increase from a few to so great a number.
213He reminded him that when Abraham had come alone from Mesopotamia into Canaan, he had prospered him in various ways, and that when his wife was at first barren, he had later enabled her to conceive seed and to bear him sons. He had left the region of Arabia to Ismael and his descendants, and Troglodytis to his sons by Ketura, and Canaan to Isaac.
214"By my help ," he said, "he did great exploits in war, which, unless you are impious, you must still remember. Jacob too became well known to strangers by the greatness of the prosperity he enjoyed and which he left to his sons, who came into Egypt with no more than seventy souls, while you have now become more than six hundred thousand.
215Know that I will provide for the common good of you all, and for your personal fame. This child, whose birth the Egyptians so fear that they have doomed the Israelite children to destruction, will be this child of yours, who shall be hidden from those who watch to destroy him.
216When he has been surprisingly reared, he will save the Hebrew nation from the hardship they suffer from the Egyptians. His fame will last as long as the world, not just among Hebrews but also among foreigners, because of my favour to you and your descendants. His brother, too, shall gain my priesthood, and his descendants after him shall have it to the end of the world .

[217] Ταῦτα τῆς ὄψεως αὐτῷ δηλωσάσης περιεγερθεὶς Ἀμαράμης ἐδήλου τῇ Ἰωχαβέλῃ , γυνὴ δ’ ἦν αὐτοῦ‎ , καὶ τὸ δέος ἔτι μεῖζον διὰ τὴν τοῦ ὀνείρου πρόρρησιν αὐτοῖς συνίστατο · οὐ γὰρ ὡς περὶ παιδὸς μόνον εὐλαβεῖς ἦσαν , ἀλλὰ καὶ ὡς ἐπὶ μεγέθει τοσαύτης εὐδαιμονίας ἐσομένου .
[218] τοῖς μέντοι προκατηγγελμένοις ὑπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ πίστιν τοκετὸς τῆς γυναικὸς παρεῖχε λαθούσης τοὺς φύλακας διὰ τὴν τῶν ὠδίνων ἐπιείκειαν καὶ τῷ μὴ βιαίας αὐτῇ προσπεσεῖν τὰς ἀλγηδόνας . καὶ τρεῖς μὲν μῆνας παρ’ αὐτοῖς τρέφουσι λανθάνοντες ·
[219] ἔπειτα δὲ δείσας Ἀμαράμης , μὴ κατάφωρος γένηται καὶ πεσὼν ὑπὸ τὴν τοῦ βασιλέως ὀργὴν αὐτός τε ἀπόληται μετὰ τοῦ παιδίου καὶ τοῦ θεοῦ τὴν ἐπαγγελίαν ἀφανίσειεν , ἔγνω μᾶλλον ἐπὶ τούτῳ ποιήσασθαι τὴν τοῦ παιδὸς σωτηρίαν καὶ πρόνοιαν τῷ λήσεσθαι πεπιστευκώς , τοῦτο δ’ ἦν ἄδηλον , ἐναποκινδυνεύειν οὐ τῷ παιδὶ μόνον κρυφαίως τρεφομένῳ ἀλλὰ καὶ αὐτῷ ·
[220] τὸν δὲ θεὸν ἡγεῖτο πᾶσαν ἐκποριεῖν ἀσφάλειαν ὑπὲρ τοῦ μηδὲν ψευδὲς γενέσθαι τῶν εἰρημένων . ταῦτα κρίναντες μηχανῶνται πλέγμα βίβλινον ἐμφερὲς τῇ κατασκευῇ κοιτίδι μεγέθους αὐτὸ ποιήσαντες αὐτάρκους εἰς τὸ μετ’ εὐρυχωρίας ἐναποκεῖσθαι τὸ βρέφος , ἔπειτα χρίσαντες ἀσφάλτῳ ,
[221] τῷ γὰρ ὕδατι τὴν διὰ τῶν πλεγμάτων ἀποφράττειν εἴσοδον ἄσφαλτος πέφυκεν , ἐντιθέασι τὸ παιδίον καὶ κατὰ τοῦ ποταμοῦ βαλόντες εἴασαν ἐπὶ τῷ θεῷ τὴν σωτηρίαν αὐτοῦ‎ . καὶ τὸ μὲν ποταμὸς παραλαβὼν ἔφερε , Μαριάμη δὲ τοῦ παιδὸς ἀδελφὴ κελευσθεῖσα ὑπὸ τῆς μητρὸς ἀντιπαρεξῄει φερόμενον ὅποι χωρήσει ὀψομένη τὸ πλέγμα .
[222] ἔνθα καὶ ἔδειξεν θεὸς μηδὲν μὲν τὴν ἀνθρωπίνην σύνεσιν , πᾶν δ’ τι καὶ βουληθείη πράττειν αὐτὸ τέλους ἀγαθοῦ τυγχάνον , καὶ διαμαρτάνοντας μὲν τοὺς ὑπὲρ οἰκείας ἀσφαλείας ἄλλων κατακρίνοντας ὄλεθρον καὶ πολλῇ περὶ τούτου χρησαμένους σπουδῇ ,
[223] σωζομένους δ’ ἐκ παραδόξου καὶ σχεδὸν ἐκ μέσου τῶν κακῶν εὑρισκομένους τὴν εὐπραγίαν τοὺς κινδυνεύοντας τῇ τοῦ θεοῦ γνώμῃ . τοιοῦτον δέ τι καὶ περὶ τὸν παῖδα τοῦτον γενόμενον ἐμφανίζει τὴν ἰσχὺν τοῦ θεοῦ .

217When the vision had told him of these things, Amram woke up and told it to Jochebed his wife, and their fear increased due to the prediction in Amram's dream. They were anxious, not only for the child, but about the great prosperity that was to come.
218But his mother's labour confirmed the prediction of God, for it was hidden from those who watched her, as her pains were light and the throes of delivery did not fall violently upon her. They nourished the child at home secretly for three months,
219but later Amram was afraid of being found out, and that, falling under the king's displeasure, both he and his child would die and so nullify the promise of God. So he decided to entrust the child's safety and care to God, rather than concealing him, which he saw as a risk that endangered both himself and the child, so secretly nourished.
220He reckoned that God would somehow keep it quite safe and not let his prediction be false. With that thought they made a little boat of bullrushes, like a cradle, large enough to hold an infant, and daubed it with tar,
221to keep the water from entering between the bulrushes. Then they set the infant in it and putting it afloat upon the river, left its survival to God. The river received the child and carried him along, but the child's sister Miriam went along upon the bank opposite him, as her mother told her, to see where the ark would be carried.
222God then showed that human wisdom can do nothing while He can do anything for a good purpose and that those who to save their own lineage condemn others to destruction, fail in it no matter what they do,
223while others are amazingly spared and by God's guidance find the way to prosper almost from the heart of their troubles. An instance of this happened in the case of the child, and demonstrates God's power .

[224] Θέρμουθις ἦν θυγάτηρ τοῦ βασιλέως . αὕτη παίζουσα παρὰ τὰς ᾐόνας τοῦ ποταμοῦ καὶ φερόμενον ὑπὸ τοῦ ῥεύματος θεασαμένη τὸ πλέγμα κολυμβητὰς ἐπιπέμπει κελεύσασα τὴν κοιτίδα πρὸς αὐτὴν ἐκκομίσαι . παραγενομένων δὲ τῶν ἐπὶ τούτῳ σταλέντων μετὰ τῆς κοιτίδος ἰδοῦσα τὸ παιδίον ὑπερηγάπησε μεγέθους τε ἕνεκα καὶ κάλλους ·
[225] τοσαύτῃ γὰρ θεὸς περὶ Μωυσῆν ἐχρήσατο σπουδῇ , ὡς ὑπ’ αὐτῶν τῶν ψηφισαμένων διὰ τὴν αὐτοῦ‎ γένεσιν καὶ τῶν ἄλλων τῶν ἐκ τοῦ Ἑβραίων γένους ἀπώλειαν ποιῆσαι τροφῆς καὶ ἐπιμελείας ἀξιωθῆναι . κελεύει τε γύναιον Θέρμουθις ἀχθῆναι παρέξον θηλὴν τῷ παιδίῳ .
[226] μὴ προσεμένου δὲ αὐτοῦ‎ τὴν θηλὴν ἀλλ’ ἀποστραφέντος καὶ τοῦτ’ ἐπὶ πολλῶν ποιήσαντος γυναικῶν Μαριάμη παρατυγχάνουσα τοῖς γινομένοις οὐχ ὥστε ἐκ παρασκευῆς δοκεῖν ἀλλὰ κατὰ θεωρίαν , " μάτην , εἶπεν , βασίλισσα , ταύτας ἐπὶ τροφῇ τοῦ παιδὸς μετακαλῇ τὰς γυναῖκας , αἳ μηδὲν πρὸς αὐτὸ συγγενὲς ἔχουσιν . εἰ μέντοι τινὰ τῶν Ἑβραίδων γυναικῶν ἀχθῆναι ποιήσειας ,
[227] τάχα ἂν προσοῖτο θηλὴν ὁμοφύλου . δόξασαν δὲ λέγειν εὖ κελεύει τοῦτ’ αὐτὴν ἐκπορίσαι καὶ τῶν γαλουχουσῶν τινα μεταθεῖν . δὲ τοιαύτης ἐξουσίας λαβομένη παρῆν ἄγουσα τὴν μητέρα μηδενὶ γινωσκομένην . καὶ τὸ παιδίον ἀσμενίσαν πως προσφύεται τῇ θηλῇ , καὶ δεηθείσης γε τῆς βασιλίδος πιστεύεται τὴν τροφὴν τοῦ παιδίου πρὸς τὸ πᾶν .

224Thermuthis, the king's daughter, was playing on the banks of the river, and seeing the cradle carried along by the current, sent swimmers to bring the cradle to her. When the ones sent came back with the cradle and she saw the little child, she was lovestruck by it, for its size and beauty.
225Since God had formed Moses with such care as made him seem worthy of bringing up and providing for, even by those who had resolved to destroy of the rest of the Hebrew nation, Thermuthis told them to bring her a woman who could breast-feed the child.
226However, when he was placed there he would not take the breast, but turned away from it and did the same to many other women. Miriam was nearby when this happened, not seeming to be there on purpose, but only staying to see the child, and she said, "It is useless, my queen, to call for these women who are not related to the child, to nourish it.
227But if you have one of the Hebrew women come, perhaps it may take the breast from one of its own nation ." As it seemed good advice, she told her to find and bring one of them who could give suck, and with this authority she returned and brought the mother, who was known to nobody there. The child gladly clung to her breast, and at the queen's request, the nursing of the child was entirely entrusted to her .

[228] Κἀπ’ αὐτῶν τὴν ἐπίκλησιν ταύτην τῶν συμβεβηκότων ἔθετο εἰς τὸν ποταμὸν ἐμπεσόντι · τὸ γὰρ ὕδωρ μῶυ Αἰγύπτιοι καλοῦσιν , ἐσῆς δὲ τοὺς [ ἐξ ὕδατος ] σωθέντας . συνθέντες οὖν ἐξ ἀμφοτέρων τὴν προσηγορίαν αὐτῷ ταύτην τίθενται .
[229] καὶ ἦν ὁμολογουμένως κατὰ τὴν τοῦ θεοῦ πρόρρησιν φρονήματός τε μεγέθει καὶ πόνων καταφρονήσει Ἑβραίων ἄριστος . Ἅβραμος γὰρ αὐτῷ πατὴρ ἕβδομος . Ἀμαράμου γὰρ αὐτὸς ἦν παῖς τοῦ Καάθου , Καάθου δὲ πατὴρ Λευὶς τοῦ Ἰακώβου , ὃς ἦν Ἰσάκῳ γενόμενος , Ἁβράμου δὲ οὗτος ἦν .
[230] σύνεσις δὲ οὐ κατὰ τὴν ἡλικίαν ἐφύετ’ αὐτῷ τοῦ δὲ ταύτης μέτρου πολὺ κρείττων , καὶ πρεσβυτέραν διεδείκνυεν ταύτης τὴν περιουσίαν ἐν ταῖς παιδιαῖς , καὶ μειζόνων τῶν ὑπ’ ἀνδρὸς γενησομένων ἐπαγγελίαν εἶχε τὰ τότε πραττόμενα . καὶ τριετεῖ μὲν αὐτῷ γεγενημένῳ θαυμαστὸν θεὸς τὸ τῆς ἡλικίας ἐξῆρεν ἀνάστημα ,
[231] πρὸς δὲ κάλλος οὐδεὶς ἀφιλότιμος ἦν οὕτως , ὡς Μωυσῆν θεασάμενος μὴ ἐκπλαγῆναι τῆς εὐμορφίας , πολλοῖς τε συνέβαινε καθ’ ὁδὸν φερομένῳ συντυγχάνουσιν ἐπιστρέφεσθαι μὲν ὑπὸ τῆς ὄψεως τοῦ παιδός , ἀφιέναι δὲ τὰ σπουδαζόμενα καὶ τῇ θεωρίᾳ προσευσχολεῖν αὐτοῦ‎ · καὶ γὰρ χάρις παιδικὴ πολλὴ καὶ ἄκρατος περὶ αὐτὸν οὖσα κατεῖχε τοὺς ὁρῶντας .

228That is how they gave him his name, from the fact of being placed in the river, for the Egyptians call water by the name of Mou, and those saved from it are called eses. Putting the two words together, they gave him this name.
229As God foretold, he was recognised by all as the best of the Hebrews, for greatness of mind and for enduring hardships. Descended from Abraham seven generations back, Moses was the son of Amram, and Caath's father Levi was the son of Jacob, son of Isaac, son of Abraham.
230Moses was intelligent beyond his age, and grew far beyond that again, and his deeds as a child gave promise of greater things when he came to manhood. Already when he was only three years old, God made him remarkably tall.
231As to his beauty, on seeing Moses, there was nobody so unpolite as not to be touched by his fine appearance. Many who met him as he was carried along the road had to turn around for another look at the child, leaving what they were about to get a good look at him, his childhood charm was so remarkable that it held the viewers against their will .

[232] ὄντα δ’ αὐτὸν τοιοῦτον Θέρμουθις παῖδα ποιεῖται γονῆς γνησίας οὐ μεμοιραμένη , καί ποτε κομίσασα τὸν Μωυσῆν πρὸς τὸν πατέρα ἐπεδείκνυε τοῦτον καὶ ὡς φροντίσειε διαδοχῆς , εἰ καὶ βουλήσει θεοῦ μὴ τύχοι παιδὸς γνησίου , πρὸς αὐτόν τε ἔλεγεν , ἀναθρεψαμένη παῖδα μορφῇ τε θεῖον καὶ φρονήματι γενναῖον , θαυμασίως δὲ αὐτὸν καὶ παρὰ τῆς τοῦ ποταμοῦ λαβοῦσα χάριτος ἐμαυτῆς μὲν ἡγησάμην παῖδα ποιήσασθαι , τῆς δὲ σῆς βασιλείας
[233] διάδοχον . ταῦτα λέγουσα ταῖς τοῦ πατρὸς χερσὶν ἐνετίθει τὸ βρέφος , δὲ λαβὼν καὶ προστερνισάμενος κατὰ φιλοφρόνησιν χάριν τῆς θυγατρὸς ἐπιτίθησιν αὐτῷ τὸ διάδημα · καταφέρει δ’ Μωυσῆς εἰς τὴν γῆν περιελόμενος αὐτὸ κατὰ νηπιότητα δῆθεν ἐπέβαινέ τε αὐτῷ τοῖς ποσί .
[234] καὶ τοῦτο ἔδοξεν οἰωνὸν ἐπὶ τῇ βασιλείᾳ φέρειν . θεασάμενος δ’ ἱερογραμματεὺς καὶ τὴν γένεσιν αὐτοῦ‎ προειπὼν ἐπὶ ταπεινώσει τῆς Αἰγυπτίων ἀρχῆς ἐσομένην ὥρμησεν ἀποκτεῖναι ,
[235] καὶ δεινὸν ἀνακραγών , " οὗτος , εἶπε , βασιλεῦ , παῖς ἐκεῖνος , ὃν κτείνασιν ἡμῖν ἐδήλωσεν θεὸς ἀφόβοις εἶναι , μαρτυρεῖ τῇ προαγορεύσει τοῦ γεγονότος ἐπιβεβηκὼς ἡγεμονίᾳ τῇ σῇ καὶ πατῶν τὸ διάδημα . τοῦτον οὖν ἀνελὼν Αἰγυπτίοις μὲν τὸ ἀπ’ αὐτοῦ‎ δέος ἄνες , Ἑβραίοις δὲ τὴν ἐλπίδα τοῦ δι’ αὐτὸν θάρσους ἀφελοῦ . φθάνει δ’ αὐτὸν Θέρμουθις ἐξαρπάσασα ,
[236] καὶ πρὸς τὸν φόνον ὀκνηρὸς ἦν βασιλεὺς τοιοῦτον αὐτὸν τοῦ θεοῦ παρασκευάσαντος , πρόνοια τῆς Μωυσέος σωτηρίας ἦν . ἐτρέφετο οὖν πολλῆς ἐπιμελείας τυγχάνων , καὶ τοῖς μὲν Ἑβραίοις ἐπ’ αὐτῷ παρῆν ἐλπὶς περὶ τῶν ὅλων ,
[237] δι’ ὑποψίας δ’ εἶχον Αἰγύπτιοι τὴν ἀνατροφὴν αὐτοῦ‎ · μηδενὸς δ’ ὄντος φανεροῦ , δι’ ὃν κἂν ἀπέκτεινεν αὐτὸν βασιλεὺς μηδὲν ὄντα συγγενοὺς διὰ τῆς εἰσποιήσεως τῶν ἄλλων τινός , πλέον ὑπὲρ ὠφελείας τῆς Αἰγυπτίων ἐκ τοῦ προειδέναι τὰ μέλλοντα θαρρεῖν παρῆν , ἀπείχοντο τῆς ἀναιρέσεως αὐτοῦ‎ .

232Thermuthis was not blessed with children, and when she saw what a child he was, she adopted him as her son. Once she brought Moses to show to her father, with a view to making him her successor, if the Deity should will she had no legitimate child of her own. She said, "I have reared a child of divine appearance, with a generous mind, and receiving him from the bounty of the river, I thought to adopt him my son and heir to your kingdom ."
233Saying this, she placed the infant in her father's hands, who took him and hugged him to his breast, and for his daughter's sake jokingly put his crown on him. But Moses took it off and threw it on the ground, and kicked it around playfully, as a child might do.
234This seemed an evil presage about the kingdom of Egypt, and when the sacred scribe who had foretold that his birth would lay that kingdom low, saw it, he rushed across to kill him,
235and with a dreadful cry he said, "This, my king, is the child of whom God showed that if we kill him we shall be free from danger, and he proves the prediction true by trampling on your government and crown. Kill him and save the Egyptians from fear about him and take away the Hebrews' hope of being encouraged by him ."
236But Thermuthis was too quick for him and snatched the child away, and the king was reluctant to kill him, inclined by God, whose providence watched over Moses. So he was reared with great care, and the Hebrews depended on him and hoped great things from him, while the Egyptians were suspicious of his rearing.
237Yet because, if Moses were killed, there was nobody, either related or adopted, with any prediction on his side for claiming the crown of Egypt and likely to be of more use to them, they refrained from killing him .
Chapter 10
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[238-253]
How Moses made war with the Ethiopians

[238] Μωυσῆς μὲν τῷ προειρημένῳ τρόπῳ γεννηθείς τε καὶ τραφεὶς καὶ παρελθὼν εἰς ἡλικίαν φανερὰν τοῖς Αἰγυπτίοις τὴν ἀρετὴν ἐποίησε καὶ τὸ ἐπὶ ταπεινώσει μὲν τῇ ἐκείνων , ἐπ’ αὐξήσει δὲ τῶν Ἑβραίων γεγονέναι τοιαύτης ἀφορμῆς λαβόμενος ·
[239] Αἰθίοπες , πρόσοικοι δ’ εἰσὶ τοῖς Αἰγυπτίοις , ἐμβαλόντες εἰς χώραν αὐτῶν ἔφερον καὶ ἦγον τὰ τῶν Αἰγυπτίων . οἱ δ’ ὑπ’ ὀργῆς στρατεύουσιν ἐπ’ αὐτοὺς ἀμυνούμενοι τῆς καταφρονήσεως , καὶ τῇ μάχῃ κρατηθέντες οἱ μὲν αὐτῶν ἔπεσον οἱ δ’ αἰσχρῶς εἰς τὴν οἰκείαν διεσώθησαν φυγόντες .
[240] ἐπηκολούθησαν δὲ διώκοντες Αἰθίοπες καὶ μαλακίας ὑπολαβόντες τὸ μὴ κρατεῖν ἁπάσης τῆς Αἰγύπτου τῆς χώρας ἐπὶ πλεῖον ἥπτοντο καὶ γευσάμενοι τῶν ἀγαθῶν οὐκέτ’ αὐτῶν ἀπείχοντο , ὡς δὲ τὰ γειτνιῶντα μέρη πρῶτον αὐτοῖς ἐπερχομένων οὐκ ἐτόλμων ἀντιστρατεύειν , προύβησαν ἄχρι Μέμφεως καὶ τῆς θαλάσσης οὐδεμιᾶς τῶν πόλεων ἀντέχειν δυνηθείσης .
[241] τῷ δὲ κακῷ πιεζόμενοι πρὸς χρησμοὺς Αἰγύπτιοι καὶ μαντείας τρέπονται · συμβουλεύσαντος δ’ αὐτοῖς τοῦ θεοῦ συμμάχῳ χρήσασθαι τῷ Ἑβραίῳ κελεύει βασιλεὺς τὴν θυγατέρα παρασχεῖν τὸν Μωυσῆν στρατηγὸν αὐτῷ γενησόμενον .
[242] δὲ ὅρκους ποιησαμένῳ , ὥστε μηδὲν διαθεῖναι κακόν , παραδίδωσιν ἀντὶ μεγάλης μὲν εὐεργεσίας κρίνουσα τὴν συμμαχίαν , κακίζουσα δὲ τοὺς ἱερέας , εἰ κτεῖναι προαγορεύσαντες αὐτὸν ὡς πολέμιον οὐκ ᾐδοῦντο νῦν χρῄζοντες αὐτοῦ‎ τῆς ἐπικουρίας .

238Moses, therefore, when he was born and reared in the manner we have described and came to maturity, proved his virtue to the Egyptians, and how he was born to bring them down and raise the Hebrews, as follows.
239The Ethiopians, neighbours to the Egyptians, encroached on their region, and seized and took the property of the Egyptians, who were enraged at this and fought to ward them off, but were beaten in battle, where some were killed while the rest shamefully saved themselves by running away.
240So the Ethiopians went in pursuit and thinking it cowardly not to subdue all Egypt, went further still and when they had tasted the sweet fruits of the region, never refrained from them. As the nearest areas did not dare to fight them at first, they proceeded to Memphis and the sea itself, with none of the cities able to oppose them.
241Crushed by this woe the Egyptians turned to their oracles, and when God counselled them to use Moses the Hebrew as their ally, the king ordered his daughter to bring him out, to be the general of his army.
242So after making him swear to do him no harm, she handed him over to the king, expecting his help to greatly benefit them. She also reprimanded the priests, who previously warned the Egyptians to kill him, but now were not ashamed to use his help .

[243] Μωυσῆς δὲ ὑπό τε τῆς Θερμούθιδος παρακληθεὶς καὶ ὑπὸ τοῦ βασιλέως ἡδέως προσδέχεται τὸ ἔργον · ἔχαιρον δ’ οἱ ἱερογραμματεῖς ἀμφοτέρων τῶν ἐθνῶν , Αἰγυπτίων μὲν ὡς τούς τε πολεμίους τῇ ἐκείνου κρατήσοντες ἀρετῇ καὶ τὸν Μωυσῆν ταὐτῷ δόλῳ κατεργασόμενοι , οἱ δὲ τῶν Ἑβραίων ὡς φυγεῖν αὐτοῖς ἐσομένου τοὺς Αἰγυπτίους διὰ τὸ Μωυσῆν αὐτοῖς στρατηγεῖν .
[244] δὲ φθάσας πρὶν καὶ πυθέσθαι τοὺς πολεμίους τὴν ἔφοδον αὐτοῦ‎ τὸν στρατὸν ἀναλαβὼν ἦγεν οὐ διὰ τοῦ ποταμοῦ ποιησάμενος τὴν ἐλασίαν , ἀλλὰ διὰ γῆς . ἔνθα τῆς αὐτοῦ‎ συνέσεως θαυμαστὴν ἐπίδειξιν ἐποιήσατο ·
[245] τῆς γὰρ γῆς οὔσης χαλεπῆς ὁδευθῆναι διὰ πλῆθος ἑρπετῶν , παμφορωτάτη γάρ ἐστι τούτων , ὡς καὶ τὰ παρ’ ἄλλοις οὐκ ὄντα μόνη τρέφειν δυνάμει τε καὶ κακίᾳ καὶ τῷ τῆς ὄψεως ἀσυνήθει διαφέροντα , τινὰ δ’ αὐτῶν ἐστι καὶ πετεινὰ ὡς λανθάνοντα μὲν ἀπὸ γῆς κακουργεῖν καὶ μὴ προιδομένους ἀδικεῖν ὑπερπετῆ γενόμενα , νοεῖ πρὸς ἀσφάλειαν καὶ ἀβλαβῆ πορείαν τοῦ στρατεύματος στρατήγημα θαυμαστόν ·
[246] πλέγματα γὰρ ἐμφερῆ κιβωτοῖς ἐκ βίβλου κατασκευάσας καὶ πληρώσας ἴβεων ἐκόμιζε . πολεμιώτατον δ’ ἐστὶν ὄφεσι τοῦτο τὸ ζῷον · φεύγουσί τε γὰρ ἐπερχομένας καὶ ἐφιστάμενοι καθάπερ ὑπ’ ἐλάφων ἁρπαζόμενοι καταπίνονται · χειροήθεις δ’ εἰσὶν αἱ ἴβεις καὶ πρὸς μόνον τὸ τῶν ὄφεων γένος ἄγριοι .
[247] καὶ περὶ μὲν τούτων παρίημι νῦν γράφειν οὐκ ἀγνοούντων τῶν Ἑλλήνων τῆς ἴβιδος τὸ εἶδος . ὡς οὖν εἰς τὴν γῆν ἐνέβαλε τὴν θηριοτρόφον , ταύταις ἀπεμάχετο τὴν τῶν ἑρπετῶν φύσιν ἐπαφεὶς αὐτοῖς καὶ προπολεμούσαις χρώμενος . τοῦτον οὖν ὁδεύσας τὸν τρόπον οὐδὲ προμαθοῦσι παρῆν τοῖς Αἰθίοψι ,
[248] καὶ συμβαλὼν αὐτοῖς κρατεῖ τῇ μάχῃ καὶ τῶν ἐλπίδων , ἃς εἶχον ἐπὶ τοὺς Αἰγυπτίους , ἀφαιρεῖται τάς τε πόλεις αὐτῶν ἐπῄει καταστρεφόμενος , καὶ φόνος πολὺς τῶν Αἰθιόπων ἐπράττετο . καὶ τῆς διὰ Μωυσῆν εὐπραγίας γευσάμενον τὸ τῶν Αἰγυπτίων στράτευμα πονεῖν οὐκ ἔκαμνεν , ὡς περὶ ἀνδραποδισμοῦ καὶ παντελοῦς ἀναστάσεως τὸν κίνδυνον εἶναι τοῖς Αἰθίοψι ·

243Persuaded by Thermuthis and the king, Moses willingly undertook the task. The sacred scribes of both nations were glad, the Egyptians at the prospect of soon overcoming their enemies through his daring and that in the same action Moses would be killed, but the Hebrews expecting to escape from the Egyptians, with Moses as their leader.
244He attacked the enemy by surprise and led his army on them by surprise, not coming by the river but overland, in a wonderful proof of his prudence.
245The land was difficult to cross because of the number of snakes, which it produces in vast numbers. Indeed, some of those creatures are unique to it, not found in other countries, and are worse than others in their harmful effect and appearance, and can fly up unseen and harm men unawares. But Moses found a wonderful ploy to keep the army safe and unharmed.
246He made baskets like little boxes out of reeds and brought them along, filled with ibes; this animal is the greatest enemy to snakes, who flee when they come near them, and as they flee they are caught and devoured by them like deer. The ibes are tame creatures and only fierce toward snakes.
247About them I write no more at present, since a bird of the ibis kind is not unknown to the Greeks. When he reached the breeding area, he released the ibes and through them repelled the snakes and used them before the army arrived. In this way he came upon the Ethiopians expectedly.
248He attacked them, defeated them in battle and foiled their plans against the Egyptians and went on to overthrow their cities, killing many of the Ethiopians. When, through Moses, the Egyptian army had tasted success, they did not let up, putting the Ethiopians in danger of being reduced to slavery and utter destruction .

[249] καὶ τέλος συνελαθέντες εἰς Σαβὰν πόλιν βασίλειον οὖσαν τῆς Αἰθιοπίας , ἣν ὕστερον Καμβύσης Μερόην ἐπωνόμασεν ἀδελφῆς ἰδίας τοῦτο καλουμένης , ἐπολιορκοῦντο . ἦν δὲ δυσπολιόρκητον σφόδρα τὸ χωρίον τοῦ τε Νείλου περιέχοντος αὐτὴν καὶ κυκλουμένου ποταμῶν τε ἄλλων Ἀστάπου καὶ Ἀσταβόρα δύσμαχον τοῖς πειρωμένοις διαβαίνειν τὸ ῥεῦμα ποιούντων ·
[250] γὰρ πόλις ἐντὸς οὖσα νῆσος οἰκεῖται τείχους τε αὐτῇ καρτεροῦ περιηγμένου καὶ πρὸς μὲν τοὺς πολεμίους πρόβλημα τοὺς ποταμοὺς ἔχουσα χώματά τε μεγάλα μεταξὺ τοῦ τείχους , ὥστε ἀνεπίκλυστον εἶναι βιαιότερον ὑπὸ πληθώρας φερομένων , ἅπερ καὶ τοῖς περαιωσαμένοις τοὺς ποταμοὺς ἄπορον ἐποίει τῆς πόλεως τὴν ἅλωσιν .
[251] φέροντι τοίνυν ἀηδῶς τῷ Μωυσεῖ τὴν τοῦ στρατεύματος ἀργίαν , εἰς χεῖρας γὰρ οὐκ ἐτόλμων ἀπαντᾶν οἱ πολέμιοι , συνέτυχέ τι τοιοῦτον .
[252] Θάρβις θυγάτηρ ἦν τοῦ Αἰθιόπων βασιλέως . αὕτη τὸν Μωυσῆν πλησίον τοῖς τείχεσι προσάγοντα τὴν στρατιὰν καὶ μαχόμενον γενναίως ἀποσκοποῦσα καὶ τῆς ἐπινοίας τῶν ἐγχειρήσεων θαυμάζουσα , καὶ τοῖς τε Αἰγυπτίοις αἴτιον ἀπεγνωκόσιν ἤδη τὴν ἐλευθερίαν τῆς εὐπραγίας ὑπολαμβάνουσα καὶ τοῖς Αἰθίοψιν αὐχοῦσιν ἐπὶ τοῖς κατ’ αὐτῶν κατωρθωμένοις τοῦ περὶ τῶν ἐσχάτων κινδύνου , εἰς ἔρωτα δεινὸν ὤλισθεν αὐτοῦ‎ καὶ περιόντος τοῦ πάθους πέμπει πρὸς αὐτὸν τῶν οἰκετῶν τοὺς πιστοτάτους διαλεγομένη περὶ γάμου .
[253] προσδεξαμένου δὲ τὸν λόγον ἐπὶ τῷ παραδοῦναι τὴν πόλιν καὶ ποιησαμένου πίστεις ἐνόρκους μὴν ἄξεσθαι γυναῖκα καὶ κρατήσαντα τῆς πόλεως μὴ παραβήσεσθαι τὰς συνθήκας , φθάνει τὸ ἔργον τοὺς λόγους . καὶ μετὰ τὴν ἀναίρεσιν τῶν Αἰθιόπων εὐχαριστήσας τῷ θεῷ συνετέλει τὸν γάμον Μωυσῆς καὶ τοὺς Αἰγυπτίους ἀπήγαγεν εἰς τὴν ἑαυτῶν .

249At last they took refuge in Saba, a royal city of Ethiopia, which Cambyses later named Mero, after his own sister. They were besieged there. But the place was very hard to take since it was surrounded by the Nile and other rivers, the Astapus and the Astaboras, whose currents were it very difficult to cross.
250The city was situated within a sort of island, and was surrounded against their enemies with a strong wall as well as the rivers, and had great earthworks between the wall and the rivers, so that even when the waters rose most violently, it cannot be flooded. So it is almost impossible to capture the city, even for those who could get over the rivers.
251When Moses was dissatisfied with the army's lying idle, for the enemies dared not come out to battle, something happened.
252Tharbis the daughter of the king of the Ethiopians happened to see Moses leading the army near the ramparts and fighting with great courage. Admiring his shrewd proceedings and recognising him to as the cause of the Egyptians' success, when they had despaired of regaining their liberty, and the cause of the extreme danger the Ethiopians were in, who had boasted of their achievements, she fell deeply in love with him and caught by that passion, sent to him the most faithful of her servants to discuss a marriage with him.
253He accepted on condition she would have the city handed over, and gave her his oath that when he had once taken possession of the city, he would keep faith and take her as his wife. No sooner said than done; after destroying the Ethiopians, Moses thanked God and held the marriage and led the Egyptians back to their own land .
Chapter 11
.
[254-263]
Moses flees from Egypt into Madian

[254] Οἱ δ’ ἐξ ὧν ἐσώζοντο ὑπὸ Μωυσέος μῖσος ἐκ τούτων πρὸς αὐτὸν ἀνελάμβανον καὶ θερμότερον ἅπτεσθαι τῶν κατ’ αὐτοῦ‎ βουλευμάτων ἠξίουν , ὑπονοοῦντες μὲν μὴ διὰ τὴν εὐπραγίαν νεωτερίσειε κατὰ τὴν Αἴγυπτον , διδάσκοντες δὲ τὸν βασιλέα περὶ τῆς σφαγῆς .
[255] δὲ καὶ καθ’ αὑτὸν μὲν εἶχε τὴν τοῦ πράγματος ἐπίνοιαν ὑπό τε φθόνου τῆς Μωυσέος στρατηγίας καὶ ὑπὸ δέους ταπεινώσεως , ἐπειχθεὶς δ’ ὑπὸ τῶν ἱερογραμματέων οἷός τε ἦν ἐγχειρεῖν τῇ Μωυσέος ἀναιρέσει .
[256] φθάσας δὲ τὴν ἐπιβουλὴν καταμαθεῖν λαθὼν ὑπέξεισι · καὶ τῶν ὁδῶν φυλαττομένων ποιεῖται διὰ τῆς ἐρήμου τὸν δρασμὸν καὶ ὅθεν ἦν ὑπόνοια μὴ λαβεῖν τοὺς ἐχθρούς , ἄπορός τε ὢν τροφῆς ἀπηλλάττετο τῇ καρτερίᾳ καταφρονῶν ,
[257] εἴς τε πόλιν Μαδιανὴν ἀφικόμενος πρὸς μὲν τῇ Ἐρυθρᾷ θαλάσσῃ κειμένην ἐπώνυμον δ’ ἑνὸς τῶν Ἁβράμῳ γενομένων ἐκ Κατούρας υἱῶν , καθεσθεὶς ἐπί τινος φρέατος ἐκ τοῦ κόπου καὶ τῆς ταλαιπωρίας ἠρέμει μεσημβρίας οὔσης οὐ πόρρω τῆς πόλεως . ἐνταῦθ’ αὐτῷ συνέβη καὶ πρᾶξις ἐκ διαίτης τῶν αὐτόθι συστήσασα τὴν ἀρετὴν αὐτοῦ‎ καὶ πρὸς τὸ κρεῖττον ἀφορμὴν παρασχοῦσα .

254Though they had been saved by Moses, the Egyptians hated him and were all the more hotly plotting against him, suspecting that he would avail of his success to raise a revolt in Egypt, and they told the king he ought to be killed.
255He was thinking the same thing, envious of Moses' campaign and fearing that he might bring him down, so at the urging of the sacred scribes he was planning to kill Moses.
256He, however, getting wind of the plots against him, went off in secret, and as the highways were guarded, made his escape through the desert, where his enemies would not expect him to travel, and went on bravely, though short of food.
257When he reached the city of Madian on the Red Sea, named after one of Abraham's sons by Keturah, he sat beside a well not far from the city at the noontime of the day to rest after his long, hard journey, where the local custom gave him a chance to prove his worth and improve his situation .

[258] Τῶν γὰρ χωρίων δυσύδρων ὄντων προκατελάμβανον οἱ ποιμένες τὰ φρέατα , ὅπως μὴ προεξαναλωμένου τοῦ ὕδατος ὑπὸ τῶν ἄλλων σπανίζοι ποτοῦ τὰ θρέμματα . παραγίνονται οὖν ἐπὶ τὸ φρέαρ ἑπτὰ παρθένοι ἀδελφαὶ Ῥαγουήλου θυγατέρες ἱερέως καὶ πολλῆς ἠξιωμένου τιμῆς παρὰ τοῖς ἐπιχωρίοις ,
[259] αἳ τῶν τοῦ πατρὸς ποιμνίων ἐπιμελούμεναι διὰ τὸ ταύτην ὑπουργίαν εἶναι καὶ γυναιξὶν ἐπιχώριον παρὰ τοῖς Τρωγλοδύταις φθάσασαι τὸ αὔταρκες ἐκ τοῦ φρέατος ἀνέσπασαν ὕδωρ τοῖς ποιμνίοις εἰς δεξαμενάς , αἳ πρὸς ἐκδοχὴν τοῦ ὕδατος ἐγεγόνεισαν .
[260] ἐπιστάντων δὲ ποιμένων ταῖς παρθένοις , ὥστ’ αὐτοὶ τοῦ ὕδατος κρατεῖν , Μωυσῆς δεινὸν ἡγησάμενος εἶναι περιιδεῖν ἀδικουμένας τὰς κόρας καὶ τὴν βίαν τὴν τῶν ἀνδρῶν ἐᾶσαι κρείττονα γενέσθαι τοῦ τῶν παρθένων δικαίου , τοὺς μὲν εἶρξε πλεονεκτεῖν ἐθέλοντας , ταῖς δὲ παρέσχε τὴν πρέπουσαν βοήθειαν .
[261] αἱ δ’ εὐεργετηθεῖσαι παρῆσαν πρὸς τὸν πατέρα τήν τε ὕβριν τῶν ποιμένων αὐτῷ διηγούμεναι καὶ τὴν ἐπικουρίαν τοῦ ξένου παρεκάλουν τε μὴ ματαίαν αὐτῷ γενέσθαι τὴν εὐποιίαν μηδ’ ἀμοιβῆς ὑστεροῦσαν . δὲ τάς τε παῖδας ἀπεδέξατο τῆς περὶ τὸν εὐεργετηκότα σπουδῆς καὶ τὸν Μωυσῆν εἰς ὄψιν ἐκέλευεν ἄγειν αὐτῷ τευξόμενον χάριτος δικαίας .
[262] ὡς δ’ ἧκε , τήν τε τῶν θυγατέρων αὐτῷ ἀπεσήμαινε μαρτυρίαν ἐπὶ τῇ βοηθείᾳ καὶ τῆς ἀρετῆς αὐτὸν θαυμάζων οὐκ εἰς ἀναισθήτους εὐεργεσιῶν καταθέσθαι τὴν ἐπικουρίαν ἔλεγεν , ἀλλ’ ἱκανοὺς ἐκτῖσαι χάριν καὶ τῷ μεγέθει τῆς ἀμοιβῆς ὑπερβαλεῖν τὸ μέτρον τῆς εὐποιίας .
[263] ποιεῖται δ’ αὐτὸν υἱὸν καὶ μίαν τῶν θυγατέρων πρὸς γάμον δίδωσι τῶν τε θρεμμάτων , ἐν τούτοις γὰρ πᾶσα κτῆσις τὸ παλαιὸν ἦν τοῖς βαρβάροις , ἀποδείκνυσιν ἐπιμελητὴν καὶ δεσπότην .

258As those places were very dry the shepherds used to seize the wells in advance, in case their flocks ran short of water if others took it all before them. Now seven sisters came to this well, the virgin daughters of the priest Raguel, a man greatly honoured by the local people.
259These tended to their father's flocks, a work normally done by women in the region of the cave-dwellers. They arrived first to draw from the well enough water for their flocks, into troughs which were there for that purpose.
260The shepherds set upon the maidens and drove them off, to have all the water themselves. Moses, thinking it would be wrong for him to let the girls be unjustly treated and let the men's violence over-ride the maidens' rights, drove off those who wanted too much and duly helped the others.
261On being so kindly treated they went to tell their father about the shepherds's insolence and the stranger's help, imploring him not to ignor this generous action or let it pass without reward. He was pleased that his daughters were so keen to reward their benefactor, and told them to bring Moses to him, to be thanked as he deserved.
262When he came, he reported what his daughters had said of how he had helped them, and commended his valour, and said that those whom Moses had helped were not ungrateful, but were able to return his kindness and even to exceed his own level of generosity.
263So he took him as his son and gave him one of his daughters in marriage, and since, for in times past all the wealth of the barbarians was in livestock, he appointed him guardian and master of his flocks .
Chapter 12
.
[264-276]
The Vision at the Burning Bush. Miracles against Pharao

[264] Καὶ Μωυσῆς μὲν τοιούτων τυχὼν τῶν παρὰ τοῦ Ἰεθεγλαίου , τοῦτο γὰρ ἦν ἐπίκλημα τῷ Ῥαγουήλῳ , διῆγεν αὐτόθι ποιμαίνων τὰ βοσκήματα . χρόνῳ δ’ ὕστερον νέμων ἐπὶ τὸ Σιναῖον καλούμενον ὄρος ἄγει τὰ ποίμνια ·
[265] τοῦτο δ’ ἐστὶν ὑψηλότατον τῶν ταύτῃ ὀρῶν καὶ πρὸς νομὰς ἄριστον ἀγαθῆς φυομένης πόας καὶ διὰ τὸ δόξαν ἔχειν ἐνδιατρίβειν αὐτῷ τὸν θεὸν οὐ κατανεμηθείσης πρότερον , οὐ τολμώντων ἐμβατεύειν εἰς αὐτὸ τῶν ποιμένων · ἔνθα δὴ καὶ τέρας αὐτῷ συντυγχάνει θαυμάσιον .
[266] πῦρ γὰρ θάμνου βάτων νεμόμενον τὴν περὶ αὐτὸν χλόην τό τε ἄνθος αὐτοῦ‎ παρῆλθεν ἀβλαβὲς καὶ τῶν ἐγκάρπων κλάδων οὐδὲν ἠφάνισε καὶ ταῦτα τῆς φλογὸς πολλῆς καὶ ὀξυτάτης ὑπαρχούσης .
[267] δὲ καὶ αὐτὴν μὲν ἔδεισε τὴν ὄψιν παράδοξον γενομένην , κατεπλάγη δ’ ἔτι μᾶλλον φωνὴν τοῦ πυρὸς ἀφιέντος καὶ ὀνομαστὶ καλέσαντος αὐτὸν καὶ ποιησαμένου λόγους , οἷς τό τε θάρσος αὐτοῦ‎ τολμήσαντος παρελθεῖν εἰς χωρίον , εἰς μηδεὶς ἀνθρώπων πρότερον ἀφῖκτο διὰ τὸ εἶναι θεῖον , ἐσήμαινε καὶ συνεβούλευε τῆς φλογὸς [ ὡς ] πορρωτάτω χωρεῖν καὶ ἀρκεῖσθαι μὲν οἷς ἑώρακεν ἀγαθὸν ὄντα καὶ μεγάλων ἀνδρῶν ἔγγονον , πολυπραγμονεῖν δὲ μηδέν ·
[268] τούτοις προηγόρευε περισσότερον τὴν ἐσομένην αὐτῷ δόξαν καὶ τιμὴν παρ’ ἀνθρώπων τοῦ θεοῦ συμπαρόντος , καὶ θαρροῦντα ἐκέλευεν εἰς τὴν Αἴγυπτον ἀπιέναι στρατηγὸν καὶ ἡγεμόνα τῆς Ἑβραίων πληθύος ἐσόμενον καὶ τῆς ὕβρεως τῆς ἐκεῖ τοὺς συγγενεῖς ἀπαλλάξοντα ·
[269] καὶ γὰρ γῆν οἰκήσουσι , φησί , ταύτην εὐδαίμονα , ἣν Ἅβραμος ᾤκησεν ὑμέτερος πρόγονος καὶ τῶν πάντων ἀπολαύσουσιν ἀγαθῶν , εἰς ταῦτα σοῦ καὶ τῆς σῆς συνέσεως