topWar-1

The War of the Jews against the Romans
(Antiochus Epiphanes to king Herod)

Preface

Chapter 1 After Antiochus Epiphanes, Jews liberated by the Maccabees

Chapter 2 Judas Maccabeus followed by Jonathan, Simon and John Hyrcanus

Chapter 3 Aristobulus kills his brother Antigonus; dies of Remorse

Chapter 4 27-year reign of Alexander Janneus

Chapter 5 Pharisees dominant, in Alexandra's 9-year reign

Chapter 6 Aristobulus as king, then Hyrcanus. Pompey to Judea as Arbitrator

Chapter 7 Pompey enters Jerusalem and the Holy of Holies. His other offences in Judea

Chapter 8 Alexander tries to annul what Pompey did. Gabinius and Crassus quell revolt

Chapter 9 Murders of Aristobulus and Alexander. Antipater wins Caesar's friendship

Chapter 10 As Judean procurator, Antipater crowns his sons Phasael and Herod Antipas

Chapter 11 Cassius makes Herod ruler of Syria. Antipater's murder is avenged by Herod

Chapter 12 Mark Antony makes Phasael and Herod tetrarchs, despite local opposition

Chapter 13 Parthians restore Antigonus' rule. Hyrcanus is mutilated and Herod put to flight

Chapter 14 Herod appeals to Mark Antony and Caesar. Roman Senate makes him king of Judea

Chapter 15 War of Herod vs Antigonus; Herod relieves Masada and besieges Jerusalem

Chapter 16 Herod rids Galilee of brigands; goes to Antony for further support

Chapter 17 Herod's Good Fortune in War. His marriage to Mariamne

Chapter 18 Herod captures Jerusalem; Antigonus dies. Herod appeases Cleopatra

Chapter 19 Since Cleopatra has Herod fighting the Arabs, he avoids battle of Actium

Chapter 20 Caesar Augustus confirms Herod as king; restores what Cleopatra had taken away

Chapter 21 Herod the builder: Temple and Fortress. Herod's Generosity and Virtues

Chapter 22 Herod's domestic troubles and murder. Mariamne is accused and condemned

Chapter 23 Mariamne's sons are suspected. Caesar reconciles them with Herod, for a time

Chapter 24 Rancour between Herod's sons. Antipater sees the others accused of treason

Chapter 25 Herod's son Archelaus reconciles him with Alexander and Pheroras

Chapter 26 The Spartan Eurycles accuses Mariamne's sons. Euaratus of Cos defends them

Chapter 27 Mariamne's sons are condemned. Herod executes Aristobulus and Alexander

Chapter 28 Antipater sent to Rome with Herod's testament. Pheroras defends his accused wife

Chapter 29 Herod's suspicions grow; he tortures many and disinherits Herod Junior

Chapter 30 Antipater returns to Judea from Rome, unaware of accusations against him

Chapter 31 Antipater's trial for plotting vs Herod. His defence, and Herod's Testament

Chapter 32 Herod's final barbarities; executes Antipater; plans a massacre at his death

Preface

[1] Ἐπειδὴ τὸν Ἰουδαίων πρὸς Ῥωμαίους πόλεμον συστάντα μέγιστον οὐ μόνον τῶν καθ’ ἡμᾶς , σχεδὸν δὲ καὶ ὧν ἀκοῇ παρειλήφαμεν πόλεων πρὸς πόλεις ἐθνῶν ἔθνεσι συρραγέντων , οἱ μὲν οὐ παρατυχόντες τοῖς πράγμασιν , ἀλλ’ ἀκοῇ συλλέγοντες εἰκαῖα καὶ ἀσύμφωνα διηγήματα σοφιστικῶς ἀναγράφουσιν ,
[2] οἱ παραγενόμενοι δὲ κολακείᾳ τῇ πρὸς Ῥωμαίους μίσει τῷ πρὸς Ἰουδαίους καταψεύδονται τῶν πραγμάτων , περιέχει δὲ αὐτοῖς ὅπου μὲν κατηγορίαν ὅπου δὲ ἐγκώμιον τὰ συγγράμματα , τὸ δ’ ἀκριβὲς τῆς ἱστορίας οὐδαμοῦ ,
[3] προυθέμην ἐγὼ τοῖς κατὰ τὴν Ῥωμαίων ἡγεμονίαν Ἑλλάδι γλώσσῃ μεταβαλὼν τοῖς ἄνω βαρβάροις τῇ πατρίῳ συντάξας ἀνέπεμψα πρότερον ἀφηγήσασθαι Ἰώσηπος Ματθίου παῖς ἐξ Ἱεροσολύμων ἱερεύς , αὐτός τε Ῥωμαίους πολεμήσας τὰ πρῶτα καὶ τοῖς ὕστερον παρατυχὼν ἐξ ἀνάγκης .

001 Since the war of the Jews against the Romans was the greatest fought between cities or nations, not just of our own times, but arguably of all times, and since some who were not present at it have recorded baseless, contradictory stories about it in a pseudo scholarly style,

002
and some who were involved in it have given false accounts of things, either in flattery towards the Romans or from hatred of the Jews, and since their writings, whether blaming or praising, by no means contain the accurate history,

003
I , Joseph, son of Matthias, born a priest of Jerusalem parents, having at first fought against the Romans and later having to witness its sequel, propose to provide for the subjects of the Roman empire a version in Greek of the account I composed earlier in my native language and sent to the Barbarians of the interior .

[4] γενομένου γάρ , ὡς ἔφην , μεγίστου τοῦδε τοῦ κινήματος ἐν Ῥωμαίοις μὲν ἐνόσει τὰ οἰκεῖα , Ἰουδαίων δὲ τὸ νεωτερίζον τότε τεταραγμένοις ἐπανέστη τοῖς καιροῖς ἀκμάζον κατά τε χεῖρα καὶ χρήμασιν , ὡς δι’ ὑπερβολὴν θορύβων τοῖς μὲν ἐν ἐλπίδι κτήσεως τοῖς δ’ ἐν ἀφαιρέσεως δέει γίνεσθαι τὰ πρὸς τὴν ἀνατολήν ,
[5] ἐπειδὴ Ἰουδαῖοι μὲν ἅπαν τὸ ὑπὲρ Εὐφράτην ὁμόφυλον συνεπαρθήσεσθαι σφίσιν ἤλπισαν , Ῥωμαίους δὲ οἵ τε γείτονες Γαλάται παρεκίνουν καὶ τὸ Κελτικὸν οὐκ ἠρέμει , μεστὰ δ’ ἦν πάντα θορύβων μετὰ Νέρωνα , καὶ πολλοὺς μὲν βασιλειᾶν καιρὸς ἀνέπειθεν , τὰ στρατιωτικὰ δὲ ἤρα μεταβολῆς ἐλπίδι λημμάτων .
[6] ἄτοπον ἡγησάμενος περιιδεῖν πλαζομένην ἐπὶ τηλικούτοις πράγμασι τὴν ἀλήθειαν , καὶ Πάρθους μὲν καὶ Βαβυλωνίους Ἀράβων τε τοὺς πορρωτάτω καὶ τὸ ὑπὲρ Εὐφράτην ὁμόφυλον ἡμῖν Ἀδιαβηνούς τε γνῶναι διὰ τῆς ἐμῆς ἐπιμελείας ἀκριβῶς , ὅθεν τε ἤρξατο καὶ δι’ ὅσων ἐχώρησεν παθῶν πόλεμος καὶ ὅπως κατέστρεψεν , ἀγνοεῖν δὲ Ἕλληνας ταῦτα καὶ Ῥωμαίων τοὺς μὴ ἐπιστρατευσαμένους , ἐντυγχάνοντας κολακείαις πλάσμασι .


004
This great upheaval occurred when domestic situation of the Romans was in great confusion and the Jews who favoured rebellion were at the peak of their strength and riches, and seized their chance when things were in flux, as the East was unstable and some were hoping to profit from its break-up and others fearing to lose by it .
005 The Jews hoped that all of their nation beyond the Euphrates would rise up with them while the Romans were occupied with the neighbouring Gauls, the Celts were not at peace, and all was in turmoil after Nero's death, for the chance to win the kingship appealed to many, and the military wanted change, in hope of gain .
006 I thought it wrong to look on and let the truth be falsified in matters of such importance, leaving the Greeks and Romans who were not in the military unaware of these things, for all they had to read were flatteries or fictions while, through me, the Parthians, the Babylonians and the remotest Arabs, our own nation beyond the Euphrates and the Adiabeni had accurate knowledge of why the war began, the disasters it brought upon us and how it ended .

[7] Καίτοι γε ἱστορίας αὐτὰς ἐπιγράφειν τολμῶσιν , ἐν αἷς πρὸς τῷ μηδὲν ὑγιὲς δηλοῦν καὶ τοῦ σκοποῦ δοκοῦσιν ἔμοιγε διαμαρτάνειν . βούλονται μὲν γὰρ μεγάλους τοὺς Ῥωμαίους ἀποδεικνύειν , καταβάλλουσιν δὲ ἀεὶ τὰ Ἰουδαίων καὶ ταπεινοῦσιν ·
[8] οὐχ ὁρῶ δέ , πῶς ἂν εἶναι μεγάλοι δοκοῖεν οἱ μικροὺς νενικηκότες · καὶ οὔτε τὸ μῆκος αἰδοῦνται τοῦ πολέμου οὔτε τὸ πλῆθος τῆς Ῥωμαίων καμούσης στρατιᾶς οὔτε τὸ μέγεθος τῶν στρατηγῶν , οἳ πολλὰ περὶ τοῖς Ἱεροσολύμοις ἱδρώσαντες οἶμαι ταπεινουμένου τοῦ κατορθώματος αὐτοῖς ἀδοξοῦσιν .

007 While these other writers venture to call their accounts histories, to me they seem to miss the mark entirely in wanting to prove the power of the Romans while trivialising and undervaluing the actions of the Jews .
008 I do not see how one can extol the exploits of a group that defeats a people that seems small. They ignore the length of the war, the number of the Roman forces who suffered so much in it, or the merit of the commanders, whose mighty efforts about Jerusalem will seem less glorious, if what they achieved be deemed such a small matter .

[9] Οὐ μὴν ἐγὼ τοῖς ἐπαίρουσι τὰ Ῥωμαίων ἀντιφιλονεικῶν αὔξειν τὰ τῶν ὁμοφύλων διέγνων , ἀλλὰ τὰ μὲν ἔργα μετ’ ἀκριβείας ἀμφοτέρων διέξειμι , τοὺς δ’ ἐπὶ τοῖς πράγμασι λόγους ἀνατίθημι τῇ διαθέσει καὶ τοῖς ἐμαυτοῦ πάθεσι διδοὺς ἐπολοφύρεσθαι ταῖς τῆς πατρίδος συμφοραῖς .
[10] ὅτι γὰρ αὐτὴν στάσις οἰκεία καθεῖλεν , καὶ τὰς Ῥωμαίων χεῖρας ἀκούσας καὶ τὸ πῦρ ἐπὶ τὸν ναὸν εἵλκυσαν οἱ Ἰουδαίων τύραννοι , μάρτυς αὐτὸς πορθήσας Καῖσαρ Τίτος , ἐν παντὶ τῷ πολέμῳ τὸν μὲν δῆμον ἐλεήσας ὑπὸ τῶν στασιαστῶν φρουρούμενον , πολλάκις δὲ ἑκὼν τὴν ἅλωσιν τῆς πόλεως ὑπερτιθέμενος καὶ διδοὺς τῇ πολιορκίαι χρόνον εἰς μετάνοιαν τῶν αἰτίων .
[11] εἰ δή τις ὅσα πρὸς τοὺς τυράννους τὸ λῃστρικὸν αὐτῶν κατηγορικῶς λέγοιμεν τοῖς δυστυχήμασι τῆς πατρίδος ἐπιστένοντες συκοφαντοίη , διδότω παρὰ τὸν τῆς ἱστορίας νόμον συγγνώμην τῷ πάθει · πόλιν μὲν γὰρ δὴ τῶν ὑπὸ Ῥωμαίοις πασῶν τὴν ἡμετέραν ἐπὶ πλεῖστόν τε εὐδαιμονίας συνέβη προελθεῖν καὶ πρὸς ἔσχατον συμφορῶν αὖθις καταπεσεῖν ·
[12] τὰ γοῦν πάντων ἀπ’ αἰῶνος ἀτυχήματα πρὸς τὰ Ἰουδαίων ἡττῆσθαι δοκῶ κατὰ σύγκρισιν · καὶ τούτων αἴτιος οὐδεὶς ἀλλόφυλος , ὥστε ἀμήχανον ἦν ὀδυρμῶν ἐπικρατεῖν . εἰ δέ τις οἴκτου σκληρότερος εἴη δικαστής , τὰ μὲν πράγματα τῇ ἱστορίαι προσκρινέτω , τὰς δ’ ὀλοφύρσεις τῷ γράφοντι .

009 But even if oppposed to those who laud their Roman fellow-countrymen too highly, I will accurately follow the actions of both parties and will adapt my language to the passion I feel about the matters described, for I must be allowed some grieving for the troubles of my own country .
010 That it was our rebellious spirit brought about our ruin and that it was the tyrants among the Jews who made the Roman power attack us, unwillingly, and caused our holy temple to be burned, Titus Caesar, who destroyed it, can testify. All through the war he pitied the people who were kept under by the rebels, and often of his own accord delayed taking the city and let the siege go on, in order to give it time to repent .
011 Should anyone blame us for speaking so hotly about the tyrants and the brigands, or bitterly lamenting the troubles of our country, let him allow me this emotion, despite the norms of history writing, for of all cities under the rule of Rome, ours enjoyed the highest prosperity, yet fell to the depths of disaster .
012 From the beginning of the world probably no other people has endured as much as the Jews. Nor was it foreigners who were at fault, which makes it so hard to contain my grief. But if anyone censures me for this, let him assign the facts as belonging to the historical part and the laments merely to the writer himself .

[13] Καίτοι γε ἐπιτιμήσαιμ’ ἂν αὐτὸς δικαίως τοῖς Ἑλλήνων λογίοις , οἳ τηλικούτων κατ’ αὐτοὺς πραγμάτων γεγενημένων , κατὰ σύγκρισιν ἐλαχίστους ἀποδείκνυσι τοὺς πάλαι πολέμους , τούτων μὲν κάθηνται κριταὶ τοῖς φιλοτιμουμένοις ἐπηρεάζοντες , ὧν εἰ καὶ τῷ λόγῳ πλεονεκτοῦσι , λείπονται τῇ προαιρέσει · αὐτοὶ δὲ τὰ Ἀσσυρίων καὶ Μήδων συγγράφουσιν ὥσπερ ἧττον καλῶς ὑπὸ τῶν ἀρχαίων συγγραφέων ἀπηγγελμένα .
[14] καίτοι τοσούτῳ τῆς ἐκείνων ἡττῶνται δυνάμεως ἐν τῷ γράφειν , ὅσῳ καὶ τῆς γνώμης · τὰ γὰρ κατ’ αὐτοὺς ἐσπούδαζον ἕκαστοι γράφειν , ὅπου καὶ τὸ παρατυχεῖν τοῖς πράγμασιν ἐποίει τὴν ἀπαγγελίαν ἐναργῆ καὶ τὸ ψεύδεσθαι παρ’ εἰδόσιν αἰσχρὸν ἦν .
[15] τό γε μὴν μνήμῃ τὰ προϊστορηθέντα διδόναι καὶ τὰ τῶν ἰδίων χρόνων τοῖς μετ’ αὐτὸν συνιστάνειν ἐπαίνου καὶ μαρτυρίας ἄξιον · φιλόπονος δὲ οὐχ μεταποιῶν οἰκονομίαν καὶ τάξιν ἀλλοτρίαν , ἀλλ’ μετὰ τοῦ καινὰ λέγειν καὶ τὸ σῶμα τῆς ἱστορίας κατασκευάζων ἴδιον .
[16] κἀγὼ μὲν ἀναλώμασι καὶ πόνοις μεγίστοις ἀλλόφυλος ὢν Ἕλλησί τε καὶ Ῥωμαίοις τὴν μνήμην τῶν κατορθωμάτων ἀνατίθημι · τοῖς δὲ γνησίοις πρὸς μὲν τὰ λήμματα καὶ τὰς δίκας κέχηνεν εὐθέως τὸ στόμα καὶ γλῶσσα λέλυται , πρὸς δὲ τὴν ἱστορίαν , ἔνθα χρὴ τἀληθῆ λέγειν καὶ μετὰ πολλοῦ πόνου τὰ πράγματα συλλέγειν , πεφίμωνται παρέντες τοῖς ἀσθενεστέροις καὶ μηδὲ γινώσκουσι τὰς πράξεις τῶν ἡγεμόνων γράφειν . τιμάσθω δὴ παρ’ ἡμῖν τὸ τῆς ἱστορίας ἀληθές , ἐπεὶ παρ’ Ἕλλησιν ἠμέληται .

013 And I too have a just complaint against the learned among the Greeks. While in their own times more important events have happened than the ancient wars, they offer no judgment about them and yet sit in judgment on those who have sought to describe them, actually doing so, even if in a style less eloquent than theirs. They instead write about Assyrians and Medes, as if previous writers had not done so with better skill and in judgment .
014 In those days people did write about their own times. Their involvement in the actions gave value to their assertions and they would have been ashamed to write lies, since their readers necessarily knew the facts .
015 Handing on the memory of what was not hitherto recorded and the events of one’s own time to those who come later, is what really merits praise and acknowledgment. The serious writer is not one who remodels the shape and order of others' works, but tells what has not been told before, and personally shapes the framework for his history .
016 So, after much effort, though a foreigner, I dedicate this work to Greeks and Romans, as a memorial of great actions. Some of the natives, by contrast, have wide mouths and wagging tongues when it comes to profit and law-suits, but are quite muzzled about history, where what counts are truth and the careful gathering of facts. They leave it to weaker, less-informed people to describe the actions of their commanders. Let us honour the truth about history, even it be neglected by the Greeks .

[17] Ἀρχαιολογεῖν μὲν δὴ τὰ Ἰουδαίων , τίνες τε ὄντες καὶ ὅπως ἀπανέστησαν Αἰγυπτίων , χώραν τε ὅσην ἐπῆλθον ἀλώμενοι καὶ πόσα ἑξῆς κατέλαβον καὶ ὅπως μετανέστησαν , νῦν τε ἄκαιρον ὠιήθην εἶναι καὶ ἄλλως περιττόν , ἐπειδήπερ καὶ Ἰουδαίων πολλοὶ πρὸ ἐμοῦ τὰ τῶν προγόνων συνετάξαντο μετ’ ἀκριβείας καί τινες Ἑλλήνων ἐκεῖνα τῇ πατρίῳ φωνῇ μεταβαλόντες οὐ πολὺ τῆς ἀληθείας διήμαρτον .
[18] ὅπου δ’ οἵ τε τούτων συγγραφεῖς ἐπαύσαντο καὶ οἱ ἡμέτεροι προφῆται , τὴν ἀρχὴν ἐκεῖθεν ποιήσομαι τῆς συντάξεως · τούτων δὲ τὰ μὲν τοῦ κατ’ ἐμαυτὸν πολέμου διεξοδικώτερον καὶ μεθ’ ὅσης ἂν ἐξεργασίας δύνωμαι δίειμι , τὰ δὲ προγενέστερα τῆς ἐμῆς ἡλικίας ἐπιδραμῶ συντόμως ,

017 To write about the Antiquities of the Jews, who they are and how they migrated to Egypt, the land they traversed and the territories they later occupied and how they were deported from them, would, I think, be inopportune and superfluous here, for many Jews before me have accurately written about our ancestors, and some Greeks have also done so, translating them into their own tongue without serious error .
018 I shall begin my work at the point where these writers and our prophets come to an end. In it I will describe as extensively as I can the war which happened in my own lifetime and will limit myself to a brief summary of what preceded my own time .

[19] ὡς Ἀντίοχος κληθεὶς Ἐπιφανὴς ἑλὼν κατὰ κράτος Ἱεροσόλυμα καὶ κατασχὼν ἔτεσι τρισὶ καὶ μησὶν ἓξ ὑπὸ τῶν Ἀσαμωναίου παίδων ἐκβάλλεται τῆς χώρας , ἔπειθ’ ὡς οἱ τούτων ἔγγονοι περὶ τῆς βασιλείας διαστασιάσαντες εἵλκυσαν εἰς τὰ πράγματα Ῥωμαίους καὶ Πομπήιον . καὶ ὡς Ἡρώδης Ἀντιπάτρου κατέλυσε τὴν δυναστείαν αὐτῶν ἐπαγαγὼν Σόσσιον ,
[20] ὅπως τε λαὸς μετὰ τὴν Ἡρώδου τελευτὴν κατεστασίασεν Αὐγούστου μὲν Ῥωμαίων ἡγεμονεύοντος , Κυιντιλίου δὲ Οὐάρου κατὰ τὴν χώραν ὄντος , καὶ ὡς ἔτει δωδεκάτῳ τῆς Νέρωνος ἀρχῆς πόλεμος ἀνερράγη τά τε συμβάντα κατὰ Κέστιον καὶ ὅσα κατὰ τὰς πρώτας ὁρμὰς ἐπῆλθον οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι τοῖς ὅπλοις ,

019 [I shall tell ] how Antiochus, called Epiphanes, took Jerusalem by force and, after holding it for three years and six months was expelled from the country by the sons of Hasmoneus ; next, how their descendants quarreled about power and drew the Romans and Pompey into the scene ; also how Herod, son of Antipater, with help from Sosius, put an end to their dynasty ;
020 then how the people rebelled after Herod's death, when Augustus was emperor of the Romans and Quintilius Varus ruled the province, and how the war broke out in the twelfth year of Nero, and what happened to Cestius, and how the Jews occupied the country during the opening actions of the war .

[21] ὅπως τε τὰς περιοίκους ἐτειχίσαντο , καὶ ὡς Νέρων ἐπὶ τοῖς Κεστίου πταίσμασι δείσας περὶ τῶν ὅλων Οὐεσπασιανὸν ἐφίστησι τῷ πολέμῳ , καὶ ὡς οὗτος μετὰ τοῦ πρεσβυτέρου τῶν παίδων εἰς τὴν Ἰουδαίων χώραν ἐνέβαλεν ὅσῃ τε χρώμενος Ῥωμαίων στρατιᾷ καὶ ὅσοι σύμμαχοι ἐκόπησαν εἰς ὅλην τὴν Γαλιλαίαν , καὶ ὡς τῶν πόλεων αὐτῆς ἃς μὲν ὁλοσχερῶς καὶ κατὰ κράτος ἃς δὲ δι’ ὁμολογίας ἔλαβεν ·
[22] ἔνθα δὴ καὶ τὰ περὶ τῆς Ῥωμαίων ἐν πολέμοις εὐταξίας καὶ τὴν ἄσκησιν τῶν ταγμάτων , τῆς τε Γαλιλαίας ἑκατέρας τὰ διαστήματα καὶ τὴν φύσιν καὶ τοὺς τῆς Ἰουδαίας ὅρους , ἔτι τε τῆς χώρας τὴν ἰδιότητα , λίμνας τε καὶ πηγὰς τὰς ἐν αὐτῇ , καὶ τὰ περὶ ἑκάστην πόλιν τῶν ἁλισκομένων πάθη μετὰ ἀκριβείας , ὡς εἶδον ἔπαθον , δίειμι . οὐδὲ γὰρ τῶν ἐμαυτοῦ τι συμφορῶν ἀποκρύψομαι μέλλων γε πρὸς εἰδότας ἐρεῖν .
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021 [I shall tell ] how they fortified the neighbouring towns; how Nero, apprehensive about the whole matter after Cestius's defeat, soon put Vespasian in command of the war; how this Vespasian with his elder son invaded the Judean territory ; about the strength of the Roman army and allies that he brought into Galilee, and how he took some of its cities by sheer force and others by negotiation .
022 On the way I shall describe the good military order of the Romans and the discipline of their legions; the extent and nature of the two Galilees, and the limits of Judea ; the characteristics of the country, with its lakes and springs, and an account of the sufferings of the prisoners in each town as they were taken, as I myself saw and endured it. For I shall conceal nothing of my own woes, since my readers will know about them .

[23] Ἔπειθ’ ὡς ἤδη καμνόντων Ἰουδαίοις τῶν πραγμάτων θνήσκει μὲν Νέρων , Οὐεσπασιανὸς δὲ ἐπὶ Ἱεροσολύμων ὡρμημένος ὑπὸ τῆς ἡγεμονίας ἀνθέλκεται · τά τε γενόμενα περὶ ταύτης αὐτῷ σημεῖα καὶ τὰς ἐπὶ Ῥώμης μεταβολάς ,
[24] καὶ ὡς αὐτὸς ὑπὸ τῶν στρατιωτῶν ἄκων αὐτοκράτωρ ἀποδείκνυται , καὶ ἀποχωρήσαντος ἐπὶ διοικήσει τῶν ὅλων εἰς τὴν Αἴγυπτον ἐστασιάσθη τὰ τῶν Ἰουδαίων , ὅπως τε ἐπανέστησαν αὐτοῖς οἱ τύραννοι , καὶ τὰς τούτων πρὸς ἀλλήλους διαφοράς .

023 [I shall tell ] how, when things were going badly for the Jews, Nero died and Vespasian, as he was about to attack Jerusalem, was recalled to become emperor ; the portents he received about this, and the changes then happening in Rome ;
024 how, though unwilling, he was made emperor by his soldiers; how, as he left for Egypt restore the empire to order, civil war broke out among the Jews, and how tyrants rose to power and then began feuding among themselves .

[25] Καὶ ὡς ἄρας ἀπὸ τῆς Αἰγύπτου Τίτος δεύτερον εἰς τὴν χώραν ἐνέβαλεν , ὅπως τε τὰς δυνάμεις καὶ ὅπου συνήγαγε καὶ ὁπόσας , καὶ ὅπως ἐκ τῆς στάσεως πόλις διέκειτο παρόντος αὐτοῦ‎ , προσβολάς τε ὅσας ἐποιήσατο καὶ ὁπόσα χώματα , περιβόλους τε τῶν τριῶν τειχῶν καὶ τὰ μέτρα τούτων , τήν τε τῆς πόλεως ὀχυρότητα καὶ τοῦ ἱεροῦ καὶ τοῦ ναοῦ τὴν διάθεσιν ,
[26] ἔτι δὲ τούτων καὶ τοῦ βωμοῦ τὰ μέτρα πάντα μετ’ ἀκριβείας , ἔθη τε ἑορτῶν ἔνια καὶ τὰς ἑπτὰ ἁγνείας καὶ τὰς τῶν ἱερέων λειτουργίας , ἔτι δὲ τὰς ἐσθῆτας τῶν ἱερέων καὶ τοῦ ἀρχιερέως , καὶ οἷον ἦν τοῦ ναοῦ τὸ ἅγιον , οὐδὲν οὔτε ἀποκρυπτόμενος οὔτε προστιθεὶς τοῖς πεφωραμένοις .

025 Then [I shall tell ] how Titus invaded the land a second time, from Egypt, and how and where he gathered his forces, the state the city was in at his coming, after the civil war, the attacks he made and the earthworks he built, and about the triple wall around the city and its measurements. The strength of the city, the structure of the temple and sanctuary,
026 and the dimensions of these buildings and the altar will all be exactly stated. I will tell of various festivals, the seven levels of purity, and the sacred functions of the priests, their vestments and those of the high priests, and the Holy of Holies, neither omitting nor adding anything beyond the established truth .

[27] Ἔπειτα διέξειμι τήν τε τῶν τυράννων πρὸς τοὺς ὁμοφύλους ὠμότητα καὶ τὴν Ῥωμαίων φειδὼ πρὸς τοὺς ἀλλοφύλους , καὶ ὁσάκις Τίτος σῶσαι τὴν πόλιν καὶ τὸν ναὸν ἐπιθυμῶν ἐπὶ δεξιὰς τοὺς στασιάζοντας προυκαλέσατο , διακρινῶ δὲ τὰ πάθη τοῦ δήμου καὶ τὰς συμφορὰς ὅσα τε ὑπὸ τοῦ πολέμου καὶ ὅσα ὑπὸ τῆς στάσεως καὶ ὅσα ὑπὸ τοῦ λιμοῦ κακωθέντες ἑάλωσαν .
[28] παραλείψω δὲ οὐδὲ τὰς τῶν αὐτομόλων ἀτυχίας οὐδὲ τὰς τῶν αἰχμαλώτων κολάσεις , ὅπως τε ναὸς ἄκοντος ἐνεπρήσθη Καίσαρος καὶ ὅσα τῶν ἱερῶν κειμηλίων ἐκ τοῦ πυρὸς ἡρπάγη τήν τε τῆς ὅλης πόλεως ἅλωσιν καὶ τὰ πρὸ ταύτης σημεῖα καὶ τέρατα καὶ τὴν αἰχμαλωσίαν τῶν τυράννων τῶν τε ἀνδραποδισθέντων τὸ πλῆθος καὶ εἰς ἣν ἕκαστοι τύχην διενεμήθησαν ·
[29] καὶ ὡς Ῥωμαῖοι μὲν ἐπεξῆλθον τὰ λείψανα τοῦ πολέμου καὶ τὰ ἐρύματα τῶν χωρίων καθεῖλον , Τίτος δὲ πᾶσαν ἐπελθὼν τὴν χώραν κατεστήσατο , τήν τε ὑποστροφὴν αὐτοῦ‎ τὴν εἰς Ἰταλίαν καὶ τὸν θρίαμβον .

027 I shall tell of the tyrants' savagery towards their fellow-citizens, and the clemency of the Romans towards foreigners, and how often Titus, in his desire to spare the city and the temple, invited the rebels to come to terms with him. I shall also distinguish between the people's sufferings and disasters, which ended in their defeat, and which resulted respectively from the war, the civil war and the famine .
028 I will not omit the woes of the deserters and the punishments inflicted on the prisoners, and how, against Caesar's wishes, the temple was burned, and how many of the temple treasures were snatched from the fire . [I will tell of ] the destruction of the entire city, with the signs and wonders preceding it, and the capture of the tyrants, and the numbers of the enslaved, and the fates to which they were sent .
029 Also, what the Romans did to the remnants of the wall, and how they demolished the strongholds in the country, and how Titus went over the whole land and settled its affairs, and his return into Italy and his triumph .

[30]
[30] Ταῦτα πάντα περιλαβὼν ἐν ἑπτὰ βιβλίοις καὶ μηδεμίαν τοῖς ἐπισταμένοις τὰ πράγματα καὶ παρατυχοῦσι τῷ πολέμῳ καταλιπὼν μέμψεως ἀφορμὴν κατηγορίας , τοῖς γε τὴν ἀλήθειαν ἀγαπῶσιν , ἀλλὰ μὴ πρὸς ἡδονὴν ἀνέγραψα . ποιήσομαι δὲ ταύτην τῆς ἐξηγήσεως ἀρχήν , ἣν καὶ τῶν κεφαλαίων ἐποιησάμην .

030 I have covered all of this in seven books, giving no cause for complaint or blame by people who know about this war, but I have written it down for the sake of those who love truth, not for those who merely read for pleasure. So now I begin my account of the things which I listed at the top of this chapter .
Chapter 1
Persecuted by Antiochus Epiphanes, the Jews are liberated by the Maccabees

[31] Στάσεως τοῖς δυνατοῖς Ἰουδαίων ἐμπεσούσης καθ’ ὃν καιρὸν Ἀντίοχος κληθεὶς Ἐπιφανὴς διεφέρετο περὶ ὅλης Συρίας πρὸς Πτολεμαῖον τὸν ἕκτον , φιλοτιμία δ’ ἦν αὐτοῖς περὶ δυναστείας ἑκάστου τῶν ἐν ἀξιώματι μὴ φέροντος τοῖς ὁμοίοις ὑποτετάχθαι , Ὀνίας μὲν εἷς τῶν ἀρχιερέων ἐπικρατήσας ἐξέβαλε τῆς πόλεως τοὺς Τωβία υἱούς .
[32] οἱ δὲ καταφυγόντες πρὸς Ἀντίοχον ἱκέτευσαν αὐτοῖς ἡγεμόσι χρώμενον εἰς τὴν Ἰουδαίαν ἐμβαλεῖν . πείθεται δ’ βασιλεὺς ὡρμημένος πάλαι , καὶ μετὰ πλείστης δυνάμεως αὐτὸς ὁρμήσας τήν τε πόλιν αἱρεῖ κατὰ κράτος καὶ πολὺ πλῆθος τῶν Πτολεμαίῳ προσεχόντων ἀναιρεῖ , ταῖς τε ἁρπαγαῖς ἀνέδην ἐπαφιεὶς τοὺς στρατιώτας αὐτὸς καὶ τὸν ναὸν ἐσύλησε καὶ τὸν ἐνδελεχισμὸν τῶν καθ’ ἡμέραν ἐναγισμῶν ἔπαυσεν ἐπ’ ἔτη τρία καὶ μῆνας ἕξ .
[33] δ’ ἀρχιερεὺς Ὀνίας πρὸς Πτολεμαῖον διαφυγὼν καὶ παρ’ αὐτοῦ‎ λαβὼν τόπον ἐν τῷ Ἡλιοπολίτῃ νομῷ πολίχνην τε τοῖς Ἱεροσολύμοις ἀπεικασμένην καὶ ναὸν ἔκτισεν ὅμοιον , περὶ ὧν αὖθις κατὰ χώραν δηλώσομεν .

031 At the time when Antiochus, called Epiphanes, clashed with the sixth Ptolemy about the government of all Syria, among the Judean nobility there was a power-struggle, with none of these dignitaries willing to be subject to their equals, until Onias, one of the high priests, got the upper hand and expelled the sons of Tobias from the city .
032 These fled to Antiochus and implored him to use them as his guides for an invasion into Judea. Already disposed to do so, the king agreed and attacked the Jews with a large army and took their city by force, killing many who sided with Ptolemy and sending his soldiers to loot them without mercy. He also ransacked the temple and for three years and six months interrupted the regular course of daily sacrifice .
033 Onias the high priest fled to Ptolemy and received a place from him in the Nomos of Heliopolis, where he built a city like Jerusalem and a similar temple, about which we shall later have more to say, in its proper place .

[34] Ἀντιόχῳ γε μὴν οὔτε τὸ παρ’ ἐλπίδα κρατῆσαι τῆς πόλεως οὔτε αἱ ἁρπαγαὶ καὶ τοσοῦτος φόνος ἤρκεσεν , ὑπὸ δὲ ἀκρασίας παθῶν καὶ κατὰ μνήμην ὧν παρὰ τὴν πολιορκίαν ἔπαθεν ἠνάγκαζεν Ἰουδαίους καταλύσαντας τὰ πάτρια βρέφη τε αὐτῶν φυλάττειν ἀπερίτμητα καὶ σῦς ἐπιθύειν τῷ βωμῷ ·
[35] πρὸς ἅπαντες μὲν ἠπείθουν , ἐσφάττοντο δὲ οἱ δοκιμώτατοι . καὶ Βακχίδης πεμφθεὶς ὑπὸ Ἀντιόχου φρούραρχος , τῇ φυσικῇ προσλαβὼν ὠμότητι τὰ ἀσεβῆ παραγγέλματα παρανομίας οὐδεμίαν κατέλιπεν ὑπερβολὴν καὶ κατ’ ἄνδρα τοὺς ἀξιολόγους αἰκιζόμενος καὶ κοινῇ καθ’ ἡμέραν ἐνδεικνύμενος ὄψιν ἁλώσεως τῇ πόλει , μέχρι ταῖς ὑπερβολαῖς τῶν ἀδικημάτων τοὺς πάσχοντας εἰς ἀμύνης τόλμαν ἠρέθισε .

034 Antiochus, not content with his unexpected capture and looting of the city and the many deaths he had caused, moved by his violent passions and the memory of what he had suffered during the siege, forced the Jews to violate their ancestral laws and to keep their infants uncircumcised and to sacrifice swine's flesh upon the altar .
035 All resisted this, and the noblest among them were put to death. Bacchides who was sent as head of the garrison, with wicked commands along with his natural savagery, indulged in all extremes of evil and tortured their worthiest people one by one, humilating them every day with the signs of their city's captivity, until his flagrant misdeeds finally drove the victims to risk revenge .

[36] Ματθίας γοῦν Ναχώρης Ἀσαμωναίου τῶν ἱερέων εἷς ἀπὸ κώμης Μωδεεὶν ὄνομα , συνασπίσας μετὰ χειρὸς οἰκείας , πέντε γὰρ υἱεῖς ἦσαν αὐτῷ , κοπίσιν ἀναιρεῖ τὸν Βακχίδην . καὶ παραχρῆμα μὲν δείσας τὸ πλῆθος τῶν φρουρῶν εἰς τὰ ὄρη καταφεύγει ·
[37] προσγενομένων δὲ ἀπὸ τοῦ δήμου πολλῶν ἀναθαρσήσας κάτεισι καὶ συμβαλὼν μάχῃ νικᾷ τε τοὺς Ἀντιόχου στρατηγοὺς καὶ τῆς Ἰουδαίας ἐξελαύνει . παρελθὼν δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς εὐπραγίας εἰς δυναστείαν καὶ διὰ τὴν ἀπαλλαγὴν τῶν ἀλλοφύλων ἄρξας τῶν σφετέρων ἑκόντων , τελευτᾷ Ἰούδαι τῷ πρεσβυτάτῳ τῶν παίδων καταλιπὼν τὴν ἀρχήν .

036 In a village called Modin, Matthias, a priestly descendant of Hasmoneus, with his family of five sons took up arms, and killed Bacchides with daggers, then quickly fled to the mountains for fear of the large garrison .
037 So many joined him that he was persuaded to come down and fight against Antiochus's generals, defeating them and driving them from Judea. His success made him prominent, and for expelling the foreigners his own people gave him the leadership, which at his death he left to his eldest son, Judah .

[38] δέ , οὐ γὰρ ἠρεμήσειν Ἀντίοχον ὑπελάμβανε , τάς τε ἐπιχωρίους συγκροτεῖ δυνάμεις , καὶ πρὸς Ῥωμαίους πρῶτος ἐποιήσατο φιλίαν , καὶ τὸν Ἐπιφανῆ πάλιν εἰς τὴν χώραν ἐμβάλλοντα μετὰ καρτερᾶς πληγῆς ἀνέστειλεν .
[39] ἀπὸ δὲ θερμοῦ τοῦ κατορθώματος ὥρμησεν ἐπὶ τὴν ἐν τῇ πόλει φρουράν , οὔπω γὰρ ἐκκέκοπτο , καὶ ἐκβαλὼν ἀπὸ τῆς ἄνω πόλεως συνωθεῖ τοὺς στρατιώτας εἰς τὴν κάτω · τοῦτο δὲ τοῦ ἄστεος τὸ μέρος Ἄκρα κέκληται · κυριεύσας δὲ τοῦ ἱεροῦ τόν τε χῶρον ἐκάθηρε πάντα καὶ περιετείχισε καὶ τὰ πρὸς τὰς λειτουργίας σκεύη καινὰ κατασκευάσας εἰς τὸν ναὸν εἰσήνεγκεν ὡς τῶν προτέρων μεμιαμμένων , βωμόν τε ὠικοδόμησεν ἕτερον καὶ τῶν ἐναγισμῶν ἤρξατο .
[40] λαμβανούσης δὲ ἄρτι τὸ ἱερὸν κατάστημα τῆς πόλεως τελευτᾷ μὲν Ἀντίοχος , κληρονόμος δὲ τῆς βασιλείας αὐτοῦ‎ καὶ τῆς πρὸς Ἰουδαίους ἀπεχθείας Ναχώρης Ἀντίοχος γίνεται .

038 Realising that Antiochus would not remain inactive, Judah gathered an army of his countrymen and was the first to make a treaty of friendship with the Romans, and drove Epiphanes from the country, and defeated him badly when he invaded it a second time .
039 Warmed by this great success, he attacked the garrison in the city, for so far it had not been ousted. He expelled them from the upper city and drove the soldiers into the lower part of the city, called the Fortress. Being then in control of the temple he cleansed the whole place, walled it around and made new vessels for sacred ministrations and brought them into the temple, to replace the former that had been profaned, and built another altar and began the holy sacrifices .
040 As the city was resuming its sacred constitution, Antiochus died, his son Antiochus succeeding him in the kingship and also in his hatred towards the Jews .

[41] Συναγαγὼν γοῦν πεζῶν μὲν μυριάδας πέντε , ἱππεῖς δὲ πεντακισχιλίους , ἐλέφαντας δὲ ὀγδοήκοντα ἐμβάλλει διὰ τῆς Ἰουδαίας εἰς τὴν ὀρεινήν . Βηθσουρὸν μὲν οὖν πολίχνην αἱρεῖ , κατὰ δὲ τόπον , ὃς καλεῖται Βεθζαχαρία στενῆς οὔσης τῆς παρόδου Ἰούδας ὑπαντᾷ μετὰ τῆς δυνάμεως .
[42] πρὶν δὲ συνάψαι τὰς φάλαγγας Ἐλεάζαρος ἀδελφὸς αὐτοῦ‎ προϊδὼν τὸν ὑψηλότατον τῶν ἐλεφάντων πύργῳ τε μεγάλῳ καὶ περιχρύσοις προτειχίσμασι κεκοσμημένον , ὑπολαβὼν ἐπ’ αὐτοῦ‎ τὸν Ἀντίοχον εἶναι , τῶν τε ἰδίων ἐκτρέχει πολὺ καὶ διακόψας τὸ στῖφος τῶν πολεμίων ἐπὶ τὸν ἐλέφαντα διήνυσεν .
[43] ἐφικέσθαι μὲν οὖν τοῦ δοκοῦντος εἶναι βασιλέως οὐχ οἷός τε ἦν διὰ τὸ ὕψος , δὲ τὸ θηρίον ὑπὸ τὴν γαστέρα πλήξας ἐπικατέσεισεν ἑαυτῷ καὶ συντριβεὶς ἐτελεύτησεν , μηδὲν πλέον δράσας τοῦ τοῖς μεγάλοις ἐπιβαλέσθαι θέμενος εὐκλείας ἐν δευτέρῳ τὸ ζῆν .
[44] γε μὴν κυβερνῶν τὸν ἐλέφαντα ἰδιώτης ἦν · κἂν εἰ συνέβη δὲ εἶναι τὸν Ἀντίοχον , οὐδὲν πλέον ἤνυσεν τολμήσας τοῦ δοκεῖν ἐπ’ ἐλπίδι μόνῃ λαμπροῦ κατορθώματος ἑλέσθαι τὸν θάνατον .
[45] γίνεται δὲ καὶ κλῃδὼν τἀδελφῷ τῆς ὅλης παρατάξεως · καρτερῶς μὲν γὰρ οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι καὶ μέχρι πολλοῦ διηγωνίσαντο , πλήθει δὲ ὑπερέχοντες οἱ βασιλικοὶ καὶ δεξιᾷ χρησάμενοι τύχῃ κρατοῦσι , καὶ πολλῶν ἀναιρεθέντων τοὺς λοιποὺς ἔχων Ἰούδας εἰς τὴν Γοφνιτικὴν τοπαρχίαν φεύγει .
[46] Ἀντίοχος δὲ παρελθὼν εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα καὶ καθίσας ὀλίγας ἡμέρας ἐν αὐτῇ κατὰ σπάνιν τῶν ἐπιτηδείων ἀπανίσταται , καταλιπὼν μὲν φρουρὰν ὅσην ἀποχρήσειν ὑπελάμβανε , τὴν δὲ λοιπὴν δύναμιν ἀπαγαγὼν χειμεριοῦσαν εἰς τὴν Συρίαν .

041 Assembling fifty thousand infantry and five thousand cavalry and eighty elephants he marched through Judea into the hill country. He then took Bethsuron, a small city, but Judah met him with his army at a place called Bethzacharia, where the passage was narrow .
042 Before the forces began the battle, Judah's brother Eleazar, seeing the very tallest of the elephants adorned with a large tower and with gilded trappings to protect him and thinking that Antiochus himself was riding in it, he ran a long way ahead of his own army and cutting his way through the enemy's troops, he got as far as the elephant .
043 Unable to reach the one he thought of as the king, since he was so high up, he ran his weapon into the belly of the beast and brought him down upon himself and was crushed to death, achieving no more than a brave attempt and showing that he valued life less than renown .
044 But the one driving the elephant was just a commoner, and even had it been Antiochus, this daring deed would have proved no more than a willingness to die, in the hope of thereby doing something glorious .
045 This failure gave his brother an omen of how the entire battle would end. While the Jews fought it out bravely for a long time, the king's forces, superior in number and with fortune on their side, won the victory. When many of his men were killed, Judah fled with the rest to the district of Gophna.
046 Antiochus went to Jerusalem but lacking provisions he stayed there only a few days and then went off, leaving behind what he thought a sufficient garrison, and took the rest of his army to winter quarters in Syria .

[47] Πρὸς δὲ τὴν ὑποχώρησιν τοῦ βασιλέως Ἰούδας οὐκ ἠρέμει , προσγενομένων δ’ ἐκ τοῦ ἔθνους πολλῶν καὶ τοὺς διασωθέντας ἐκ τῆς μάχης ἐπισυγκροτήσας κατὰ κώμην Ἀκέδασαν συμβάλλει τοῖς Ἀντιόχου στρατηγοῖς , καὶ φανεὶς ἄριστος κατὰ τὴν μάχην πολλούς τε τῶν πολεμίων ἀποκτείνας ἀναιρεῖται καὶ μεθ’ ἡμέρας ὀλίγας ἀδελφὸς αὐτοῦ‎ Ἰωάννης ἐπιβουλευθεὶς ὑπὸ τῶν τὰ Ἀντιόχου φρονούντων τελευτᾶι .
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047 After the king's retreat, Judah was not idle. Since many of the nation joined him, he re-grouped the survivors of the battle and again fought Antiochus's generals at a village called Adasa, and overcoming his enemies in the battle he killed many, but finally was also killed himself. A few days later his brother John also died, due to a plot against him by Antiochus's party .
Chapter 2
The successors of Judah Maccabeus : Jonathan, Simon and John Hyrcanus

[48] Διαδεξάμενος δὲ τοῦτον ἀδελφὸς Ἰωνάθης τά τε ἄλλα πρὸς τοὺς ἐπιχωρίους διὰ φυλακῆς ἦγεν ἑαυτὸν καὶ τῇ πρὸς Ῥωμαίους φιλίαι τὴν ἀρχὴν ἐκρατύνατο πρός τε τὸν Ἀντιόχου παῖδα διαλλαγὰς ἐποιήσατο . οὐ μήν τι τούτων ἤρκεσεν αὐτῷ πρὸς ἀσφάλειαν ·
[49] Τρύφων γὰρ τύραννος , ἐπίτροπος μὲν ὢν τοῦ Ἀντιόχου παιδὸς ἐπιβουλεύων δ’ αὐτῷ καὶ πρόσθεν , ἀποσκευάζεσθαι τοὺς φίλους αὐτοῦ‎ πειρώμενος ἥκοντα τὸν Ἰωνάθην σὺν ὀλίγοις εἰς Πτολεμαΐδα πρὸς Ἀντίοχον δόλῳ συλλαμβάνει καὶ δήσας ἐπὶ Ἰουδαίαν στρατεύει · εἶτ’ ἀπελαθεὶς ὑπὸ τοῦ Σίμωνος , ὃς ἦν ἀδελφὸς τοῦ Ἰωνάθου , καὶ πρὸς τὴν ἧτταν ὠργισμένος κτείνει τὸν Ἰωνάθην .

048 When Jonathan, Judah's brother, succeeded him, he carefully guarded himself against his countrymen and strengthened his authority by a treaty with the Romans. He also made a treaty with the younger Antiochus .
049 Yet all this was not sufficient for his security, for the tyrant Trypho, who was guardian to Antiochus's son, schemed against him, seeking to win away his friends. He caught Jonathan in a trap, as he was going with a few others to Ptolemais to visit Antiochus. He put him in chains and then made war on the Jews, but when repulsed by Jonathan's brother Simon, in his rage at his defeat he put Jonathan to death .

[50] Σίμων δὲ γενναίως ἀφηγούμενος τῶν πραγμάτων αἱρεῖ μὲν Γάζαρά τε καὶ Ἰόππην καὶ Ἰάμνειαν τῶν προσοίκων , κατέσκαψε δὲ καὶ τὴν ἄκραν τῶν φρουρῶν κρατήσας . αὖθις δὲ γίνεται καὶ Ἀντιόχῳ σύμμαχος κατὰ Τρύφωνος , ὃν ἐν Δώροις πρὸ τῆς ἐπὶ Μήδους στρατείας ἐπολιόρκει .
[51] ἀλλ’ οὐκ ἐξεδυσώπησεν τὴν τοῦ βασιλέως πλεονεξίαν Τρύφωνα συνεξελών · μετ’ οὐ πολὺ γὰρ Ἀντίοχος Κενδεβαῖον τὸν αὐτοῦ‎ στρατηγὸν μετὰ δυνάμεως δῃώσοντα τὴν Ἰουδαίαν ἔπεμψεν καὶ καταδουλωσόμενον Σίμωνα .
[52] δὲ καίτοι γε γηραλέος ὢν νεανικώτερον ἀφηγήσατο τοῦ πολέμου · τοὺς μέντοι γε υἱεῖς αὐτοῦ‎ μετὰ τῶν ἐρρωμενεστάτων προεκπέμπει , αὐτὸς δὲ μοῖραν τῆς δυνάμεως ἀναλαβὼν ἐπήιει κατ’ ἄλλο μέρος .
[53] πολλοὺς δὲ πολλαχοῦ κἀν τοῖς ὄρεσι προλοχίσας πάσαις κρατεῖ ταῖς ἐπιβολαῖς καὶ νικήσας λαμπρῶς ἀρχιερεὺς ἀποδείκνυται καὶ τῆς Μακεδόνων ἐπικρατείας μετὰ ἑκατὸν καὶ ἑβδομήκοντα ἔτη Ἰουδαίους ἀπαλλάττει .

050 Simon administered things things very well and took the neighbouring cities of Gazara and Joppa and Jamnia, and defeating the garrison he demolished the fortress. Later he allied with Antiochus against Trypho, whom the king besieged in Dora before going on his expedition against the Medes .
051 But even after helping him to kill Trypho, he could not shame the king out of his covetous desire, for before long Antiochus sent his general Cendebaeus with an army to ravage Judea and bring Simon to heel .
052 The latter, though he was getting old, fought the war like a young man and sent his sons with his most vigorous men against Antiochus, while he himself attacked him on another front with part of the army .
053 He set many ambushes in various places in the mountains and all his attacks succeeded, and won a glorious victory; so he was made high priest and set the Jews free from the Macedonian dominance that had lasted a hundred and seventy years .

[54] Θνήσκει δὲ καὶ αὐτὸς ἐπιβουλευθεὶς ἐν συμποσίῳ ὑπὸ Πτολεμαίου τοῦ γαμβροῦ , ὃς αὐτοῦ‎ τήν τε γυναῖκα καὶ τοὺς δύο παῖδας ἐγκαθείρξας ἐπὶ τὸν τρίτον Ἰωάννην , ὃς καὶ Ὑρκανὸς ἐκαλεῖτο , τοὺς ἀναιρήσοντας ἔπεμψεν .
[55] προγνοὺς δὲ τὴν ἔφοδον νεανίσκος παραγενέσθαι εἰς τὴν πόλιν ἠπείγετο , πλεῖστον τῷ λαῷ πεποιθὼς κατά τε μνήμην τῶν πατρώιων κατορθωμάτων καὶ μῖσος τῆς Πτολεμαίου παρανομίας . ὥρμησε δὲ καὶ Πτολεμαῖος εἰσελθεῖν καθ’ ἑτέραν πύλην , ἐξεκρούσθη γε μὴν ὑπὸ τοῦ δήμου ταχέως δεδεγμένων ἤδη τὸν Ὑρκανόν .
[56] καὶ μὲν παραχρῆμα ἀνεχώρησεν εἴς τι τῶν ὑπὲρ Ἱεριχοῦντος ἐρυμάτων , Δαγὼν καλεῖται · κομισάμενος δὲ τὴν πατρώιαν ἀρχιερωσύνην Ὑρκανὸς καὶ θύσας τῷ θεῷ μετὰ τάχους ἐπὶ Πτολεμαῖον ὥρμησεν βοηθήσων τῇ μητρὶ καὶ τοῖς ἀδελφοῖς ,

054 He too was killed, betrayed at a feast by his son-in-law Ptolemy, who imprisoned his wife and two sons, and sent people to kill John, surnamed Hyrcanus .
055 But as the young man was forewarned of their coming, he hurried to the city, having great confidence in the people there and their memory of his father's glorious deeds and their hatred of Ptolemy's crimes. Ptolemy also tried to rush into the city by another gate, but was repelled by the people, who had already made Hyrcanus very welcome .
056 He then retreated to one of the fortresses near Jericho, called Dagon. When Hyrcanus had received the high priesthood held by his father before him and had offered sacrifice to God, he hurried out after Ptolemy, to bring help to his mother and brothers .

[057] καὶ προσβαλὼν τῷ φρουρίῳ τὰ μὲν ἄλλα κρείττων ἦν , ἡττᾶτο δὲ δικαίου πάθους · γὰρ Πτολεμαῖος ὁπότε καταπονοῖτο , τήν τε μητέρα καὶ τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς αὐτοῦ‎ προάγων ἐπὶ τοῦ τείχους εἰς εὐσύνοπτον ἠικίζετο καὶ κατακρημνιεῖν , εἰ μὴ θᾶττον ἀπανασταίη , διηπείλει .
[58] πρὸς τὸν μὲν Ὑρκανὸν ὀργῆς πλείων οἶκτος εἰσήιει καὶ δέος , δὲ μήτηρ οὐδὲν οὔτε πρὸς τὰς αἰκίας οὔτε πρὸς τὸν ἀπειλούμενον αὐτῇ θάνατον ἐνδιδοῦσα χεῖρας ὤρεγε καὶ κατηντιβόλει τὸν παῖδα μήτι πρὸς τὴν αὐτῆς ὕβριν ἐπικλασθέντα φείσασθαι τοῦ δυσσεβοῦς , ὡς αὐτῇ γε κρείττονα τὸν ἐκ Πτολεμαίου θάνατον ἀθανασίας εἶναι δόντος δίκας ἐφ’ οἷς εἰς τὸν οἶκον αὐτῶν παρηνόμησεν .
[59] δὲ Ἰωάννης ὁπότε μὲν ἐνθυμηθείη τὸ παράστημα τῆς μητρὸς καὶ κατακούσειε τῆς ἱκεσίας , ὥρμητο προσβάλλειν , ἐπειδὰν δὲ κατίδοι τυπτομένην τε καὶ σπαραττομένην , ἐθηλύνετο καὶ τοῦ πάθους ὅλος ἦν .
[60] τριβομένης δὲ διὰ ταῦτα τῆς πολιορκίας ἐπέστη τὸ ἀργὸν ἔτος , κατὰ ἑπταετίαν ἀργεῖται παρὰ Ἰουδαίοις ὁμοίως ταῖς ἑβδομάσιν ἡμέραις . κἀν τούτῳ Πτολεμαῖος ἀνεθεὶς τῆς πολιορκίας ἀναιρεῖ τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς Ἰωάννου σὺν τῇ μητρὶ καὶ φεύγει πρὸς Ζήνωνα τὸν ἐπικληθέντα Κοτυλᾶν · Φιλαδελφείας δ’ ἦν τύραννος .

057 He laid siege to the fortress and had the advantage over Ptolemy in other ways, but was defeated by his finer feelings. For when under pressure, Ptolemy brought out his mother and brothers and set them upon the wall in the sight of all, and tortured them and threatened to throw them down headlong unless he left instantly .
058 At this sight Hyrcanus's anger yielded to his pity and concern. But his mother, undaunted either by the torture or the death threat, with outstretched hands implored her son not to be moved by her pains to spare the wretch, for she would prefer death from Ptolemy to immortality, so long as he was punished for his crime against their family .
059 Heartened by his mother's courage John heeded her plea and set out to attack, but when he saw her flogged and torn to pieces with the stripes, he weakened and was overcome by his feelings .
060 As the siege then dragged on the year of rest was beginning, whereby every seventh year the Jews rest just as they do each seventh day, and so Ptolemy, being relieved of the siege, killed the brothers of John with their mother, and fled to Zeno, surnamed Cotylas, who was tyrant of Philadelphia .

[61] Ἀντίοχος δὲ κατ’ ὀργὴν ὧν ὑπὸ Σίμωνος ἔπαθεν , στρατεύσας εἰς τὴν Ἰουδαίαν ἐπολιόρκει τὸν Ὑρκανὸν προσκαθεζόμενος τοῖς Ἱεροσολύμοις . δὲ τὸν Δαυίδου τάφον ἀνοίξας , ὃς δὴ πλουσιώτατος βασιλέων ἐγένετο , καὶ ὑφελόμενος ὑπὲρ τρισχίλια τάλαντα χρημάτων τόν τε Ἀντίοχον ἀνίστησι τῆς πολιορκίας πείσας τριακοσίοις ταλάντοις καὶ δὴ καὶ ξενοτροφεῖν πρῶτος Ἰουδαίων ἐκ τῆς περιουσίας ἤρξατο .

061 Angry at what he had endured from Simon, Antiochus led an army into Judea and camped near Jerusalem to besiege Hyrcanus, who in turn opened the burial vault of David, the richest of all the kings, and took out about three thousand talents in money and paid Antiochus a bribe of three hundred talents to lift the siege, using the remainder to hire foreign allies, being the first of the Jews to do so .

[62] Αὖθίς γε μὴν Ἀντίοχος ἐπὶ Μήδους στρατεύσας καιρὸν ἀμύνης αὐτῷ παρεῖχεν · εὐθέως γὰρ ὥρμησεν ἐπὶ τὰς ἐν Συρίαι πόλεις , κενάς , ὅπερ ἦν , ὑπολαμβάνων τῶν μαχιμωτέρων εὑρήσειν .
[63] Μεδάβην μὲν οὖν καὶ Σαμαγὰν ἅμα ταῖς πλησίον , ἔτι δὲ Σίκιμα καὶ Ἀργαρίζειν αὐτὸς αἱρεῖ , πρὸς αἷς τὸ Χουθαίων γένος , οἳ περιώικουν τὸ εἰκασθὲν τῷ ἐν Ἱεροσολύμοις ἱερῷ . αἱρεῖ δὲ καὶ τῆς Ἰδουμαίας ἄλλας τε οὐκ ὀλίγας καὶ Ἀδωρεὸν καὶ Μάρισαν .

062 Later he had a chance to take revenge on Antiochus when he had gone to war against the Medes, and immediately attacked the cities of Syria, rightly expecting to find them short of warriors .
063 So he took Medaba and Samaga and the nearby towns, and Sikima and Garizim, and also the Cuthean nation, who lived near the temple which was built in imitation of that in Jerusalem. He also took several other cities of Idumaea, including Adoreon and Marissa .

[64] Προελθὼν δὲ καὶ μέχρι Σαμαρείας , ἔνθα νῦν ἐστιν Σεβαστὴ πόλις ὑπὸ Ἡρώδου κτισθεῖσα τοῦ βασιλέως , καὶ πάντοθεν αὐτὴν ἀποτειχίσας τοὺς υἱεῖς ἐπέστησε τῇ πολιορκίαι Ἀριστόβουλον καὶ Ἀντίγονον · ὧν οὐδὲν ἀνιέντων λιμοῦ μὲν εἰς τοσοῦτον προῆλθον οἱ κατὰ τὴν πόλιν , ὡς ἅψασθαι καὶ τῶν ἀηθεστάτων .
[65] ἐπικαλοῦνται δὲ βοηθὸν Ἀντίοχον τὸν ἐπικληθέντα Ἀσπένδιον · κἀκεῖνος ἑτοίμως ὑπακούσας ὑπὸ τῶν περὶ Ἀριστόβουλον ἡττᾶται . καὶ μὲν μέχρι Σκυθοπόλεως διωχθεὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ἀδελφῶν ἐκφεύγει , οἱ δὲ ἐπὶ τοὺς Σαμαρεῖς ὑποστρέψαντες τό τε πλῆθος πάλιν εἰς τὸ τεῖχος συγκλείουσιν καὶ τὴν πόλιν ἑλόντες αὐτήν τε κατασκάπτουσιν καὶ τοὺς ἐνοικοῦντας ἐξηνδραποδίσαντο .
[66] προχωρούντων δὲ τῶν κατορθωμάτων τὴν ὁρμὴν οὐ κατέψυξαν , ἀλλὰ προελθόντες ἅμα τῇ δυνάμει μέχρι τῆς Σκυθοπόλεως ταύτην τε κατέδραμον καὶ τὴν ἐντὸς Καρμήλου τοῦ ὄρους χώραν ἅπασαν κατενείμαντο .

064 He proceeded as far as Samaria, where now stands the city of Sebaste, built by king Herod, and surrounded it with a wall and put his sons, Aristobulus and Antigonus, in charge of the siege. They pressed it so hard that famine gripped the city and the people had to eat things never before regarded as food .
065 They also called on the help of Antiochus, surnamed Cyzicenus, and he quickly answered their call, but was defeated by Aristobulus and Antigonus, and fled from the brothers as far as Scythopolis. So they returned to Samaria and again blockaded the people within the city walls, and captured and demolished it and enslaved its inhabitants .
066 As their campaign was so successful, they did not let up, but marched with an army to Scythopolis and attacked it and ravaged all the countryside around Mount Carmel .

[67] Πρὸς δὲ τὰς εὐπραγίας αὐτοῦ‎ τε Ἰωάννου καὶ τῶν παίδων φθόνος ἐγείρει στάσιν τῶν ἐπιχωρίων , καὶ πολλοὶ κατ’ αὐτῶν συνελθόντες οὐκ ἠρέμουν , μέχρι καὶ πρὸς φανερὸν πόλεμον ἐκριπισθέντες ἡττῶνται .
[68] τὸ λοιπὸν δ’ ἐπιβιοὺς ἐν εὐδαιμονίαι Ἰωάννης καὶ τὰ κατὰ τὴν ἀρχὴν κάλλιστα διοικήσας ἐν τρισὶν ὅλοις καὶ τριάκοντα ἔτεσιν ἐπὶ πέντε υἱοῖς τελευτᾶι , μακαριστὸς ὄντως καὶ κατὰ μηδὲν ἐάσας ἐφ’ ἑαυτῷ μεμφθῆναι τὴν τύχην . τρία γοῦν τὰ κρατιστεύοντα μόνος εἶχεν , τήν τε ἀρχὴν τοῦ ἔθνους καὶ τὴν ἀρχιερωσύνην καὶ προφητείαν ·
[69] ὡμίλει γὰρ αὐτῷ τὸ δαιμόνιον ὡς μηδὲν τῶν μελλόντων ἀγνοεῖν , ὅς γε καὶ περὶ δύο τῶν πρεσβυτέρων υἱῶν ὅτι μὴ διαμενοῦσι κύριοι τῶν πραγμάτων προεῖδέν τε καὶ προεφήτευσεν · ὧν τὴν καταστροφὴν ἄξιον ἀφηγήσασθαι , παρ’ ὅσον τῆς πατρώιας εὐδαιμονίας ἀπέκλιναν .

067 Then the success of John and his sons provoked envy and a revolt among their countrymen, for many had gathered and would not rest until they fanned the flames into and open war, in which they were defeated .
068 So John lived the rest of his life quite happily and administered the leadership very well for a total of thirty-three years and died, leaving five sons behind him. He was certainly a very fortunate man who had no reason to complain of his fate. He alone held three of the most desirable things in the world : to rule his nation, hold the high priesthood and have the gift of prophecy .
069 For the daemon conversed with him in such a way that he was not unaware of future events, but foresaw and foretold that his two eldest sons would not continue as leaders. Their downfall must be described, and how poorly they fared compared with their father .
Chapter 3
Aristobulus becomes king. Kills his brother Antigonus; dies of Remorse

[70] μετὰ γὰρ τὴν τοῦ πατρὸς τελευτὴν πρεσβύτερος αὐτῶν Ἀριστόβουλος τὴν ἀρχὴν εἰς βασιλείαν μετατιθεὶς περιτίθεται μὲν διάδημα πρῶτος μετὰ τετρακοσιοστὸν καὶ ἑβδομηκοστὸν πρῶτον ἔτος , πρὸς δὲ μῆνας τρεῖς , ἐξ οὗ κατῆλθεν λαὸς εἰς τὴν χώραν ἀπαλλαγεὶς τῆς ἐν Βαβυλῶνι δουλείας ·
[71] τῶν δὲ ἀδελφῶν τὸν μὲν μεθ’ ἑαυτὸν Ἀντίγονον , ἐδόκει γὰρ ἀγαπᾶν , ἦγεν ἰσοτίμως , τοὺς δ’ ἄλλους εἵργνυσι δήσας . δεσμεῖ δὲ καὶ τὴν μητέρα διενεχθεῖσαν περὶ τῆς ἐξουσίας , ταύτην γὰρ κυρίαν τῶν ὅλων Ἰωάννης ἀπολελοίπει , καὶ μέχρι τοσαύτης ὠμότητος προῆλθεν , ὥστε καὶ λιμῷ διαφθεῖρᾳ δεδεμένην .

070 After their father's death, the eldest of them, Aristobulus, changed the leadership into a monarchy and was the first to put a diadem upon his head, four hundred seventy one years and three months after the return of our people to this country, when released from slavery in Babylon .
071 Of his brothers, he granted to his next-born, Antigonus, equal status with himself, and had the rest imprisoned. For disputing the sovereignty with him, he chained up his own mother, whom John had left in charge of everything, and cruelly left her to starve to death in prison .

[72] Περιέρχεται δὲ αὐτῶν τίσις εἰς τὸν ἀδελφὸν Ἀντίγονον , ὃν ἠγάπα τε καὶ τῆς βασιλείας κοινωνὸν εἶχεν · κτείνει γὰρ καὶ τοῦτον ἐκ διαβολῶν , ἃς οἱ πονηροὶ τῶν κατὰ τὸ βασίλειον ἐνεσκευάσαντο . τὰ μὲν δὴ πρῶτα διηπίστει τοῖς λεγομένοις Ἀριστόβουλος ἅτε δὴ καὶ τὸν ἀδελφὸν ἀγαπῶν καὶ διδοὺς φθόνῳ τὰ πολλὰ τῶν λογοποιουμένων .
[73] ὡς δ’ Ἀντίγονος λαμπρὸς ἀπὸ στρατείας ἦλθεν εἰς τὴν ἑορτήν , ἐν ἧι σκηνοποιεῖσθαι πάτριον τῷ θεῷ , συνέβη μὲν κατ’ ἐκείνας τὰς ἡμέρας νόσῳ χρήσασθαι τὸν Ἀριστόβουλον , τὸν δὲ Ἀντίγονον ἐπὶ τέλει τῆς ἑορτῆς ἀναβάντα μετὰ τῶν περὶ αὐτὸν ὁπλιτῶν ὡς ἐνῆν μάλιστα κεκοσμημένον προσκυνῆσαι τὸ πλέον ὑπὲρ τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ .
[74] κἀν τούτῳ προσιόντες οἱ πονηροὶ τῷ βασιλεῖ τήν τε πομπὴν τῶν ὁπλιτῶν ἐδήλουν καὶ τὸ παράστημα τοῦ Ἀντιγόνου μεῖζον κατ’ ἰδιώτην , ὅτι τε παρείη μετὰ μεγίστου συντάγματος ἀναιρήσων αὐτόν · οὐ γὰρ ἀνέχεσθαι τιμὴν μόνον ἐκ βασιλείας ἔχων , παρὸν αὐτὴν κατασχεῖν .

072 But vengeance caught up with him for his brother Antigonus, whom he loved and with whom he shared his rule, for he killed him too, because of the lies spread against him by evil people around the palace. At first Aristobulus would not believe their reports, partly for love of his brother and partly from the idea that most of these tales came from the envy of their tellers .
073 Once however, Aristobulus lay sick as Antigonus came in triumph from a campaign to the festival where we customarily make tents for God. Towards the end of the feast, Antigonus, surrounded by his bodyguard and adorned in the finery, went up to the temple to pray on behalf of his brother .
074 Those mischief makers went to report to the king how pompous the bodyguard had seemed and how proudly Antigonus presented himself, far too grandly for a private citizen, and that with his large band of men he had really come to kill him, not content merely to enjoy the honours of royalty when it was in his power to seize the throne itself .

[75] Τούτοις κατὰ μικρὸν ἄκων ἐπίστευσεν Ἀριστόβουλος , καὶ προνοῶν τοῦ μήθ’ ὑποπτεύων φανερὸς γενέσθαι καὶ προησφαλίσθαι πρὸς τὸ ἄδηλον καθίστησι μὲν τοὺς σωματοφύλακας ἔν τινι τῶν ὑπογαίων ἀλαμπεῖ , κατέκειτο δ’ ἐν τῇ βάρει πρότερον αὖθις δ’ Ἀντωνίαι μετονομασθείσῃ , προστάξας ἀνόπλου μὲν ἀπέχεσθαι , κτείνειν δὲ τὸν Ἀντίγονον , εἰ μετὰ τῶν ὅπλων προσίοι , καὶ πρὸς αὐτὸν ἔπεμψεν τοὺς προεροῦντας ἄνοπλον ἐλθεῖν .
[76] πρὸς τοῦτο πάνυ πανούργως βασίλισσα συντάσσεται μετὰ τῶν ἐπιβούλων · τοὺς γὰρ πεμφθέντας πείθουσιν τὰ μὲν παρὰ τοῦ βασιλέως σιωπῆσαι , λέγειν δὲ πρὸς τὸν Ἀντίγονον ὡς ἀδελφὸς ἀκούσας ὅπλα τε αὐτῷ παρεσκευακέναι κάλλιστα καὶ πολεμικὸν κόσμον ἐν τῇ Γαλιλαίαι διὰ μὲν τὴν ἀσθένειαν αὐτὸς ἐπιδεῖν ἕκαστα κωλυθείη , νῦν δ’ ἐπεὶ καὶ χωρίζεσθαι μέλλοις , θεάσαιτ’ ἂν ἥδιστά σε ἐν τοῖς ὅπλοις .

075 Gradually and unwillingly Aristobulus came to believe it, and guarded against the risk while being careful not to publicly reveal his suspicion. He had his bodyguards in a dark underground chamber beneath the place where for he lay sick, which was formerly called Baris though later renamed to Antonia, with orders to leave Antigonus alone if he came unarmed, but to kill him if he came fully armed; and he sent some ahead to tell him to come unarmed .
076 But the queen worked with the conspirators, persuading the messengers to say nothing about the king's instructions. Instead, they should tell Antigonus how his brother had heard of the fine suit of armour he had got made for himself in Galilee, with its ornaments of war, and since his present sickness prevented him from coming to admire it and he was due to depart soon, he wished to see him now in his armour .

[77] Ταῦτα ἀκούσας Ἀντίγονος , ἐνῆγεν δ’ τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ διάθεσις μηδὲν ὑποπτεύειν πονηρόν , ἐχώρει μετὰ τῶν ὅπλων ὡς πρὸς ἐπίδειξιν . γενόμενος δὲ κατὰ τὴν σκοτεινὴν πάροδον , Στράτωνος ἐκαλεῖτο πύργος , ὑπὸ τῶν σωματοφυλάκων ἀναιρεῖται , βέβαιον ἀποδείξας ὅτι πᾶσαν εὔνοιαν καὶ φύσιν κόπτει διαβολὴ καὶ οὐδὲν οὕτως τῶν ἀγαθῶν παθῶν ἰσχυρόν , τῷ φθόνῳ μέχρι παντὸς ἀντέχει .

077 When Antigonus heard this, and suspecting no harm on account of his brother's goodwill, he came along in his armour to show it off. As he was going through the dark passage called Strato's Tower he was killed by the bodyguards, in a memorable instance of how all good will and affection can be destroyed by calumny and how even our good disposition cannot hold out forever against envy .

[78] Θαυμάσαι δ’ ἄν τις ἐν τούτῳ καὶ Ἰούδαν , Ἐσσαῖος ἦν γένος οὐκ ἔστιν ὅτε πταίσας ψευσθεὶς ἐν τοῖς προαπαγγέλμασιν , ὃς ἐπειδὴ καὶ τότε τὸν Ἀντίγονον ἐθεάσατο παριόντα διὰ τοῦ ἱεροῦ , πρὸς τοὺς γνωρίμους ἀνέκραγεν , ἦσαν δ’ οὐκ ὀλίγοι παρεδρεύοντες αὐτῷ τῶν μανθανόντων ,
[79] « παπαί , νῦν ἐμοὶ καλόν , ἔφη , τὸ θανεῖν , ὅτε μου προτέθνηκεν ἀλήθεια καί τι τῶν ὑπ’ ἐμοῦ προρρηθέντων διέψευσται · ζῇ γὰρ Ἀντίγονος οὑτοσὶ σήμερον ὀφείλων ἀνῃρῆσθαι . χωρίον δὲ αὐτῷ πρὸς σφαγὴν Στράτωνος πύργος εἵμαρτο · καὶ τοῦτο μὲν ἀπὸ ἑξακοσίων ἐντεῦθεν σταδίων ἐστίν , ὧρᾳ δὲ τῆς ἡμέρας ἤδη τέσσαρες ·
[80] δὴ χρόνος ἐκκρούει τὸ μάντευματαῦτα εἰπὼν σκυθρωπὸς ἐπὶ συννοίας γέρων διεκαρτέρει , καὶ μετ’ ὀλίγον ἀνῃρημένος Ἀντίγονος ἠγγέλλετο κατὰ τὸ ὑπόγαιον χωρίον , δὴ καὶ αὐτὸ Στράτωνος ἐκαλεῖτο πύργος ὁμωνυμοῦν τῇ παραλίῳ Καισαρείαι . τοῦτο γοῦν τὸν μάντιν διετάραξεν .

078 A surprise in this case was the the conduct of Judah who belonged to the sect of the Essenes and had never before proven wrong or false in his predictions. This man saw Antigonus as he was passing along by the temple and called out loud, for many of his disciples were sitting around him,
079 "Oh that I might die now, since truth has died before me. What I foretold has proved false, since this Antigonus is still alive, a man who was due to die this day, and the place predicted for the murder was Strato's Tower, six hundred furlongs away from here. But already four hours of this day have passed, so time rules out the prediction ."
080 Saying this, the old man paused, in a gloomy frame of mind. But shortly afterwards came the news that Antigonus had been killed in an underground place, also called Strato's Tower, like Caesarea-on-sea, and the prophet's confusion arose from this ambiguity .

[81] Ἀριστοβούλῳ γε μὴν εὐθὺς περὶ τοῦ μύσους μεταμέλεια νόσον ἐνσκήπτει καὶ πρὸς ἔννοιαν τοῦ φόνου τὴν ψυχὴν ἔχων ἀεὶ τεταραγμένην συνετήκετο , μέχρι τῶν σπλάγχνων ὑπ’ ἀκράτου τῆς λύπης σπαραττομένων ἄθρουν αἷμα ἀναβάλλει .
[82] τοῦτό τις τῶν ἐν τῇ θεραπείᾳ παίδων ἐκφέρων δαιμονίῳ προνοίαι σφάλλεται καθ’ ὃν τόπον Ἀντίγονος ἔσφακτο καὶ φαινομένοις ἔτι τοῖς ἀπὸ τοῦ φόνου σπίλοις τὸ αἷμα τοῦ κτείναντος ἐπέχεεν . ἤρθη δ’ εὐθὺς οἰμωγὴ τῶν θεασαμένων ὥσπερ ἐπίτηδες τοῦ παιδὸς ἐκεῖ ἐπικατασπείσαντος τὸ αἷμα .
[83] τῆς δὲ βοῆς ἀκούσας βασιλεὺς τὴν αἰτίαν ἐπυνθάνετο καὶ μηδενὸς τολμῶντος εἰπεῖν μᾶλλον ἐνέκειτο μαθεῖν ἐθέλων · τέλος δὲ ἀπειλοῦντι καὶ βιαζομένῳ τἀληθὲς εἶπον . δὲ τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς ἐμπίπλησι δακρύων καὶ στενάξας ὅσον ἦν αὐτῷ δύναμις εἶπεν ·
[84] « οὐκ ἄρα θεοῦ μέγαν ὀφθαλμὸν ἐπ’ ἔργοις ἀθεμίτοις λήσειν ἔμελλον , ἀλλά με ταχεῖα μέτεισι δίκη φόνου συγγενοῦς . μέχρι τοῦ μοι , σῶμα ἀναιδέστατον , τὴν ἀδελφῷ καὶ μητρὶ κατάκριτον ψυχὴν καθέξεις ; μέχρι τοῦ δ’ αὐτοῖς ἐπισπείσω κατὰ μέρος τοὐμὸν αἷμα ; λαβέτωσαν ἀθρόον τοῦτο , καὶ μηκέτι ταῖς ἐκ τῶν ἐμῶν σπλάγχνων χοαῖς ἐπειρωνευέσθω τὸ δαιμόνιονταῦτα εἰπὼν εὐθέως τελευτᾷ βασιλεύσας οὐ πλεῖον ἐνιαυτοῦ .

081 The illness of Aristobulus quickly became worse out of remorse at this terrible crime. His mind was constantly agitated by the murder, until his innards churned with grief and he threw up a lot of blood .
082 While one of his attendants was carrying it away, some demonic force made him slip and fall at the very place where Antigonus had been killed, so that he spilt some of the killer's blood upon what remained of the lad's blood. A sudden cry of grief came from those who saw it, as though the servant had spilled the blood there on purpose .
083 Hearing the cry, the king asked about the cause of it, and when nobody dared tell him he insisted all the more to know what it was. When by threats he finally forced them to speak, they told him and he burst into tears. With his remaining strength he groaned and said,
084 "My crimes are not going to escape the all-seeing eye of God, for justice hotly pursues me for my relative's blood. Wretched body, how long will you cling to a soul condemned for wronging a mother and a brother! How long must I pour out my blood to them drop by drop? Let them take it all at once, with the demon no longer mocking them with just a few droplets from my bowels ." With these words, he died, having reigned for less than a year .
Chapter 4
The twenty-seven year reign of Alexander Janneus

[85] Λύσασα δ’ γυνὴ τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς αὐτοῦ‎ βασιλέα καθίστησιν Ἀλέξανδρον τὸν καὶ καθ’ ἡλικίαν καὶ μετριότητι προύχειν δοκοῦντα . δὲ παρελθὼν εἰς τὴν ἐξουσίαν τὸν ἕτερον μὲν τῶν ἀδελφῶν βασιλειῶντα κτείνει , τὸν δὲ καταλιμπανόμενον ἀγαπῶντα τὸ ζῆν δίχα πραγμάτων εἶχεν .

085 The king's wife released his brothers and made Alexander king, who was both elder in age and of the most balanced temperament. When he came to power, he killed one of his brothers who aspired to become ruler, but he respected the rest of them, as they wanted a life of leisure, not meddling with public matters.

[86] Γίνεται δ’ αὐτῷ καὶ πρὸς τὸν Λάθουρον ἐπικληθέντα Πτολεμαῖον συμβολὴ πόλιν Ἀσωχὶν ἡιρηκότα , καὶ πολλοὺς μὲν ἀνεῖλεν τῶν πολεμίων , δὲ νίκη πρὸς Πτολεμαῖον ἔρρεψεν . ἐπεὶ δ’ ὑπὸ τῆς μητρὸς Κλεοπάτρας διωχθεὶς εἰς Αἴγυπτον ἀνεχώρησεν , Ἀλέξανδρος Γαδάρων τε πολιορκίαι κρατεῖ καὶ Ἀμαθοῦντος , δὴ μέγιστον μὲν ἦν ἔρυμα τῶν ὑπὲρ Ἰορδάνην , τὰ τιμιώτατα δὲ τῶν Θεοδώρου τοῦ Ζήνωνος κτημάτων ἦν ἐν αὐτῷ .
[87] ἐπελθὼν δ’ ἐξαίφνης Θεόδωρος τά τε σφέτερα καὶ τὴν τοῦ βασιλέως ἀποσκευὴν αἱρεῖ , τῶν δ’ Ἰουδαίων εἰς μυρίους κτείνει . γίνεται δ’ ἐπάνω τῆς πληγῆς Ἀλέξανδρος καὶ τραπόμενος εἰς τὴν παράλιον αἱρεῖ Γάζαν τε καὶ Ῥάφειαν καὶ Ἀνθηδόνα τὴν αὖθις ὑπὸ Ἡρώδου τοῦ βασιλέως Ἀγριππιάδα ἐπικληθεῖσαν .

086 He went to battle against Ptolemy, surnamed Lathyrus, who had taken the city of Asochis, and though he killed many of the enemy, victory went to Ptolemy. But when the was persecuted by his mother Cleopatra and retreated to Egypt, Alexander besieged Gadara and took it, and Amathus, the strongest of all the fortresses near the Jordan, where the most precious of all the possessions of Theodorus, son of Zeno, were stored .
087 Theodorus marched against him and took back his property, plus the king's baggage, and killed ten thousand of the Jews. But Alexander recovered from this and turned his force towards the sea-coasts and took Raphia and Gaza, and Anthedon which was later called Agrippias by king Herod .

[88] Ἐξανδραποδισαμένῳ δὲ ταύτας ἐπανίσταται τὸ Ἰουδαϊκὸν ἐν ἑορτῇ · μάλιστα γὰρ ἐν ταῖς εὐωχίαις αὐτῶν στάσις ἅπτεται . καὶ δοκεῖ μὴ ἂν κρείττων γενέσθαι τῆς ἐπιβουλῆς , εἰ μὴ τὸ ξενικὸν αὐτῷ παρεβοήθει · Πισίδαι καὶ Κίλικες ἦσαν · Σύρους γὰρ οὐκ ἐδέχετο μισθοφόρους διὰ τὴν ἔμφυτον αὐτῶν πρὸς τὸ ἔθνος ἀπέχθειαν .
[89] κτείνας δὲ τῶν ἐπαναστάντων ὑπὲρ ἑξακισχιλίους Ἀραβίας ἥπτετο καὶ ταύτης ἑλὼν Γαλααδίτας καὶ Μωαβίτας φόρον τε αὐτοῖς ἐπιτάξας ἀνέστρεψεν ἐπὶ Ἀμαθοῦν . Θεοδώρου δὲ πρὸς τὰς εὐπραγίας αὐτὸν καταπλαγέντος ἔρημον λαβὼν τὸ φρούριον κατέσκαψεν .

088 When he had enslaved these cities, the Jewish nation rose against him during a festival, for it is at feasts that revolts usually begin, and only escaped their plot without the help of foreigners, the Pisidians and Cilicians, though he never took on Syrian mercenaries, due to their inbred hatred of our nation .
089 After killing more than six thousand of the rebels, he invaded Arabia, and when he had taken that country, along with the Galadites and Moabites, he made them pay him tribute and returned to Amathus. Then as Theodorus was stunned at his great success, he found the fortress empty and demolished it .

[90] Ἔπειτα συμβαλὼν Ὀβαίδαι τῷ Ἀράβων βασιλεῖ προλοχίσαντι κατὰ τὴν Γαυλάνην ἐνέδρας αὐτῷ γενομένης πᾶσαν ἀποβάλλει τὴν στρατιὰν συνωσθεῖσαν κατὰ βαθείας φάραγγος καὶ πλήθει καμήλων συντριβεῖσαν . διαφυγὼν δ’ αὐτὸς εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα τῷ μεγέθει τῆς συμφορᾶς πάλαι μισοῦν τὸ ἔθνος ἠρέθισεν εἰς ἐπανάστασιν .
[91] γίνεται δὲ καὶ τότε κρείττων καὶ μάχαις ἐπαλλήλοις οὐκ ἔλαττον πεντακισμυρίων Ἰουδαίων ἀνεῖλεν ἐν ἓξ ἔτεσιν · οὐ μὴν εὐφραίνετό γε ταῖς νίκαις τὴν ἑαυτοῦ βασιλείαν ἀναλίσκων · ὅθεν παυσάμενος τῶν ὅπλων λόγοις ἐπεχείρει διαλύεσθαι πρὸς τοὺς ὑποτεταγμένους .
[92] οἱ δὲ μᾶλλον ἐμίσουν τὴν μετάνοιαν αὐτοῦ‎ καὶ τοῦ τρόπου τὸ ἀνώμαλον , πυνθανομένῳ τε τὸ αἴτιον , τί ἂν ποιήσας καταστείλειεν αὐτούς , ἀποθανών , ἔλεγον · νεκρῷ γὰρ ἂν διαλλαγῆναι μόλις τῷ τοσαῦτα δράσαντι . ἅμα δὲ καὶ τὸν Ἄκαιρον ἐπικληθέντα Δημήτριον ἐπεκαλοῦντο . ῥαιδίως δὲ ὑπακούσαντος κατ’ ἐλπίδα μειζόνων καὶ μετὰ στρατιᾶς ἥκοντος συνέμισγον οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι τοῖς συμμάχοις περὶ Σίκιμα .

090 But when he fought Obodas, king of the Arabs, who slyly ambushed him near Golan, he lost his entire army, herded together into a deep valley and crushed under the weight of camels; and when he fled to Jerusalem the people, who already hated him, seeing the scale of his disaster, rebelled against him .
091 He proved superior, and in their battles he killed no fewer than fifty thousand Jews over a period of six years. Yet these victories gave him no joy, since he was ruining his own kingdom, and at last he gave up fighting and tried to pacify his subjects by persuasion .
092 But the change and inconsistency of his approach made them hate him still more. When asked why they hated him and what he could do to appease them, they said, "by death!" for even in his death they would scarcely be reconciled to one who had done such dreadful things. Then they called on the help of Demetrius, surnamed Eucerus, who readily accepted, seeing hopes of great gain, and came with his army, and the Jews joined up with their allies about Sikima .

[93] Δέχεται δ’ ἑκατέρους Ἀλέξανδρος ἱππεῦσι μὲν χιλίοις , μισθοφόροις δὲ πεζοῖς ὀκτακισχιλίοις · παρῆν δὲ αὐτῷ καὶ τὸ εὐνοοῦν Ἰουδαϊκὸν εἰς μυρίους . τῶν δ’ ἐναντίων ἱππεῖς μὲν ἦσαν τρισχίλιοι , πεζῶν δὲ μύριοι τετρακισχίλιοι . καὶ πρὶν εἰς χεῖρας ἐλθεῖν διακηρύσσοντες οἱ βασιλεῖς ἐπειρῶντο τῶν παρ’ ἀλλήλοις ἀποστάσεων , Δημήτριος μὲν τοὺς Ἀλεξάνδρου μισθοφόρους , Ἀλέξανδρος δὲ τοὺς ἅμα Δημητρίῳ Ἰουδαίους μεταπείσειν ἐλπίσας .
[94] ὡς δ’ οὔτε Ἰουδαῖοι θυμῶν οὔτε οἱ Ἕλληνες ἐπαύσαντο πίστεως , διεκρίνοντο ἤδη τοῖς ὅπλοις συμπεσόντες .
[95] κρατεῖ δὲ τῇ μάχῃ Δημήτριος καίτοι πολλὰ τῶν Ἀλεξάνδρου μισθοφόρων καὶ ψυχῆς ἔργα καὶ χειρὸς ἐπιδειξαμένων . χωρεῖ δὲ τὸ τέλος τῆς παρατάξεως παρὰ δόξαν ἀμφοτέροις · οὔτε γὰρ Δημητρίῳ παρέμειναν νικῶντι οἱ καλέσαντες , καὶ κατὰ οἶκτον τῆς μεταβολῆς Ἀλεξάνδρῳ προσεχώρησαν εἰς τὰ ὄρη καταφυγόντι Ἰουδαίων ἑξακισχίλιοι . ταύτην τὴν ῥοπὴν οὐκ ἤνεγκεν Δημήτριος , ἀλλ’ ὑπολαβὼν ἤδη μὲν ἀξιόμαχον εἶναι πάλιν Ἀλέξανδρον , μεταρρεῖν δὲ καὶ πᾶν τὸ ἔθνος εἰς αὐτόν , ἀνεχώρησεν .

093 Alexander met both these forces with a thousand cavalry and eight thousand mercenary foot-soldiers. Also with him were ten thousand of the Jews who took his side, while the opposition had three thousand cavalry and fourteen thousand infantry. Before the battle, the officers made proclamations to win over each other's soldiers and get them to revolt. Demetrius hoped to get Alexander's mercenaries to desert while Alexander hoped to get the Jews to leave Demetrius .
094 But the Jews did not give up their rage nor did the Greeks prove unfaithful, so they met in a bitter clash of arms .
095 If Demetrius won the battle, Alexander's mercenaries performed greater exploits, both in soul and body; but the upshot proved unexpected for both of them. For those who invited Demetrius to come to them did not stay loyal to him even in victory, and six thousand Jews, pitying Alexander's misfortune when he fled to the mountains, went over to him .
096 Demetrius found this unbearable, and thinking that Alexander had become as strong as him again and that all the nation would turn to him, he went away .

[96] Οὐ μὴν τό γε λοιπὸν πλῆθος ὑποχωρησάντων τῶν συμμάχων κατέθεντο τὰς διαφοράς , συνεχὴς δὲ πρὸς Ἀλέξανδρον ἦν αὐτοῖς πόλεμος , μέχρι πλείστους ἀποκτείνας τοὺς λοιποὺς ἀπήλασεν εἰς Βεμέσελιν πόλιν καὶ ταύτην καταστρεψάμενος αἰχμαλώτους ἀνήγαγεν εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα .
[97] προύκοψεν δὲ αὐτῷ δι’ ὑπερβολὴν ὀργῆς εἰς ἀσέβειαν τὸ τῆς ὠμότητος · τῶν γὰρ ληφθέντων ὀκτακοσίους ἀνασταυρώσας ἐν μέσῃ τῇ πόλει γυναῖκάς τε καὶ τέκνα αὐτῶν ἀπέσφαξεν ταῖς ὄψεσι · καὶ ταῦτα πίνων καὶ συγκατακείμενος ταῖς παλλακίσιν ἀφεώρα .
[98] τοσαύτη δὲ κατάπληξις ἔσχεν τὸν δῆμον , ὥστε τῶν ἀντιστασιαστῶν κατὰ τὴν ἐπιοῦσαν νύκτα φυγεῖν ὀκτακισχιλίους ἔξω Ἰουδαίας ὅλης , οἷς ὅρος τῆς φυγῆς Ἀλεξάνδρου θάνατος κατέστη . τοιούτοις ἔργοις ὀψὲ καὶ μόλις ἡσυχίαν τῇ βασιλείᾳ πορίσας ἀνεπαύσατο τῶν ὅπλων .

096 But the rest of the crowd did not lay aside their quarrels with him, when the foreign allies had left, but fought a perpetual war with Alexander until he killed most of them and drove the rest into the city of Bemeselis, and when he had demolished it, brought the captives to Jerusalem .
097 Indeed his rage was so excessive and his savagery so godless that after ordering eight hundred men to be crucified within the city, he had the throats of their wives and children cut before their eyes, and witnessed these executions while drinking and cavorting with his concubines .
098 At this the people were so shocked that eight thousand of his opponents fled the very next night, from all Judea, and their flight only ended with Alexander's death. Only by such actions, though not until late and with great difficulty, did he finally win peace for his kingdom and set aside war .

[99] Γίνεται δὲ πάλιν ἀρχὴ θορύβων Ἀντίοχος καὶ Διόνυσος ἐπικληθείς , Δημητρίου μὲν ἀδελφὸς ὤν , τελευταῖος δὲ τῶν ἀπὸ Σελεύκου · τοῦτον γὰρ δείσας στρατεύεσθαι ἐπὶ τοὺς Ἄραβας ὡρμημένον τὸ μὲν μεταξὺ τῆς ὑπὲρ Ἀντιπατρίδος παρωρείου καὶ τῶν Ἰόππης αἰγιαλῶν διαταφρεύει φάραγγι βαθείαι , πρὸ δὲ τῆς τάφρου τεῖχος ἤγειρεν ὑψηλὸν καὶ ξυλίνους πύργους ἐτεκτήνατο τὰς εὐμαρεῖς ἐμβολὰς ἀποφράττων .
[100] οὐ μὴν εἶρξαί γε τὸν Ἀντίοχον ἴσχυσεν · ἐμπρήσας γὰρ τοὺς πύργους καὶ τὴν τάφρον χώσας διήλαυνε μετὰ τῆς δυνάμεως . θέμενος δὲ ἐν δευτέρῳ τὴν πρὸς τὸν κωλύσαντα ἄμυναν εὐθὺς ἐπὶ τοὺς Ἄραβας ἤιει .
[101] τῶν δὲ βασιλεὺς ἀναχωρῶν εἰς τὰ χρησιμώτερα τῆς χώρας πρὸς τὴν μάχην , ἔπειτα τὴν ἵππον ἐξαίφνης ἐπιστρέψας , μυρία δ’ ἦν τὸν ἀριθμόν , ἀτάκτοις ἐπιπίπτει τοῖς περὶ τὸν Ἀντίοχον . καρτερᾶς δὲ μάχης γενομένης ἕως μὲν περιῆν Ἀντίοχος ἀντεῖχεν δύναμις αὐτοῦ‎ καίπερ ἀνέδην ὑπὸ τῶν Ἀράβων φονευόμενοι ·
[102] πεσόντος δέ , καὶ γὰρ προεκινδύνευεν ἀεὶ τοῖς ἡττωμένοις παραβοηθῶν , ἐγκλίνουσιν πάντες , καὶ τὸ μὲν πλεῖστον αὐτῶν ἐπί τε τῆς παρατάξεως κἀν τῇ φυγῇ διαφθείρεται , τοὺς δὲ λοιποὺς καταφυγόντας εἰς Κανὰ κώμην σπάνει τῶν ἐπιτηδείων *ἀναλωθῆναι συνέβη πλὴν ὀλίγων ἅπαντας .

099 Yet Antiochus, surnamed Dionysius, who was the brother of Demetrius and the last of the race of the Seleucids, once again gave rise to disturbances. When he was on a campaign against the Arabs, Alexander was afraid of him so he cut a deep trench from Antipatris, near the mountains, down to the coast at Joppa. In front of the trench he built a high wall and wooden towers, to prevent any sudden attacks .
100 But still he was unable to keep out Antiochus, who burned the towers and filled up the trenches and marched through with his army. However, as he regarded taking revenge on Alexander for trying to stop him as less important, he pushed right on against the Arabs .
101 Their king retreated into the parts of the country most suited for a battle and then suddenly wheeled round his cavalry, ten thousand strong, and attacked the army of Antiochus while they were in disorder and the fierce battle that followed, as long as Antiochus was alive his troops held out, although the Arabs killed many of them,
102 but once he fell, for he was rallying his troops at the front in the point of greatest danger, they all fell back and most of them were killed, either in the action or in the flight, and of the remnant who fled to the village of Cana, all except a few died of starvation .

[103] Ἐκ τούτου Δαμασκηνοὶ διὰ τὸ πρὸς Πτολεμαῖον τὸν Μενναίου μῖσος Ἀρέταν ἐπάγονται καὶ καθιστῶσιν κοίλης Συρίας βασιλέα . στρατεύεται δ’ οὗτος ἐπὶ τὴν Ἰουδαίαν καὶ μάχῃ νικήσας Ἀλέξανδρον κατὰ συνθήκας ἀνεχώρησεν .
[104] Ἀλέξανδρος δὲ Πέλλαν ἑλὼν ἐπὶ Γέρασαν ἤιει πάλιν τῶν Θεοδώρου κτημάτων γλιχόμενος , καὶ τρισὶ τοὺς φρουροὺς περιβόλοις ἀποτειχίσας διὰ μάχης τὸ χωρίον παραλαμβάνει .
[105] καταστρέφεται δὲ καὶ Γαυλάνην καὶ Σελεύκειαν καὶ τὴν Ἀντιόχου Φάραγγα καλουμένην , πρὸς οἷς Γάμαλα φρούριον καρτερὸν ἑλών , τὸν ἄρχοντα Δημήτριον ἐν αὐτῷ παραλύσας ἐκ πολλῶν ἐγκλημάτων ἐπάνεισιν εἰς Ἰουδαίαν , τρία πληρώσας ἔτη τῆς στρατείας . ἀσμένως δ’ ὑπὸ τοῦ ἔθνους ἐδέχθη διὰ τὴν εὐπραγίαν , καὶ λαμβάνει τὴν ἀνάπαυσιν τοῦ πολεμεῖν ἀρχὴν νόσου .
[106] τεταρταίαις δὲ περιόδοις πυρετῶν ἐνοχλούμενος ὠιήθη διακρούσεσθαι τὴν νόσον πάλιν ἁψάμενος πραγμάτων . διὸ δὴ στρατείαις ἀκαίροις ἑαυτὸν ἐπιδιδοὺς καὶ βιαζόμενος παρὰ δύναμιν τὸ σῶμα πρὸς τὰς ἐνεργείας ἀπήλλαξεν . τελευτᾷ γοῦν ἐν μέσοις τοῖς θορύβοις στρεφόμενος βασιλεύσας ἑπτὰ πρὸς τοῖς εἴκοσιν ἔτη .

103 About this time the people of Damascus, because they hated Ptolemy, the son of Mennaeus, invited Aretas and made him king of Coele-Syria. This man also made war on Judea and defeated Alexander in battle, but later retreated under a treaty .
104 But Alexander took Pella and marched again on Gerasa, because he coveted the property of Theodorus, and building a triple wall around the garrison, took the place by force .
105 He also demolished Golan and Seleucia and the so-called Gorge of Antiochus, and took the strong fortress of Gamala, robbing the property of its ruler Demetrius, who was accused of many crimes. After an expedition of three years he returned to Judea and was welcomed by the nation for his success; but while resting from the war he fell sick .
106 He suffered from a recurring ailment and thought he could get rid of it by more exercise in warlike activities; but by such expeditions at unsuitable times and subjecting his body to more hardship than it could bear, they put an end to him and he died after reigning for twenty seven years .
Chapter 5
The Pharisees' dominance, during the nine-year reign of Alexandra

[107] Καταλείπει δὲ τὴν βασιλείαν Ἀλεξάνδρᾳ τῇ γυναικὶ πεπεισμένος ταύτῃ μάλιστ’ ἂν ὑπακοῦσαι τοὺς Ἰουδαίους , ἐπειδὴ τῆς ὠμότητος αὐτοῦ‎ μακρὰν ἀποδέουσα καὶ ταῖς παρανομίαις ἀνθισταμένη τὸν δῆμον εἰς εὔνοιαν προσηγάγετο .
[108] καὶ οὐ διήμαρτεν τῆς ἐλπίδος · ἐκράτησεν γὰρ τῆς ἀρχῆς τὸ γύναιον διὰ δόξαν εὐσεβείας · ἠκρίβου γὰρ δὴ μάλιστα τοῦ νόμου τὰ πάτρια καὶ τοὺς πλημμελοῦντας εἰς τοὺς ἱεροὺς νόμους ἐξ ἀρχῆς προεβάλλετο .
[109] δύο δ’ αὐτῇ παίδων ὄντων ἐξ Ἀλεξάνδρου τὸν μὲν πρεσβύτερον Ὑρκανὸν διά τε τὴν ἡλικίαν ἀποδείκνυσιν ἀρχιερέα καὶ ἄλλως ὄντα νωθέστερον ὥστε ἐνοχλεῖν περὶ τῶν ὅλων , τὸν δὲ νεώτερον Ἀριστόβουλον διὰ θερμότητα κατεῖχεν ἰδιώτην .

107 Alexander left the kingdom to his wife Alexandra and expected the Jews to submit readily to her, as she had been against the savagery with which he treated them and had opposed his violating their laws, and thereby gained the people's goodwill .
108 He was not mistaken in this, for she ruled due to the people's esteem for her piety, and she seriously studied the ancient customs of her country and expelled from office those who broke their holy laws .
109 Of her two sons by Alexander, she appointed the elder, Hyrcanus, as high priest, because of his age and his inactive temper, which in no way disposed him to disturb the public, but she kept the younger, Aristobulus, with her as a private citizen, because of his rashness .

[110] Παραφύονται δὲ αὐτῆς εἰς τὴν ἐξουσίαν Φαρισαῖοι , σύνταγμά τι Ἰουδαίων δοκοῦν εὐσεβέστερον εἶναι τῶν ἄλλων καὶ τοὺς νόμους ἀκριβέστερον ἀφηγεῖσθαι .
[111] τούτοις περισσὸν δή τι προσεῖχεν Ἀλεξάνδρα σεσοβημένη περὶ τὸ θεῖον . οἱ δὲ τὴν ἁπλότητα τῆς ἀνθρώπου κατὰ μικρὸν ὑπιόντες ἤδη καὶ διοικηταὶ τῶν ὅλων ἐγίνοντο διώκειν τε καὶ κατάγειν οὓς ἐθέλοιεν , λύειν τε καὶ δεσμεῖν . καθόλου δὲ αἱ μὲν ἀπολαύσεις τῶν βασιλείων ἐκείνων ἦσαν , τὰ δ’ ἀναλώματα καὶ αἱ δυσχέρειαι τῆς Ἀλεξάνδρας .
[112] δεινὴ δ’ ἦν τὰ μείζω διοικεῖν , δύναμίν τε ἀεὶ συγκροτοῦσα διπλασίονα κατέστησεν καὶ ξενικὴν συνήγαγεν οὐκ ὀλίγην , ὡς μὴ μόνον κρατύνεσθαι τὸ οἰκεῖον ἔθνος , φοβερὰν δὲ καὶ τοῖς ἔξωθεν εἶναι δυνάσταις . ἐκράτει δὲ τῶν μὲν ἄλλων αὐτή , Φαρισαῖοι δ’ αὐτῆς .

110 Alongside her, to help her in ruling, she had the Pharisees, a sect of the Jews visibly more religious than others and devoted to the exposition of the laws .
111 Alexandra, who was very devoted to the Deity, paid great deference to them. They took advantage of her naivety and gradually became the real rulers of the state, banishing and recalling and loosing and binding as they pleased. Briefly, they enjoyed royal authority, while its cost and burdens fell to Alexandra .
112 In larger matters she was a good ruler, and by enlisting soldiers increased the army by half and gathered a significant foreign regiment to strengthen the nation, so that she was feared by foreign princes. But while she ruled others, the Pharisees ruled her .

[113] Διογένην γοῦν τινα τῶν ἐπισήμων φίλον Ἀλεξάνδρῳ γεγενημένον κτείνουσιν αὐτοὶ σύμβουλον ἐγκαλοῦντες γεγονέναι περὶ τῶν ἀνασταυρωθέντων ὑπὸ τοῦ βασιλέως ὀκτακοσίων . ἐνῆγον δὲ τὴν Ἀλεξάνδραν εἰς τὸ καὶ τοὺς ἄλλους διαχειρίσασθαι τῶν παροξυνάντων ἐπ’ ἐκείνους τὸν Ἀλέξανδρον · ἐνδιδούσης δ’ ὑπὸ δεισιδαιμονίας ἀνήιρουν οὓς ἐθέλοιεν αὐτοί .
[114] προσφεύγουσι δὲ Ἀριστοβούλῳ τῶν κινδυνευόντων οἱ προύχειν δοκοῦντες , κἀκεῖνος πείθει τὴν μητέρα φείσασθαι μὲν διὰ τὸ ἀξίωμα τῶν ἀνδρῶν , ἐκπέμψαι δ’ αὐτούς , εἰ μὴ καθαροὺς ὑπείληφεν , ἐκ τῆς πόλεως . οἱ μὲν οὖν δοθείσης ἀδείας ἐσκεδάσθησαν ἀνὰ τὴν χώραν .
[115] Ἀλεξάνδρα δὲ ἐκπέμψασα ἐπὶ Δαμασκὸν στρατιάν , πρόφασις δ’ ἦν Πτολεμαῖος ἀεὶ θλίβων τὴν πόλιν , ταύτην μὲν ὑπεδέξατο μηθὲν ἀξιόλογον ἐργασαμένην .
[116] Τιγράνην δὲ τὸν Ἀρμενίων βασιλέα προσκαθεζόμενον Πτολεμαΐδι καὶ πολιορκοῦντα Κλεοπάτραν συνθήκαις καὶ δώροις ὑπηγάγετο . φθάνει δ’ ἐκεῖνος ἀπαναστὰς διὰ τὰς οἴκοι ταραχὰς ἐμβεβληκότος εἰς τὴν Ἀρμενίαν Λευκόλλου .

113 They caused the death of Diogenes, a distinguished man who had been a friend to Alexander, alleging that he had advised the king to crucify the eight hundred men. They also persuaded Alexandra to put to death the rest of those who had angered him against them, and she was so devout as to follow their desires and so they killed whoever they pleased .
114 But the most distinguished of the people in danger fled to Aristobulus, who persuaded his mother to spare them due to their dignity, but to expel them from the city, unless she saw them as innocent, so they were left alive and scattered all over the country .
115 Alexandra sent out her army to Damascus, under pretext that Ptolemy was always a danger to that city, and took it without much of a fight .
116 By agreements and gifts, she also got Tigranes, king of Armenia, who with his troops was camped round Ptolemais besieging Cleopatra, to leave. Soon he abandoned the siege, because of the domestic riots following Lucullus's invasion of Armenia .

[117] Κἀν τούτῳ νοσούσης Ἀλεξάνδρας νεώτερος τῶν παίδων Ἀριστόβουλος τὸν καιρὸν ἁρπάσας μετὰ τῶν οἰκετῶν , εἶχεν δὲ πολλοὺς καὶ πάντας εὔνους διὰ τὴν θερμότητα , κρατεῖ μὲν τῶν ἐρυμάτων ἁπάντων , τοῖς δ’ ἐκ τούτων χρήμασιν μισθοφόρους ἀθροίσας ἑαυτὸν ἀποδείκνυσι βασιλέα .
[118] πρὸς ταῦτα ὀδυρόμενον τὸν Ὑρκανὸν μήτηρ οἰκτείρασα τήν τε γυναῖκα καὶ τοὺς παῖδας Ἀριστοβούλου καθείργνυσιν εἰς τὴν Ἀντωνίαν · φρούριον δ’ ἦν τῷ βορείῳ κλίματι τοῦ ἱεροῦ προσκείμενον , πάλαι μέν , ὡς ἔφην , βᾶρις ὀνομαζόμενον , αὖθις δὲ ταύτης τυχὸν τῆς προσηγορίας ἐπικρατήσαντος Ἀντωνίου , καθάπερ ἀπό τε τοῦ Σεβαστοῦ καὶ Ἀγρίππα Σεβαστὴ καὶ Ἀγριππιὰς πόλεις ἐπωνομάσθησαν .
[119] πρὶν δὲ ἐπεξελθεῖν Ἀλεξάνδρα τὸν Ἀριστόβουλον τῆς τἀδελφοῦ καταλύσεως τελευτᾷ διοικήσασα τὴν ἀρχὴν ἔτεσιν ἐννέα .

117 Alexandra then fell sick and Aristobulus, her younger son, took his chance, along which his many accomplices who were fervently devoted to him and seized all the fortresses. He also used the money he found in them to gather a number of mercenaries and made himself king .
118 When Hyrcanus complained to his mother, she supported his case and shut up Aristobulus's wife and sons in the Antonia, a fortress adjoining the north side of the temple. It was formerly called the Baris, , as I said, but later got the name of Antonia, under Antony, just as the cities of Sebaste and Agrippias were called after Augustus and Agrippa .
119 Alexandra died after reigning for nine years, before she could punish Aristobulus for pushing his brother aside .
Chapter 6
Monarchy of Aristobulus, then Hyrcanus. Pompey comes to Judea as Arbitrator

[120] Καὶ κληρονόμος μὲν ἦν τῶν ὅλων Ὑρκανός , ὧι καὶ ζῶσα τὴν βασιλείαν ἐνεχείρισεν , δυνάμει δὲ καὶ φρονήματι προεῖχεν Ἀριστόβουλος . γενομένης δὲ αὐτοῖς περὶ τῶν ὅλων συμβολῆς περὶ Ἱεριχοῦντα καταλιπόντες οἱ πολλοὶ τὸν Ὑρκανὸν μεταβαίνουσιν πρὸς τὸν Ἀριστόβουλον .
[121] δὲ μετὰ τῶν συμμεινάντων φθάνει συμφυγὼν ἐπὶ τὴν Ἀντωνίαν καὶ κυριεύσας τῶν πρὸς σωτηρίαν ὁμήρων · ταῦτα δ’ ἦν Ἀριστοβούλου γυνὴ μετὰ τῶν τέκνων . ἀμέλει πρὶν ἀνηκέστου πάθους διελύθησαν , ὥστε βασιλεύειν μὲν Ἀριστόβουλον , Ὑρκανὸν δὲ ἐκστάντα τῆς ἄλλης ἀπολαύειν τιμῆς ὥσπερ ἀδελφὸν βασιλέως .
[122] ἐπὶ τούτοις διαλλαγέντες ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ καὶ τοῦ λαοῦ περιεστῶτος φιλοφρόνως ἀλλήλους ἀσπασάμενοι διήμειψαν τὰς οἰκίας · Ἀριστόβουλος μὲν γὰρ εἰς τὰ βασίλεια , Ὑρκανὸς δὲ ἀνεχώρησεν εἰς τὴν Ἀριστοβούλου οἰκίαν .
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120 Hyrcanus was heir to the kingdom as his mother had entrusted it to him before she died, but Aristobulus surpassed him in power and intelligence, and when there was a conflict between them near Jericho, to decide the dispute about the kingship, the majority deserted Hyrcanus and went over to Aristobulus .
121 Hyrcanus and those of his party who stayed with him fled to the Antonia and to ensure his safety seized as hostages Aristobulus's wife and children. Before it got too extreme, however, they agreed that Aristobulus would rule and Hyrcanus to resign, enjoying all his other dignities as the king's brother .
122 With this they were reconciled in the temple and warmly embraced each other, surrounded by the people. They also exchanged houses, with Aristobulus going to the royal palace and Hyrcanus retiring to the house of Aristobulus .

[123] Δέος δὲ τοῖς τε ἄλλοις τῶν Ἀριστοβούλου διαφόρων ἐμπίπτει παρ’ ἐλπίδα κρατήσαντος καὶ μάλιστα Ἀντιπάτρῳ πάλαι διαμισουμένῳ . γένος δ’ ἦν Ἰδουμαῖος προγόνων τε ἕνεκα καὶ πλούτου καὶ τῆς ἄλλης ἰσχύος πρωτεύων τοῦ ἔθνους .
[124] οὗτος ἅμα καὶ τὸν Ὑρκανὸν Ἀρέται προσφυγόντα τῷ βασιλεῖ τῆς Ἀραβίας ἀνακτήσασθαι τὴν βασιλείαν ἔπειθεν καὶ τὸν Ἀρέταν δέξασθαί τε τὸν Ὑρκανὸν καὶ καταγαγεῖν ἐπὶ τὴν ἀρχήν , πολλὰ μὲν τὸν Ἀριστόβουλον εἰς τὸ ἦθος διαβάλλων , πολλὰ δ’ ἐπαινῶν τὸν Ὑρκανὸν [ παρήινει δέξασθαι ] , καὶ ὡς πρέπον εἴη τὸν οὕτω λαμπρᾶς προεστῶτα βασιλείας ὑπερέχειν χεῖρα τῷ ἀδικουμένῳ · ἀδικεῖσθαι δὲ τὸν Ὑρκανὸν στερηθέντα τῆς κατὰ τὸ πρεσβεῖον αὐτῷ προσηκούσης ἀρχῆς .
[125] προκατασκευάσας δὲ ἀμφοτέρους , νύκτωρ ἀναλαβὼν τὸν Ὑρκανὸν ἀπὸ τῆς πόλεως ἀποδιδράσκει καὶ συντόνῳ φυγῇ χρώμενος εἰς τὴν καλουμένην Πέτραν διασώζεται · βασίλειον αὕτη τῆς Ἀραβίας ἐστίν .
[126] ἔνθα τῷ Ἀρέται τὸν Ὑρκανὸν ἐγχειρίσας καὶ πολλὰ μὲν καθομιλήσας , πολλοῖς δὲ δώροις ὑπελθὼν δοῦναι δύναμιν αὐτῷ πείθει τὴν κατάξουσαν αὐτόν · ἦν δ’ αὕτη πεζῶν τε καὶ ἱππέων πέντε μυριάδες , πρὸς ἣν οὐκ ἀντέσχεν Ἀριστόβουλος , ἀλλ’ ἐν τῇ πρώτῃ συμβολῇ λειφθεὶς εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα συνελαύνεται .
[127] κἂν ἔφθη κατὰ κράτος ληφθείς , εἰ μὴ Σκαῦρος Ῥωμαίων στρατηγὸς ἐπαναστὰς αὐτῶν τοῖς καιροῖς ἔλυσε τὴν πολιορκίαν · ὃς ἐπέμφθη μὲν εἰς Συρίαν ἀπὸ Ἀρμενίας ὑπὸ Πομπηίου Μάγνου πολεμοῦντος πρὸς Τιγράνην , παραγενόμενος δὲ εἰς Δαμασκὸν ἑαλωκυῖαν προσφάτως ὑπὸ Μετέλλου καὶ Λολλίου καὶ τούτους μεταστήσας , ἐπειδὴ τὰ κατὰ τὴν Ἰουδαίαν ἐπύθετο , καθάπερ ἐφ’ ἕρμαιον ἠπείχθη .

123 Those opposed to Aristobulus were afraid when he unexpectedly came to power, and especially Antipater whom Aristobulus hated of old. He was by birth an Idumaean and a leading figure in that nation, due to his ancestors and riches and other resources .
124 He persuaded Hyrcanus to flee to Aretas, the king of Arabia, and to reclaim his kingship, and persuaded Aretas to welcome Hyrcanus and to restore him as king. He accused Aristobulus of gross immorality and praised Hyrcanus, urging Aretas to receive him and saying how fine it would be for him, who ruled so splendid a kingdom, to lend a hand to one who was wronged, claiming that Hyrcanus was wronged by being deprived of the leadership which was his by right of age .
125 Having convinced them both, he took Hyrcanus by night and fled from the city, and in a swift flight, reached the place called Petra, the royal seat of Arabia .
126 There he put Hyrcanus into Aretas's hands and after much conversation and winning him over with many gifts, persuaded Aretas to give him an army for his return. This consisted of fifty thousand infantry and cavalry, and Aristobulus could not hold it at bay, for he was deserted at the first attack and driven back to Jerusalem .
126 He would have been captured early on, if Scaurus, the Roman general, had not come in the nick of time and raised the siege. This Scaurus was sent into Syria from Armenia by Pompey the Great, who was fighting against Tigranes, so Scaurus came to Damascus, which had recently been captured by Metellus and Lollius and drove them out of it, and then, hearing how things stood in Judea, hurried there as though to certain victory .

[128] Παρελθόντος γοῦν εἰς τὴν χώραν πρέσβεις εὐθέως ἧκον παρὰ τῶν ἀδελφῶν ἑκατέρου δεομένου βοηθεῖν αὐτῷ . γίνεται δ’ ἐπίπροσθεν τοῦ δικαίου τὰ παρὰ Ἀριστοβούλου τριακόσια τάλαντα · τοσοῦτον γὰρ λαβὼν Σκαῦρος ἐπικηρυκεύεται πρός τε Ὑρκανὸν καὶ τοὺς Ἄραβας ἀπειλῶν Ῥωμαίους καὶ Πομπήιον , εἰ μὴ λύσειαν τὴν πολιορκίαν .
[129] ἀνεχώρει δὲ ἐκ τῆς Ἰουδαίας εἰς Φιλαδέλφειαν Ἀρέτας καταπλαγείς , καὶ πάλιν εἰς Δαμασκὸν Σκαῦρος .
[130] Ἀριστοβούλῳ δ’ οὐκ ἀπέχρησεν τὸ μὴ ἁλῶναι , πᾶσαν δὲ τὴν δύναμιν ἐπισυλλέξας εἵπετο τοῖς πολεμίοις καὶ περὶ τὸν καλούμενον Παπυρῶνα συμβαλὼν αὐτοῖς ὑπὲρ ἑξακισχιλίους κτείνει , μεθ’ ὧν καὶ τὸν ἀδελφὸν τὸν Ἀντιπάτρου Φαλλίωνα .

128 When he arrived in that country, envoys came from both the brothers, each looking for his help, but Aristobulus's three hundred talents weighed more with him than the justice of the cause. After accepting the money, Scaurus sent a herald to Hyrcanus and the Arabs threatening them with the wrath of the Romans and of Pompey, unless they raised the siege .
128 Aretas was fearful and retreated from Judea to Philadelphia, and Scaurus returned to Damascus .
130 Not satisfied with merely escaping, Aristobulus gathered all his forces and pursued his enemies and fought them at a place called Papyron and killed about six thousand of them, including Antipater's brother Phallion .

[131] Ὑρκανὸς δὲ καὶ Ἀντίπατρος τῶν Ἀράβων ἀφαιρεθέντες μετέφερον ἐπὶ τοὺς ἐναντίους τὴν ἐλπίδα , καὶ ἐπειδὴ Πομπήιος ἐπιὼν τὴν Συρίαν εἰς Δαμασκὸν ἧκεν , ἐπ’ αὐτὸν καταφεύγουσιν καὶ δίχα δωρεῶν αἷς καὶ πρὸς τὸν Ἀρέταν δικαιολογίαις χρώμενοι κατηντιβόλουν μισῆσαι μὲν τὴν Ἀριστοβούλου βίαν , κατάγειν δὲ ἐπὶ τὴν βασιλείαν τὸν καὶ τρόπῳ καὶ καθ’ ἡλικίαν προσήκοντα .
[132] οὐ μὴν οὐδ’ Ἀριστόβουλος ὑστέρει πεποιθὼς τῇ Σκαύρου δωροδοκίαι παρῆν τε καὶ αὐτὸς ὡς οἷόν τε βασιλικώτατα κεκοσμηκὼς ἑαυτόν . ἀδοξήσας δὲ πρὸς τὰς θεραπείας καὶ μὴ φέρων δουλεύειν ταῖς χρείαις ταπεινότερον τοῦ σχήματος ἀπὸ διὸς ἡλίου πόλεως χωρίζεται .

131 Disappointed by the Arabs, Hyrcanus and Antipater put their hopes in the opposing side, and since Pompey had crossed Syria and reached Damascus, they fled to him and, without any bribes, made the just plea as they had to Aretas, to quell the violence of Aristobulus and give the kingdom to the one to whom it rightly belonged, for his good character and being the elder .
132 Aristobulus, relying his bribes to Scaurus, was not backward in this matter either. He too went there in person, dressed as royally as possible. But soon he felt it beneath him to come as a client, and unable to bear to pursue his goal in so abject a style, he left Diospolis .

[133] Πρὸς ταῦτ’ ἀγανακτήσας Πομπήιος πολλὰ καὶ τῶν περὶ Ὑρκανὸν ἱκετευόντων ὥρμησεν ἐπ’ Ἀριστόβουλον , ἀναλαβὼν τήν τε Ῥωμαϊκὴν δύναμιν καὶ πολλοὺς ἐκ τῆς Συρίας συμμάχους .
[134] ἐπεὶ δὲ παρελαύνων Πέλλαν καὶ Σκυθόπολιν ἧκεν εἰς Κορέας . ὅθεν Ἰουδαίων ἄρχεται χώρα κατὰ τὴν μεσόγειον ἀνιόντων , ἀκούσας συμπεφευγέναι τὸν Ἀριστόβουλον εἰς Ἀλεξάνδρειον , τοῦτο δ’ ἐστὶν φρούριον τῶν πάνυ φιλοτίμως ἐξησκημένων ὑπὲρ ὄρους ὑψηλοῦ κείμενον , πέμψας καταβαίνειν αὐτὸν ἐκέλευσεν .
[135] τῷ δ’ ἦν μὲν ὁρμὴ καλουμένῳ δεσποτικώτερον διακινδυνεύειν μᾶλλον ὑπακοῦσαι , καθεώρα δὲ τὸ πλῆθος ὀρρωδοῦν , καὶ παρήινουν οἱ φίλοι σκέπτεσθαι τὴν Ῥωμαίων ἰσχὺν οὖσαν ἀνυπόστατον . οἷς πεισθεὶς κάτεισιν πρὸς Πομπήιον καὶ πολλὰ περὶ τοῦ δικαίως ἄρχειν ἀπολογηθεὶς ὑπέστρεψεν εἰς τὸ ἔρυμα .
[136] πάλιν τε τἀδελφοῦ προκαλουμένου καταβὰς καὶ διαλεχθεὶς περὶ τῶν δικαίων ἄπεισιν μὴ κωλύοντος τοῦ Πομπηΐου . μέσος δ’ ἦν ἐλπίδος καὶ δέους , καὶ κατήιει μὲν ὡς δυσωπήσων Πομπήιον πάντ’ ἐπιτρέπειν αὐτῷ , πάλιν δὲ ἀνέβαινεν εἰς τὴν ἄκραν , ὡς μὴ προκαταλύειν δόξειεν αὑτόν .
[137] ἐπεὶ μέντοι Πομπήιος ἐξίστασθαί τε τῶν φρουρίων ἐκέλευεν αὐτῷ καὶ παράγγελμα τῶν φρουράρχων δυσμενῶς μόναις πειθαρχεῖν ταῖς αὐτογράφοις ἐπιστολαῖς , ἠνάγκαζεν αὐτὸν ἑκάστοις γράφειν ἐκχωρεῖν , ποιεῖ μὲν τὰ προσταχθέντα , ἀγανακτήσας δὲ ἀνεχώρησεν εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα καὶ παρεσκευάζετο πολεμεῖν πρὸς Πομπήιον .

133 Pompey was furious at this and at the petition of Hyrcanus and his friends marched against Aristobulus not only with his Roman forces, but with many Syrian allies .
134 When he had passed by Pella and Scythopolis and came to Corea, where the district of Judea is entered from the Mediterranean side, he heard that Aristobulus had fled to Alexandreion, a wonderfully fortified stronghold situated on a high mountain, and he sent orders for him to come down .
135 At so despotic a summons, he was inclined to risk battle, rather than obey. However, he saw the crowd afraid and his friends urged him to consider how the Roman power is irresistible, and so persuaded, he came down to Pompey, and after making a long defence of his coming to power, he returned to the fortress .
136 When his brother called him out again, he came down and explained the rights of the matter and left without hindrance from Pompey. He was caught between hope and fear. Coming down, it was to get Pompey to grant him everything, but he returned to the fortress, not to seem to abase himself too much .
137 However, when Pompey required him to surrender his fortresses and to write to each of their commanders to yield them up, as they had been ordered to obey no letters except in his own handwriting. He did as instructed but felt angry about it and retreated to Jerusalem to prepare for battle with Pompey .

[138] δέ , οὐ γὰρ ἐδίδου χρόνον ταῖς παρασκευαῖς , εὐθέως εἵπετο , καὶ προσεπέρρωσεν τὴν ὁρμὴν Μιθριδάτου θάνατος ἀγγελθεὶς αὐτῷ περὶ Ἱεριχοῦντα , ἔνθα τῆς Ἰουδαίας τὸ πιότατον φοίνικά τε πάμπολυν καὶ βάλσαμον τρέφει . τοῦτο λίθοις ὀξέσιν ἐπιτέμνοντες τὰ πρέμνα συνάγουσιν κατὰ τὰς τομὰς ἐκδακρῦον .
[139] καὶ στρατοπεδευσάμενος ἐν τῷ χωρίῳ μίαν ἑσπέραν ἕωθεν ἠπείγετο πρὸς τὰ Ἱεροσόλυμα . καταπλαγεὶς δὲ τὴν ἔφοδον Ἀριστόβουλος ἱκέτης ἀπαντᾷ χρημάτων τε ὑποσχέσει καὶ τῷ μετὰ τῆς πόλεως ἐπιτρέπειν καὶ ἑαυτὸν χαλεπαίνοντα καταστέλλει τὸν Πομπήιον .
[140] οὐ μήν τι τῶν ὡμολογημένων ἐγένετο · τὸν γὰρ ἐπὶ τὴν κομιδὴν τῶν χρημάτων ἐκπεμφθέντα Γαβίνιον οἱ τὰ Ἀριστοβούλου φρονοῦντες οὐδὲ τῇ πόλει δέχονται .

138 He gave him no time to prepare but pursued him immediately, in a hurry because of the death of Mithridates, news of which he got near Jericho. That is the most fruitful part of Judea, which grows many palm trees besides the balsam tree, whose sprouts they cut with sharp stones and from the incisions they gather the juice, dropping down like tears .
139 So pitching camp one night in that place, he hurried on to Jerusalem. Aristobulus was so fearful of his coming that he came out like a supplicant to meet him and calmed Pompey's anger by promising him money and to surrender both himself and the city to him .
140 But none of this agreement was carried out, for when Gabinius was sent to receive the promised money, Aristobulus's party would not even admit him into the city .
Chapter 7
Pompey enters Jerusalem and the Holy of Holies. His other offences in Judea

[141] Πρὸς ταῦτα ἀγανακτήσας Πομπήιος Ἀριστόβουλον μὲν ἐφρούρει , πρὸς δὲ τὴν πόλιν ἐλθὼν περιεσκόπει ὅπως δεῖ προσβαλεῖν , τήν τε ὀχυρότητα τῶν τειχῶν δυσμεταχείριστον ὁρῶν καὶ τὴν πρὸ τούτων Φάραγγα φοβερὰν τό τε ἱερὸν ἐντὸς τῆς φάραγγος ὀχυρώτατα τετειχισμένον , ὥστε τοῦ ἄστεος ἁλισκομένου δευτέραν εἶναι καταφυγὴν τοῦτο τοῖς πολεμίοις .

141 Angry at this treatment, Pompey kept Aristobulus in custody. When he came to the city, he looked round to see best to attack, noting how the ramparts were so firm that it would be hard to overcome them, and the tremendous ravine before the ramparts, and that the temple on the edge of that ravine was itself surrounded with a very strong wall, so that if the city were taken, the temple would be a second place of refuge where the enemy could retreat .

[142] Διαποροῦντος δ’ ἐπὶ πολὺν χρόνον στάσις τοῖς ἔνδον ἐμπίπτει , τῶν μὲν Ἀριστοβούλου πολεμεῖν ἀξιούντων καὶ ῥύεσθαι τὸν βασιλέα , τῶν δὲ τὰ Ὑρκανοῦ φρονούντων ἀνοίγειν Πομπηίῳ τὰς πύλας · πολλοὺς δὲ τούτους ἐποίει τὸ δέος ἀφορῶντας εἰς τὴν τῶν Ῥωμαίων εὐταξίαν .
[143] ἡττώμενον δὲ τὸ Ἀριστοβούλου μέρος εἰς τὸ ἱερὸν ἀνεχώρησεν καὶ τὴν συνάπτουσαν ἀπ’ αὐτοῦ‎ τῇ πόλει γέφυραν ἀποκόψαντες ἀντισχεῖν εἰς ἔσχατον παρεσκευάζοντο . τῶν δὲ ἑτέρων δεχομένων Ῥωμαίους τῇ πόλει καὶ τὰ βασίλεια παραδιδόντων ἐπὶ μὲν ταῦτα Πομπήιος ἕνα τῶν ὑφ’ ἑαυτῷ στρατηγῶν Πείσωνα εἰσπέμπει μετὰ στρατιᾶς ·
[144] ὃς διαλαβόντες φρουραῖς τὴν πόλιν , ἐπειδὴ τῶν εἰς τὸ ἱερὸν καταφυγόντων οὐδένα λόγοις ἔπειθεν συμβῆναι , τὰ πέριξ εἰς προσβολὰς εὐτρέπιζεν ἔχων τοὺς περὶ τὸν Ὑρκανὸν εἴς τε τὰς ἐπινοίας καὶ τὰς ὑπηρεσίας προθύμους .

142 As he deliberated matter at length, the people within the city were divided, Aristobulus's party wanting to fight and set their king free, while the party of Hyrcanus wanted to open the gates to Pompey. The dread people felt increased the numbers of the latter, as they saw the Roman soldiers in such excellent order .
143 Aa Aristobulus's party were outnumbered they retreated into the temple and cut off the communication between the temple and the city, by breaking down the connecting bridge and prepared to resist to the utmost, but as the others had received the Romans into the city and had handed over the palace to him, Pompey sent Piso, one of his major officers, with armed troops into that palace .
144 When he could not persuade any of those who had fled to the temple to come to a treaty he put sentries round the city, and prepared the circumstances for and assault, with Hyrcanus's party most ready to advise and help him .

[145] Αὐτὸς δὲ κατὰ τὸ προσάρκτιον κλίμα τήν τε τάφρον ἔχου καὶ τὴν Φάραγγα πᾶσαν ὕλην συμφορούσης τῆς δυνάμεως . χαλεπὸν δ’ ἦν τὸ ἀναπληροῦν διὰ βάθος ἄπειρον καὶ τῶν Ἰουδαίων πάντα τρόπον εἰργόντων ἄνωθεν ,
[146] κἂν ἀτέλεστος ἔμεινεν τοῖς Ῥωμαίοις πόνος , εἰ μὴ τὰς ἑβδομάδας ἐπιτηρῶν Πομπήιος , ἐν αἷς παντὸς ἔργου διὰ τὴν θρησκείαν χεῖρας ἀπίσχουσιν Ἰουδαῖοι , τὸ χῶμα ὕψου τῆς κατὰ χεῖρα συμβολῆς εἴργων τοὺς στρατιώτας · ὑπὲρ μόνου γὰρ τοῦ σώματος ἀμύνονται τοῖς σαββάτοις .
[147] ἤδη δὲ ἀναπεπληρωμένης τῆς φάραγγος πύργους ὑψηλοὺς ἐπιστήσας τῷ χώματι καὶ προσαγαγὼν τὰς ἐκ Τύρου κομισθείσας μηχανὰς ἐπειρᾶτο τοῦ τείχους · ἀνέστελλον δὲ αἱ πετροβόλοι τοὺς καθύπερθεν κωλύοντας . ἀντεῖχον δ’ ἐπὶ πλεῖον οἱ κατὰ τοῦτο τὸ μέρος πύργοι μεγέθει τε καὶ κάλλει διαφέροντες .

145 He was on the north side, filling in the ditch and the entire valley with the materials the army brought up; and it was hard to fill up the valley's great depth, especially as the Jews, from their superior situation, used all possible means to repel them .
146 The Romans would have failed in their efforts, had not Pompey known of the sabbath, when the religious Jews abstain from work of any kind, and raised his works on those days, while keeping his soldiers from fighting on them, for the Jews only defended themselves on the sabbath .
147 When he had filled up the valley, he built high towers upon the bank and brought the machines they had fetched from Tyre near to the wall and tried to batter it down, and the stone-slingers drove off those who stood above them, but on this area the very large and splendid towers put up a tough resistance .

[148] Ἔνθα δὴ πολλὰ τῶν Ῥωμαίων κακοπαθούντων Πομπήιος τά τε ἄλλα τῆς καρτερίας τοὺς Ἰουδαίους ἀπεθαύμαζεν καὶ μάλιστα τοῦ μηδὲν παραλῦσαι · τῆς θρησκείας ἐν μέσοις τοῖς βέλεσιν ἀνειλημένους · ὥσπερ γὰρ εἰρήνης βαθείας κατεχούσης τὴν πόλιν αἵ τε θυσίαι καθ’ ἡμέραν καὶ οἱ ἐναγισμοὶ καὶ πᾶσα θεραπεία κατὰ τἀκριβὲς ἐξετελεῖτο τῷ θεῷ , καὶ οὐδὲ κατ’ αὐτὴν τὴν ἅλωσιν περὶ τῷ βωμῷ φονευόμενοι τῶν καθ’ ἡμέραν νομίμων εἰς τὴν θρησκείαν ἀπέστησαν .
[149] τρίτῳ γὰρ μηνὶ τῆς πολιορκίας μόλις ἕνα τῶν πύργων καταρρίψαντες εἰσέπιπτον εἰς τὸ ἱερόν . δὲ πρῶτος ὑπερβῆναι τολμήσας τὸ τεῖχος Σύλλα παῖς ἦν Φαῦστος Κορνήλιος καὶ μετ’ αὐτὸν ἑκατοντάρχαι δύο Φούριος καὶ Φάβιος . εἵπετο δὲ ἑκάστῳ τὸ ἴδιον στῖφος , καὶ περισχόντες πανταχοῦ τὸ ἱερὸν ἔκτεινον οὓς μὲν τῷ ναῷ προσφεύγοντας , οὓς δὲ ἀμυνομένους πρὸς ὀλίγον .
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148 While the Romans toiled hard at this, Pompey had to admire not only the Jews' bravery but how they did not give up their religious services, even when showered with missiles from all sides. For, as if the city were fully at peace, their daily sacrifices and purifications and all aspects of their worship were still duly performed to God. Even when the temple was actually taken and they were being killed near the altar, they did not give up the forms of their daily worship appointed by the law .
149 Only with difficulty, in the third month of the siege, did the Romans destroy one of the towers and enter the temple. The man who first dared to scale the wall was Faustus Cornelius the son of Sylla, and with him two centurions, Furius and Fabius, each followed by his own cohort, who surrounded and killed the defenders, some as they ran to the sanctuary for refuge and others as they fought briefly in self-defense .

[150] Ἔνθα πολλοὶ τῶν ἱερέων ξιφήρεις τοὺς πολεμίους ἐπιόντας βλέποντες ἀθορύβως ἐπὶ τῆς θρησκείας ἔμειναν , σπένδοντες δὲ ἀπεσφάττοντο καὶ θυμιῶντες καὶ τῆς πρὸς τὸ θεῖον θεραπείας ἐν δευτέρῳ τὴν σωτηρίαν τιθέμενοι . πλεῖστοι δ’ ὑπὸ τῶν ὁμοφύλων ἀντιστασιαστῶν ἀνῃροῦντο καὶ κατὰ τῶν κρημνῶν ἔρριπτον ἑαυτοὺς ἄπειροι · καὶ τὰ περὶ τὸ τεῖχος δ’ ἔνιοι μανιῶντες ἐν ταῖς ἀμηχανίαις ὑπέπρησαν καὶ συγκατεφλέγοντο .
[151] Ἰουδαίων μὲν οὖν ἀνῃρέθησαν μύριοι καὶ δισχίλιοι , Ῥωμαίων δὲ ὀλίγοι μὲν πάνυ νεκροί , τραυματίαι δ’ ἐγένοντο πλείους .

150 Many of the priests, even when they saw their enemies coming at them sword in hand, continued the liturgy and were killed while sacrificing and burning incense, putting the divine service before their own safety. Most were killed by their countrymen of the other faction and many jumped down the cliffsides. Some were in such a mad, hopeless plight that they set fire to places near the wall and were burned up with them .
151 Twelve thousand of the Jews died but very few of the Romans, though a greater number was wounded .

[152] Οὐδὲν δὲ οὕτως ἐν ταῖς τότε συμφοραῖς καθήψατο τοῦ ἔθνους ὡς τὸ τέως ἀόρατον ἅγιον ἐκκαλυφθὲν ὑπὸ τῶν ἀλλοφύλων · παρελθὼν γοῦν σὺν τοῖς περὶ αὐτὸν Πομπήιος εἰς τὸν ναόν , ἔνθα μόνῳ θεμιτὸν ἦν παριέναι τῷ ἀρχιερεῖ , τὰ ἔνδον ἐθεάσατο , λυχνίαν τε καὶ λύχνους καὶ τράπεζαν καὶ σπονδεῖα καὶ θυμιατήρια , ὁλόχρυσα πάντα , πλῆθός τε ἀρωμάτων σεσωρευμένον καὶ τῶν ἱερῶν χρημάτων εἰς τάλαντα δισχίλια .
[153] οὔτε δὲ τούτων οὔτε ἄλλου τινὸς τῶν ἱερῶν κειμηλίων ἥψατο , ἀλλὰ καὶ μετὰ μίαν τῆς ἁλώσεως ἡμέραν καθᾶρᾳ τὸ ἱερὸν τοῖς νεωκόροις προσέταξεν καὶ τὰς ἐξ ἔθους ἐπιτελεῖν θυσίας . αὖθις δ’ ἀποδείξας Ὑρκανὸν ἀρχιερέα τά τε ἄλλα προθυμότατον ἑαυτὸν ἐν τῇ πολιορκίαι παρασχόντα καὶ διότι τὸ κατὰ τὴν χώραν πλῆθος ἀπέστησεν Ἀριστοβούλῳ συμπολεμεῖν ὡρμημένον , ἐκ τούτων , ὅπερ ἦν προσῆκον ἀγαθῷ στρατηγῷ , τὸν λαὸν εὐνοίαι πλέον δέει προσηγάγετο .
[154] ἐν δὲ τοῖς αἰχμαλώτοις ἐλήφθη καὶ Ἀριστοβούλου πενθερός , δ’ αὐτὸς ἦν καὶ θεῖος αὐτῷ . καὶ τοὺς αἰτιωτάτους μὲν τοῦ πολέμου πελέκει κολάζει , Φαῦστον δὲ καὶ τοὺς μετ’ αὐτοῦ‎ γενναίως ἀγωνισαμένους λαμπροῖς ἀριστείοις δωρησάμενος τῇ τε χώρᾳ καὶ τοῖς Ἱεροσολύμοις ἐπιτάσσει φόρον .

152 Amid these calamities nothing touched the nation so much as that their holy place, which had always remained unseen was opened up to foreigners, and Pompey and his men went into the sanctuary which only the high priest was allowed to enter, and saw what was within, the candlestick and its lamps and the table and the pouring vessels and the censers, all made entirely of gold, and a large heap of spices, with two thousand talents of sacred money .
153 He did not touch that money, or anything else deposited there, but the day after taking it ordered the officials to purify the temple and to offer the usual sacrifices. He made Hyrcanus high priest for his full support during the siege, and for keeping the rural population from fighting for Aristobulus, which otherwise they were eager to do. This was how he acted the part of a good general and reconciled the people to him more by goodwill than by fear .
154 Among the captives he took was Aristobulus's father-in-law, who was also his uncle. Those who were the most guilty he punished with beheading, but he rewarded with glorious gifts Faustus and his men who had fought so bravely, and imposed a tax on the country and on Jerusalem itself .

[155] Ἀφελόμενος δὲ τοῦ ἔθνους καὶ τὰς ἐν κοίλῃ Συρίαι πόλεις , ἃς εἷλον , ὑπέταξεν τῷ κατ’ ἐκεῖνο Ῥωμαίων στρατηγῷ κατατεταγμένῳ καὶ μόνοις αὐτοὺς τοῖς ἰδίοις ὅροις περιέκλεισεν . ἀνακτίζει δὲ καὶ Γάδαρα ὑπὸ Ἰουδαίων κατεστραμμένην Γαδαρεῖ τινὶ τῶν ἰδίων ἀπελευθέρων Δημητρίῳ χαριζόμενος .
[156] ἠλευθέρωσεν δὲ ἀπ’ αὐτῶν καὶ τὰς ἐν τῇ μεσογείᾳ πόλεις , ὅσας μὴ φθάσαντες κατέσκαψαν , Ἵππον Σκυθόπολίν τε καὶ Πέλλαν καὶ Σαμάρειαν καὶ Ἰάμνειαν καὶ Μάρισαν Ἄζωτόν τε καὶ Ἀρέθουσαν , ὁμοίως δὲ καὶ τὰς παραλίους Γάζαν Ἰόππην Δῶρα καὶ τὴν πάλαι μὲν Στράτωνος πύργον καλουμένην , ὕστερον δὲ μετακτισθεῖσάν τε ὑφ’ Ἡρώδου βασιλέως λαμπροτάτοις κατασκευάσμασιν καὶ μετονομασθεῖσαν Καισάρειαν .
[157] ἃς πάσας τοῖς γνησίοις ἀποδοὺς πολίταις κατέταξεν εἰς τὴν Συριακὴν ἐπαρχίαν . παραδοὺς δὲ ταύτην τε καὶ τὴν Ἰουδαίαν καὶ τὰ μέχρις Αἰγύπτου καὶ Εὐφράτου Σκαύρῳ διέπειν καὶ δύο τῶν ταγμάτων , αὐτὸς διὰ Κιλικίας εἰς Ῥώμην ἠπείγετο τὸν Ἀριστόβουλον ἄγων μετὰ τῆς γενεᾶς αἰχμάλωτον .
[158] δύο δ’ ἦσαν αὐτῷ θυγατέρες καὶ δύο υἱεῖς , ὧν ἕτερος μὲν Ἀλέξανδρος ἐκ τῆς ὁδοῦ διαδιδράσκει , σὺν δὲ ταῖς ἀδελφαῖς νεώτερος Ἀντίγονος εἰς Ῥώμην ἐκομίζετο .

155 He took back all the cities the nation had taken belonging to Coele-Syria and made them subject to whoever was appointed there as Roman governor, and limited them to their own borders. He also rebuilt Gadara, which had been demolished by the Jews, to gratify one of his freedmen, Demetrius, who was from there .
156 He also set free from their rule throughout the country other cities they had not already demolished : Hippos and Scythopolis, Pella, Samaria, Marissa, Azotus, Jamnia and Arethusa. He did the same for the maritime cities, Gaza and Joppa and Dora and what was previously called Strato's Tower, but was later rebuilt with the most magnificently by king Herod and was renamed Caesarea .
157 All these he returned to their proper owners and put them under the province of Syria; which along with Judea and the land as far as Egypt and the Euphrates, he entrusted to be ruled by Scaurus, with two legions in support; and then hurried as quickly as he could through Cilicia on his way to Rome, bringing Aristobulus and his children along as prisoners .
158 These were two daughters and two sons, of whom one, Alexander, escaped during the journey, but Antigonus the younger son was brought to Rome, along with his sisters .
Chapter 8
Aristobulus' son Alexander tries in vain to set aside Pompey's dispositions in Palestine. Gabinius and Crassus put down Jewish insurrections

[159] Κἀν τούτῳ Σκαῦρος εἰς τὴν Ἀραβίαν ἐμβαλὼν τῆς μὲν Πέτρας εἴργετο ταῖς δυσχωρίαις , ἐπόρθει δὲ τὰ πέριξ πολλὰ κἀν τούτῳ κακοπαθῶν · ἐλίμωττεν γὰρ στρατιά . καὶ πρὸς τοῦτο Ὑρκανὸς ἐπεβοήθει διὰ Ἀντιπάτου τὰ ἐπιτήδεια πέμπων . ὃν καὶ καθίησι Σκαῦρος ὄντα συνήθη πρὸς Ἀρέταν , ὅπως ἐπὶ χρήμασιν διαλύσαιτο τὸν πόλεμον . πείθεται δὲ Ἄραψ τριακόσια δοῦναι τάλαντα , κἀπὶ τούτοις Σκαῦρος ἐξῆγεν τῆς Ἀραβίας τὴν δύναμιν .

159 Meanwhile Scaurus led an army into Arabia, and though hampered by the terrain near Petra, he ravaged the area round about, though even then his army suffered severely from hunger. To help him, Hyrcanus sent him provisions by means of Antipater. Scaurus then sent him to Aretas, whom he knew well, to have him pay money to end the war. The Arab agreed to pay three hundred talents, and so Scaurus withdrew his forces from Arabia .

[160] δ’ ἀποδρὰς τῶν Ἀριστοβούλου παίδων Πομπήιον Ἀλέξανδρος χρόνῳ συναγαγὼν χεῖρα συχνὴν βαρὺς ἦν Ὑρκανῷ καὶ τὴν Ἰουδαίαν κατέτρεχεν , ἐδόκει τε ἂν καταλῦσαι ταχέως αὐτόν , ὅς γε ἤδη καὶ τὸ καταρριφθὲν ὑπὸ Πομπηίου τεῖχος ἐν Ἱεροσολύμοις ἀνακτίζειν ἐθάρρει προσελθών , εἰ μὴ Γαβίνιος εἰς Συρίαν πεμφθεὶς Σκαύρῳ διάδοχος τά τε ἄλλα γενναῖον ἀπέδειξεν ἑαυτὸν ἐν πολλοῖς καὶ ἐπ’ Ἀλέξανδρον ὥρμησεν .
[161] δὲ δείσας πρὸς τὴν ἔφοδον δύναμίν τε πλείω συνέλεγεν , ὡς γενέσθαι μυρίους μὲν ὁπλίτας χιλίους δὲ καὶ πεντακοσίους ἱππεῖς , καὶ τὰ ἐπιτήδεια τῶν χωρίων ἐτείχιζε Ἀλεξάνδρειόν τε καὶ Ὑρκάνειον καὶ Μαχαιροῦντα πρὸς τοῖς Ἀραβίοις ὄρεσιν .

160 Alexander, the son of Aristobulus who had fled from Pompey, got together a big band of men and pressed hard on Hyrcanus and overran Judea and was likely to defeat him soon, and would have reached Jerusalem and rebuilt its wall that Pompey had thrown down, if Gabinius, who was sent to Syria as successor to Scaurus, had not shown his mettle by attacking Alexander and in various other ways .
161 The latter, fearing the attack, increased his army to ten thousand armed infantry and fifteen hundred cavalry, and fortified strategic places, Alexandreion and Hyrcanium and Machaerus, near the mountains of Arabia .

[162] Γαβίνιος δὲ μετὰ μέρους τῆς στρατιᾶς Μᾶρκον Ἀντώνιον προπέμψας αὐτὸς εἵπετο τὴν ὅλην ἔχων δύναμιν . οἱ δὲ περὶ τὸν Ἀντίπατρον ἐπίλεκτοι καὶ τὸ ἄλλο τάγμα τῶν Ἰουδαίων , ὧν Μάλιχος ἦρχεν καὶ Πειθόλαος , συμμίξαντες τοῖς περὶ Μᾶρκον Ἀντώνιον ἡγεμόσιν ὑπήντων Ἀλεξάνδρῳ . καὶ μετ’ οὐ πολὺ παρῆν ἅμα τῇ φάλαγγι Γαβίνιος .
[163] ἑνουμένην δὲ τὴν τῶν πολεμίων δύναμιν οὐχ ὑπομείνας Ἀλέξανδρος ἀνεχώρει καὶ πλησίον ἤδη Ἱεροσολύμων γενόμενος ἀναγκάζεται συμβαλεῖν καὶ κατὰ τὴν μάχην ἑξακισχιλίους ἀποβαλών , ὧν τρισχίλιοι μὲν ἔπεσον τρισχίλιοι δὲ ἐζωγρήθησαν , φεύγει σὺν τοῖς καταλειφθεῖσιν εἰς Ἀλεξάνδρειον .

162 Gabinius sent Mark Antony ahead of him and followed in person with his whole army, except the elite body of soldiers around Antipater and another body of Jews under the command of Malichus and Pitholaus. These joined with Mark Antony's officers to face Alexander, and a little later Gabinius arrived with the heavy infantry .
163 Unable to oppose the joint force of his enemies, Alexander retreated, but on his approach to Jerusalem he was forced to fight and in the battle lost six thousand men, three thousand killed and three thousand taken alive, and he fled with the rest to Alexandreion .

[164] Γαβίνιος δὲ πρὸς τὸ Ἀλεξάνδρειον ἐλθὼν ἐπειδὴ πολλοὺς εὗρεν ἐστρατοπεδευμένους , ἐπειρᾶτο συγγνώμης ὑποσχέσει περὶ τῶν ἡμαρτημένων πρὸ μάχης αὐτοὺς προσαγαγέσθαι · μηδὲν δὲ μέτριον φρονούντων ἀποκτείνας πολλοὺς τοὺς λοιποὺς ἀπέκλεισεν εἰς τὸ ἔρυμα .
[165] κατὰ ταύτην ἀριστεύει τὴν μάχην ἡγεμὼν Μᾶρκος Ἀντώνιος , πανταχοῦ μὲν γενναῖος ἀεὶ φανείς , οὐδαμοῦ δ’ οὕτως . Γαβίνιος δὲ τοὺς ἐξαιρήσοντας τὸ φρούριον καταλιπὼν αὐτὸς ἐπήιει τὰς μὲν ἀπορθήτους πόλεις καθιστάμενος , τὰς δὲ κατεστραμμένας ἀνακτίζων .
[166] συνεπολίσθησαν γοῦν τούτου κελεύσαντος Σκυθόπολίς τε καὶ Σαμάρεια καὶ Ἀνθηδὼν καὶ Ἀπολλωνία καὶ Ἰάμνεια καὶ Ῥάφεια Μάρισά τε καὶ Ἀδώρεος καὶ Γάβαλα καὶ Ἄζωτος καὶ ἄλλαι πολλαί , τῶν οἰκητόρων ἀσμένως ἐφ’ ἑκάστην συνθεόντων .

164 When Gabinius came to Alexandreion and found so many encamped there, he tried to induce them to come over to him without a fight, with a promise of amnesty for their former offenses. But when they would not relent, he killed many of them and blockaded the rest within the fortress .
165 Their leader, Mark Antony, a man always noted for courage distinguished himself more than ever in this battle. Gabinius, leaving forces to take the fortress, went off to pacify the cities that had not been demolished and rebuilt the ones that had been destroyed .
166 At his orders these cities were restored : Scythopolis and Samaria and Anthedon and Apollonia and Jamnia and Raphia and Mariassa and Adoreus and Gamala and Azotus and many others; while settlers gladly hurried to inhabit each of them .

[167] μετὰ δὲ τὴν τούτων ἐπιμέλειαν ἐπανελθὼν πρὸς τὸ Ἀλεξάνδρειον ἐπέρρωσεν τὴν πολιορκίαν , ὥστε Ἀλέξανδρος ἀπογνοὺς περὶ τῶν ὅλων ἐπικηρυκεύεται πρὸς αὐτόν , συγγνωσθῆναί τε τῶν ἡμαρτημένων δεόμενος καὶ τὰ συλληφθέντα φρούρια παραδιδοὺς Ὑρκάνειον καὶ Μαχαιροῦντα · αὖθις δὲ καὶ τὸ Ἀλεξάνδρειον ἐνεχείρισεν .
[168] πάντα Γαβίνιος ἐναγούσης τῆς Ἀλεξάνδρου μητρὸς κατέστρεψεν , ὡς μὴ πάλιν ὁρμητήριον γένοιτο δευτέρου πολέμου · παρῆν δὲ μειλισσομένη τὸν Γαβίνιον κατὰ δέος τῶν ἐπὶ τῆς Ῥώμης αἰχμαλώτων , τοῦ τε ἀνδρὸς καὶ τῶν ἄλλων τέκνων .
[169] μετὰ δὲ ταῦτα εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα Γαβίνιος Ὑρκανὸν καταγαγὼν καὶ τὴν τοῦ ἱεροῦ παραδοὺς κηδεμονίαν αὐτῷ καθίστατο τὴν ἄλλην πολιτείαν ἐπὶ προστασίαι τῶν ἀρίστων .
[170] διεῖλεν δὲ πᾶν τὸ ἔθνος εἰς πέντε συνόδους , τὸ μὲν Ἱεροσολύμοις προστάξας , τὸ δὲ Γαδάροις , οἱ δὲ ἵνα συντελῶσιν εἰς Ἀμαθοῦντα , τὸ δὲ τέταρτον εἰς Ἱεριχοῦντα κεκλήρωτο , καὶ τῷ πέμπτῳ Σέπφωρις ἀπεδείχθη πόλις τῆς Γαλιλαίας . ἀσμένως δὲ τῆς ἐξ ἑνὸς ἐπικρατείας ἐλευθερωθέντες τὸ λοιπὸν ἀριστοκρατίαι διῳκοῦντο .

167 Having made these arrangements, he returned to Alexandreion and tightened the siege, so that Alexander gave up hope of ever coming to power and sent envoys imploring his forgiveness for offending him and offering to surrender the remaining fortresses, Hyrcanium and Machaerus, just as he later handed over Alexandreion to him .
168 Gabinius demolished them all, at the persuasion of Alexander's mother, so as not to provide places of refuge in the case of another war. She came there now to mollify Gabinius, concerned for her relatives who were prisoners in Rome, that is, her husband and her other children .
169 So Gabinius brought Hyrcanus back to Jerusalem and entrusted him with the care of the temple, but ordered the rest of the nation to be ruled by an aristocracy .
170 He divided the whole nation into five divisions, assigning one to Jerusalem, another to Gadara, another to Amathus, a fourth to Jericho and the fifth to Sepphoris, a city of Galilee. The people were glad to be set free from monarchy and in future were ruled by an aristocracy .

[171] Μετ’ οὐ πολύ γε μὴν αὐτοῖς ἀρχὴ γίνεται θορύβων Ἀριστόβουλος ἀποδρὰς ἐκ Ῥώμης , ὃς αὖθις πολλοὺς Ἰουδαίων ἐπισυνίστη , τοὺς μὲν ἐπιθυμοῦντας μεταβολῆς , τοὺς δὲ ἀγαπῶντας αὐτὸν πάλαι . καὶ τὸ μὲν πρῶτον καταλαβόμενος τὸ Ἀλεξάνδρειον ἀνατειχίζειν ἐπειρᾶτο · ὡς δὲ Γαβίνιος ὑπὸ Σισένναι καὶ Ἀντωνίῳ καὶ Σερουιανῷ στρατιὰν ἔπεμψεν ἐπ’ αὐτόν . γνοὺς ἀνεχώρει ἐπὶ Μαχαιροῦντος .
[172] καὶ τὸν μὲν ἄχρηστον ὄχλον ἀπεφορτίσατο , μόνους δὲ ἐπήγετο τοὺς ὡπλισμένους ὄντας εἰς ὀκτακισχιλίους , ἐν οἷς καὶ Πειθόλαος ἦν ἐξ Ἱεροσολύμων ὑποστράτηγος αὐτομολήσας μετὰ χιλίων . Ῥωμαῖοι δ’ ἐπηκολούθουν , καὶ γενομένης συμβολῆς μέχρι πολλοῦ μὲν οἱ περὶ τὸν Ἀριστόβουλον διεκαρτέρουν γενναίως ἀγωνιζόμενοι , τέλος δὲ βιασθέντες ὑπὸ τῶν Ῥωμαίων πίπτουσι μὲν πεντακισχίλιοι , περὶ δὲ δισχιλίους ἀνέφυγον εἴς τινα λόφον , οἱ δὲ λοιποὶ χίλιοι σὺν Ἀριστοβούλῳ διακόψαντες τὴν φάλαγγα τῶν Ῥωμαίων εἰς Μαχαιροῦντα συνελαύνονται .
[173] ἔνθα δὴ τὴν πρώτην ἑσπέραν βασιλεὺς τοῖς ἐρειπίοις ἐναυλισάμενος ἐν ἐλπίσι μὲν ἦν ἄλλην συναθροίσειν δύναμιν ἀνοχὴν τοῦ πολέμου διδόντος καὶ τὸ φρούριον κακῶς ὠχύρου · προσπεσόντων δὲ Ῥωμαίων ἐπὶ δύο ἡμέρας ἀντισχὼν ὑπὲρ δύναμιν ἁλίσκεται καὶ μετ’ Ἀντιγόνου τοῦ παιδός , ὃς ἀπὸ Ῥώμης αὐτῷ συναπέδρα , δεσμώτης ἐπὶ Γαβίνιον ἀνήχθη καὶ ἀπὸ Γαβινίου πάλιν εἰς Ῥώμην .
[174] τοῦτον μὲν οὖν σύγκλητος εἷρξεν , τὰ τέκνα δ’ αὐτοῦ‎ διῆγεν εἰς Ἰουδαίαν Γαβινίου δι’ ἐπιστολῶν δηλώσαντος τῇ Ἀριστοβούλου γυναικὶ τοῦτο ἀντὶ τῆς παραδόσεως τῶν ἐρυμάτων ὡμολογηκέναι .

171 Aristobulus soon caused new disturbances by taking flight from Rome and gathering many of the Jews who were eager for a change and had loved him in the past. Once he had taken Alexandreion he tried to fortify it, but when Gabinius sent an army against him under Sisenna, Antony and Servilius, he got wind of it and retreated to Machaerus .
172 He sent home the useless crowd, and marched only with those who were armed, eight thousand of them, among whom was Pitholaus, the former lieutenant in Jerusalem who had come over to Aristobulus with a thousand men. The Romans pursued him and in the battle Aristobulus's party struggled bravely, but were finally overcome by the Romans. Five thousand of them were killed and about two thousand fled to a little hill, but the thousand who stayed with Aristobulus broke through the Roman lines and marched together into Machaerus .
173 After the king had lodged the first night within its ruins, he hoped to raise another army, if only the war would ease a little, so he fortified that stronghold, though it was poorly done. When the Romans attacked he fought back for two days even beyond his strength, and then was taken prisoner and brought to Gabinius along with his son, Antigonus, who had escaped from Rome along with him and Gabinius sent him back to Rome .
174 The senate put him in prison, but returned his children to Judea, for Gabinius wrote to them that he had promised this to the wife of Aristobulus, for surrendering the fortresses to him .

[175] Γαβινίῳ δ’ ἐπὶ Πάρθους ὡρμημένῳ στρατεύειν γίνεται Πτολεμαῖος ἐμπόδιον · ὃς ὑποστρέψας ἀπ’ Εὐφράτου κατῆγεν εἰς Αἴγυπτον ἐπιτηδείοις εἰς ἅπαντα χρώμενος κατὰ τὴν στρατείαν Ὑρκανῷ καὶ Ἀντιπάτρῳ · καὶ γὰρ χρήματα καὶ ὅπλα καὶ σῖτον καὶ ἐπικούρους Ἀντίπατρος προσῆγεν , καὶ τοὺς ταύτῃ Ἰουδαίους φρουροῦντας τὰς κατὰ τὸ Πηλούσιον ἐμβολὰς παρεῖναι Γαβίνιον ἔπεισεν .
[176] τῆς δ’ ἄλλης Συρίας πρὸς τὸν Γαβινίου χωρισμὸν κινηθείσης καὶ Ἰουδαίους πάλιν ἀπέστησεν Ἀλέξανδρος Ἀριστοβούλου , μεγίστην δὲ συγκροτήσας δύναμιν ὥρμητο πάντας τοὺς κατὰ τὴν χώραν Ῥωμαίους ἀνελεῖν .
[177] πρὸς Γαβίνιος δείσας , ἤδη δὲ παρῆν ἀπ’ Αἰγύπτου τοῖς τῇδε θορύβοις ἠπειγμένος , ἐπὶ τινὰς μὲν τῶν ἀφεστώτων Ἀντίπατρον προπέμψας μετέπεισεν , συνέμενον δὲ Ἀλεξάνδρῳ τρεῖς μυριάδες , κἀκεῖνος ὥρμητο πολεμεῖν . οὕτως ἔξεισιν πρὸς μάχην . ὑπήντων δὲ οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι , καὶ συμβαλόντων περὶ τὸ Ἰταβύριον ὄρος μύριοι μὲν ἀναιροῦνται , τὸ δὲ λοιπὸν πλῆθος ἐσκεδάσθη φυγῇ .
[178] καὶ Γαβίνιος ἐλθὼν εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα πρὸς τὸ Ἀντιπάτρου βούλημα κατεστήσατο τὴν πολιτείαν . ἔνθεν ὁρμήσας Ναβαταίων τε μάχῃ κρατεῖ καὶ Μιθριδάτην καὶ Ὀρσάνην φυγόντας ἐκ Πάρθων κρύφα μὲν ἀπέπεμψεν , παρὰ δὲ τοῖς στρατιώταις ἔλεγεν ἀποδρᾶναι .

175 As Gabinius was marching to the war against the Parthians, he was delayed by Ptolemy, whom he had to restore to Egypt, coming back from the Euphrates to do so. He got Hyrcanus and Antipater to provide all the needs for this expedition, for Antipater furnished money and weapons and corn and allies. He also persuaded the local Jews guarding the entrances near Pelusium, to let them pass .
176 While Gabinius was absent, the other part of Syria was in turmoil for Alexander, the son of Aristobulus, got the Jews to revolt again, gathering a large army and setting out to kill all the Romans in the land .
177 Gabinius, who had come back from Egypt on account of these riots, became alarmed and sent Antipater, who managed to win over some of the rebels. But thirty thousand still stayed with Alexander, who was eager for a fight, so he went out against him and the Jews met him the battle was fought near Mount Itaburion, when ten thousand of them were killed and the rest of the crowd dispersed and fled .
178 Then Gabinius came to Jerusalem and settled its government according to Antipater's wishes. From there he marched and fought and beat the Nabateans, and secretly sent away Mithridates and Orsanes, who had fled from Parthia, telling the soldiers that they had run away .

[179] Κἀν τούτῳ Κράσσος αὐτῷ διάδοχος ἐλθὼν παραλαμβάνει Συρίαν . οὗτος εἰς τὴν ἐπὶ Πάρθους στρατείαν τόν τε ἄλλον τοῦ ἐν Ἱεροσολύμοις ναοῦ χρυσὸν πάντα περιεῖλεν καὶ τὰ δισχίλια τάλαντα ἦρεν , ὧν ἀπέσχετο Πομπήιος . διαβὰς δὲ τὸν Εὐφράτην αὐτός τε ἀπώλετο καὶ στρατὸς αὐτοῦ‎ , περὶ ὧν οὐ νῦν καιρὸς λέγειν .

179 Meanwhile Crassus came as his successor in Syria. He took away all the rest of the gold in the Jerusalem temple, to provide for his expedition against the Parthians, and took the two thousand talents which Pompey had left bahind. Then after crossing the Euphrates, he and his army were killed; but now is not a suitable time to speak about this .

[180] Πάρθους δὲ μετὰ τὸν Κράσσον ἐπιδιαβαίνειν εἰς Συρίαν ὡρμημένους ἀνέκοπτεν Κάσσιος εἰς τὴν ἐπαρχίαν διαφυγών . περιποιησάμενος δὲ αὐτὴν ἐπὶ Ἰουδαίους ἠπείγετο , καὶ Ταριχέας μὲν ἑλὼν εἰς τρεῖς μυριάδας Ἰουδαίων ἀνδραποδίζεται , κτείνει δὲ καὶ Πειθόλαον τοὺς Ἀριστοβούλου στασιαστὰς ἐπισυνιστάντα · τοῦ φόνου δὲ ἦν σύμβουλος Ἀντίπατρος .
[181] τούτῳ γήμαντι γυναῖκα τῶν ἐπισήμων ἐξ Ἀραβίας Κύπρον τοὔνομα τέσσαρες μὲν υἱεῖς γίνονται , Φασάηλος καὶ βασιλεὺς αὖθις Ἡρώδης , πρὸς οἷς Ἰώσηπος καὶ Φερώρας καὶ Σαλώμη θυγάτηρ . ἐξῳκειωμένος δὲ τοὺς πανταχοῦ δυνατοὺς φιλίαις τε καὶ ξενίαις μάλιστα προσηγάγετο τὸν Ἀράβων βασιλέα διὰ τὴν ἐπιγαμβρίαν , κἀπειδὴ τὸν πρὸς τὸν Ἀριστόβουλον ἀνείλετο πόλεμον , ἐκείνῳ παρακαταθήκην ἔπεμψεν τὰ τέκνα .
[182] Κάσσιος δὲ κατὰ συνθήκας ἡσυχάζειν Ἀλέξανδρον ἀναγκάσας ἐπὶ τὸν Εὐφράτην ὑπέστρεψεν Πάρθους διαβαίνειν ἀνείρξων , περὶ ὧν ἐν ἑτέροις ἐροῦμεν .

180 After Crassus, Cassius put a stop to the Parthians, who were marching to enter Syria. Cassius had rushed to that province and after occupying it, made a hasty march into Judea, and after taking Tarichea, enslaved thirty thousand Jews. On the advice of Antipater he also killed Pitholaus, who had supported the rebel followers of Aristobulus .
181 Antipater had married a woman of a distinguished Arabian family named Cypros, and by her had four sons, Phasael and Herod, who was later king, and Joseph and Pheroras, and a daughter, Salome. As he made friends with the notables everywhere by the favours he did them and his hospitality towards them, he became especially close to the king of the Arabs by marrying his relative, so that he sent his children to him for safety when he went to war against Aristobulus .
182 When Cassius had forced Alexander to come to terms and keep the peace, he returned to the Euphrates to prevent the Parthians from recrossing it. Of this we shall speak elsewhere .
Chapter 9
Aristobulus and Alexander are murdered. Antipater cultivates Caesar's friendship

[183] Καῖσαρ δὲ Πομπηίου καὶ τῆς συγκλήτου φυγόντων ὑπὲρ τὸν Ἰόνιον Ῥώμης καὶ τῶν ὅλων κρατήσας ἀνίησι μὲν τῶν δεσμῶν τὸν Ἀριστόβουλον , παραδοὺς δ’ αὐτῷ δύο τάγματα κατὰ τάχος ἔπεμψεν εἰς Συρίαν , ταύτην τε ῥαιδίως ἐλπίσας καὶ τὰ περὶ τὴν Ἰουδαίαν δι’ αὐτοῦ‎ προσάξεσθαι .
[184] φθάνει δ’ φθόνος καὶ τὴν Ἀριστοβούλου προθυμίαν καὶ τὰς Καίσαρος ἐλπίδας · φαρμάκῳ γοῦν ἀναιρεθεὶς ὑπὸ τῶν τὰ Πομπηίου φρονούντων μέχρι πολλοῦ μὲν οὐδὲ ταφῆς ἐν τῇ πατρώιαι χώρᾳ μετεῖχεν , ἔκειτο δὲ μέλιτι συντηρούμενος νεκρὸς αὐτοῦ‎ , ἕως ὑπ’ Ἀντωνίου Ἰουδαίοις ἐπέμφθη τοῖς βασιλικοῖς μνημείοις ἐνταφησόμενος .

183 After General Pompey and the senate fled beyond the Ionian Sea, Caesar had Rome and the empire in his power and released Aristobulus from his chains. He also entrusted two legions to him and sent him quickly into Syria, hoping through him to easily conquer it and the area adjoining Judea .
184 But envy thwarted Caesar's hopes and the zeal of Aristobulus, for he was killed by poison given him by Pompey's people. For a long time he was not even allowed burial in his own country, but his corpse lay preserved in honey, until it was sent by Antony to the Jews, for burial in the royal tombs .

[185] Ἀναιρεῖται δὲ καὶ Ναχώρης αὐτοῦ‎ Ἀλέξανδρος πελέκει ὑπὸ Σκιπίωνος ἐν Ἀντιοχείᾳ Πομπηίου τοῦτ’ ἐπιστείλαντος καὶ γενομένης κατηγορίας πρὸ τοῦ βήματος ὧν Ῥωμαίους ὑπάρχουσι . τοὺς δ’ ἀδελφοὺς αὐτοῦ‎ Πτολεμαῖος Μενναίου παραλαβών , ὃς ἐκράτει τῆς ὑπὸ τῷ Λιβάνῳ Χαλκίδος , Φιλιππίωνα τὸν υἱὸν ἐπ’ αὐτοὺς εἰς Ἀσκάλωνα πέμπει .
[186] κἀκεῖνος ἀποσπάσας τῆς Ἀριστοβούλου γυναικὸς Ἀντίγονον καὶ τὰς ἀδελφὰς αὐτοῦ‎ πρὸς τὸν πατέρα ἀνήγαγεν . ἁλοὺς δ’ ἔρωτι γαμεῖ τὴν ἑτέραν καὶ μετὰ ταῦτα ὑπὸ τοῦ πατρὸς δι’ αὐτὴν κτείνεται · γαμεῖ γὰρ Πτολεμαῖος τὴν Ἀλεξάνδραν ἀνελὼν τὸν υἱὸν καὶ διὰ τὸν γάμον κηδεμονικώτερος αὐτὸς ἦν πρὸς τοὺς ἀδελφούς .

185 His son Alexander also was beheaded by Scipio in Antioch, at the command of Pompey when he was accused before his tribunal for wrongs he had done to the Romans. But Ptolemy, son of Mennaeus, who was then ruler of Chalcis, below Libanus, took care of his brothers, by sending his son Philippio for them to Ascalon .
186 He took Antigonus and his sisters away from the wife of Aristobulus and brought them to his father. Then he fell in love with the younger daughter and married her, and was later killed by his father on account of her. After killing his son, Ptolemy married the one called Alexandra, and took better care of her siblings on account of the marriage .

[187] Ἀντίπατρος δὲ μετὰ τὴν Πομπηίου τελευτὴν μεταβὰς ἐθεράπευεν Καίσαρα , κἀπειδὴ Μιθριδάτης Περγαμηνὸς μεθ’ ἧς ἦγεν ἐπ’ Αἴγυπτον δυνάμεως εἰργόμενος τῶν κατὰ τὸ Πηλούσιον ἐμβολῶν ἐν Ἀσκάλωνι κατείχετο , τούς τε Ἄραβας ξένος ὢν ἔπεισεν ἐπικουρῆσαι καὶ αὐτὸς ἧκεν ἄγων Ἰουδαίων εἰς τρισχιλίους ὁπλίτας .
[188] παρώρμησεν δὲ καὶ τοὺς ἐν Συρίαι δυνατοὺς ἐπὶ τὴν βοήθειαν τόν τε ἔποικον τοῦ Λιβάνου Πτολεμαῖον καὶ Ἰάμβλιχον , δι’ οὓς αἱ ταύτῃ πόλεις ἑτοίμως συνεφήψαντο τοῦ πολέμου .
[189] καὶ θαρρῶν ἤδη Μιθριδάτης τῇ προσγενομένῃ δι’ Ἀντίπατρον ἰσχύι πρὸς τὸ Πηλούσιον ἐξελαύνει κωλυόμενός τε διελθεῖν ἐπολιόρκει τὴν πόλιν . γίνεται δὲ κἀν τῇ προσβολῇ διασημότατος Ἀντίπατρος · τὸ γὰρ κατ’ αὐτὸν μέρος τοῦ τείχους διαρρήξας πρῶτος εἰσεπήδησεν εἰς τὴν πόλιν μετὰ τῶν σὺν αὐτῷ .

187 After Pompey died, Antipater changed sides and cultivated Caesar. And since Mithridates of Pergamus and the forces he was leading against Egypt, was barred at the pass near Pelusium and forced to stay in Ascalon, he persuaded the Arabs among whom he had lived, to side with him and arrived at the head of three thousand Jewish infantry .
188 He also urged the leaders of Syria to come and help him, including Ptolemy who lived near Libanus, and Jamblicus, through whom the cities of that area willingly joined in this war .
189 Helped by the additional strength he had gained with the help of Antipater, Mithridates ventured on to Pelusium, and besieged the city when they refused to let him through, and Antipater was outstanding in the attack, for he brought down the part of the wall opposite him and was first to dash into the city, with his troops .

[190] Καὶ τὸ Πηλούσιον μὲν ἑάλω , πρόσω δ’ αὐτὸν ἰόντα εἶργον αὖθις οἱ τὴν Ὀνίου προσαγορευομένην χώραν κατέχοντες · ἦσαν δὲ Ἰουδαῖοι Αἰγύπτιοι . τούτους Ἀντίπατρος οὐ μόνον μὴ κωλύειν ἔπεισεν , ἀλλὰ καὶ τὰ ἐπιτήδεια τῇ δυνάμει παρασχεῖν · ὅθεν οὐδὲ οἱ κατὰ Μέμφιν ἔτι εἰς χεῖρας ἦλθον , ἑκούσιοι δὲ προσέθεντο Μιθριδάτῃ .
[191] κἀκεῖνος ἤδη τὸ Δέλτα περιελθὼν συνέβαλλεν τοῖς λοιποῖς Αἰγυπτίοις εἰς μάχην κατὰ χῶρον , ὃς Ἰουδαίων στρατόπεδον καλεῖται . κινδυνεύοντα δ’ αὐτὸν ἐν τῇ παρατάξει σὺν ὅλῳ τῷ δεξιῷ κέρατι ῥύεται περιελθὼν Ἀντίπατρος παρὰ τὸν αἰγιαλὸν τοῦ ποταμοῦ ·
[192] τῶν γὰρ καθ’ ἑαυτὸν ἐκράτει τὸ λαιὸν ἔχων κέρας · ἔπειτα προσπεσὼν τοῖς διώκουσι Μιθριδάτην ἀπέκτεινεν πολλοὺς καὶ μέχρι τοσούτου τοὺς καταλειπομένους ἐδίωξεν ὡς καὶ τὸ στρατόπεδον αὐτῶν ἑλεῖν . ὀγδοήκοντα δὲ μόνους τῶν ἰδίων ἀπέβαλεν , καὶ Μιθριδάτης ἐν τῇ τροπῇ περὶ ὀκτακοσίους . σωθεὶς δ’ αὐτὸς παρ’ ἐλπίδα μάρτυς ἀβάσκανος γίνεται πρὸς Καίσαρα τῶν Ἀντιπάτρου κατορθωμάτων .

190 Pelusium was taken, but as they went on through they were stopped by the Egyptian Jews living in the district of Onias. Then Antipater persuaded them not only not to hinder them, but to provide provisions for their army, so that even the people around Memphis would not oppose them, but willingly joined Mithridates .
191 Then he rounded the Delta and fought the rest of the Egyptians at a place called the Camp of the Jews. During the battle when he was in danger with all his right wing, Antipater wheeled about and came to his help along the bank of the river .
192 Leading the left wing, he defeated his opponents and then attacked the people harrying Mithridates and killed many of them and pursed the rest to the extent that he took their camp, while losing only eighty of his own men. Mithridates lost about eight hundred while he was being pursued, but unexpectedly his own life was saved, so that he became an outspoken witness to Caesar about the great deeds of Antipater .

[193] δὲ τότε μὲν τὸν ἄνδρα τοῖς ἐπαίνοις καὶ ταῖς ἐλπίσιν εἰς τοὺς ὑπὲρ αὐτοῦ‎ κινδύνους ἐπέρρωσεν , ἐν οἷς πᾶσιν παραβολώτατος ἀγωνιστὴς γενόμενος καὶ πολλὰ τρωθεὶς ἐφ’ ὅλου σχεδὸν τοῦ σώματος εἶχεν τὰ σημεῖα τῆς ἀρετῆς .
[194] αὖθις δὲ καταστησάμενος τὰ κατὰ τὴν Αἴγυπτον ὡς ἐπανῆκεν εἰς Συρίαν , πολιτείᾳ τε αὐτὸν τῇ Ῥωμαίων ἐδωρήσατο καὶ ἀτελείᾳ τῆς τε ἄλλης τιμῆς καὶ φιλοφρονήσεως ἕνεκεν ζηλωτὸν ἐποίησεν καὶ τὴν ἀρχιερωσύνην δὲ δι’ αὐτὸν ἐπεκύρωσεν Ὑρκανῷ .

193 Then, by a mixture of praise and the promise of rewards, he got him to undertake other dangerous missions where he risked his life for him, and became a famous warrior, with many wounds on most of his body to attest his bravery .
194 When he had settled affairs in Egypt and was returning to Syria, he gave him the privilege of a Roman citizen and freedom from taxes and made him much admired by the honours and tokens of friendship he gave him. This was also why he confirmed Hyrcanus in the high priesthood .
Chapter 10
Antipater, made procurator of Judea by Caesar, appoints his two sons Phasael and Herod to power : Phasael in Jerusalem and Herod in Galilee

[195] Κατ’ αὐτὸ δὲ καὶ Ἀντίγονος Ἀριστοβούλου πρὸς τὸν Καίσαρα παρὼν γίνεται παραδόξως Ἀντιπάτρῳ μείζονος προκοπῆς αἴτιος · δέον γὰρ ἀποδύρεσθαι περὶ τοῦ πατρὸς πεφαρμάχθαι δοκοῦντος ἐκ τῶν πρὸς Πομπήιον διαφορῶν καὶ περὶ τἀδελφοῦ τὴν Σκιπίωνος ὠμότητα μέμφεσθαι καὶ μηδὲν εἰς τὸν ἔλεον παραμῖξαι φθονερὸν πάθος , δὲ ἐπὶ τούτοις Ὑρκανοῦ καὶ Ἀντιπάτρου κατηγόρει παρελθών ,
[196] ὡς παρανομώτατα μὲν αὐτὸν μετὰ τῶν ἀδελφῶν πάσης ἀπελαύνοιεν τῆς πατρίου γῆς , πολλὰ δ’ εἰς τὸ ἔθνος αὐτοὶ διὰ κόρον ἐξυβρίζοιεν , καὶ ὅτι τὴν εἰς Αἴγυπτον συμμαχίαν οὐκ ἐπ’ εὐνοίαι αὐτῷ πέμψειαν , ἀλλὰ κατὰ δέος τῶν πάλαι διαφορῶν καὶ τὴν πρὸς τὸν Πομπήιον φιλίαν ἀποσκευαζόμενοι .

195 About this time Antigonus, son of Aristobulus, came to Caesar and oddly became the cause of Antipater's further promotion. Whereas he should have complained that his father seemed to have been poisoned due to his quarrels with Pompey, and about Scipio's savagery towards his brother, and not to mix any envious passion when he was suing for mercy, when he arrived he accused Hyrcanus and Antipater
196 of driving him and his brothers from their native land and of many outrages towards their nation, and that the help they had sent him to Egypt was not given from goodwill, but out of their fear arising from past quarrels and in order to be pardoned for their friendship with Pompey .

[197] Πρὸς ταῦτα Ἀντίπατρος ἀπορρίψας τὴν ἐσθῆτα τὸ πλῆθος ἐπεδείκνυεν τῶν τραυμάτων , καὶ περὶ μὲν τῆς εἰς Καίσαρα εὐνοίας οὐκ ἔφη λόγου δεῖν αὐτῷ · κεκραγέναι γὰρ τὸ σῶμα σιωπῶντος ·
[198] Ἀντιγόνου δὲ θαυμάζειν τὴν τόλμαν , εἰ πολεμίου Ῥωμαίων Ναχώρης ὢν καὶ Ῥωμαίων δραπέτου καὶ τὸ νεωτεροποιὸς εἶναι καὶ στασιώδης αὐτὸς πατρῷον ἔχων , παρὰ τῷ Ῥωμαίων ἡγεμόνι κατηγορεῖν ἐπικεχείρηκεν ἑτέρων καὶ πειρᾶται τυχεῖν ἀγαθοῦ τινος , δέον ἀγαπᾶν ὅτι ζῇ · καὶ γὰρ νῦν ἐφίεσθαι πραγμάτων οὐ τοσοῦτον δι’ ἀπορίαν , ἀλλ’ ἵνα Ἰουδαίους διαστασιάσῃ παρελθὼν καὶ χρήσηται κατὰ τῶν δόντων ταῖς ἀφορμαῖς .

197 In response, Antipater threw off his clothes and showed the number of his wounds and said that he had no need to speak of his love for Caesar, since his body shouted it aloud even if he stayed silent,
198 but that he was amazed at the audacity of Antigonus, the son of an enemy of Rome and a fugitive, who had inherited from his father a love of change and strife, to dare to accuse other men before the Roman governor for the sake of profit, when he ought to be glad to be still alive. He wanted to rule not because he was badly off, but so that once he in power he could stir up revolt among the Jews and use his position against those who gave it to him .

[199] Τούτων Καῖσαρ ἀκούσας Ὑρκανὸν μὲν ἀξιώτερον τῆς ἀρχιερωσύνης ἀπεφήνατο , Ἀντιπάτρῳ δὲ δυναστείας αἵρεσιν ἔδωκεν . δ’ ἐπὶ τῷ τιμήσαντι τὸ μέτρον τῆς τιμῆς θέμενος πάσης ἐπίτροπος Ἰουδαίας ἀποδείκνυται καὶ προσεπιτυγχάνει τὰ τείχη τῆς πατρίδος ἀνακτίσαι κατεστραμμένα .
[200] τὰς μὲν δὴ τιμὰς ταύτας Καῖσαρ ἐπέστελλεν ἐν τῷ Καπετωλίῳ χαραχθῆναι τῆς τε αὐτοῦ‎ δικαιοσύνης σημεῖον καὶ τῆς τἀνδρὸς ἐσομένας ἀρετῆς .

199 When Caesar heard it he pronounced Hyrcanus more worthy to be high priest and left Antipater free to choose his own kind of rule. The latter wanted the measure of his honour to be decided by the one granting it to him and was appointed procurator of all Judea, with permission to rebuild the ramparts of his country that had been thrown down .
200 Caesar sent orders to have these honours engraved in the Capitol, to stand there as signs of his own justice and of the man's courage .

[201] Ἀντίπατρος δὲ Καίσαρα προπέμψας ἐκ τῆς Συρίας εἰς Ἰουδαίαν ὑπέστρεψεν . καὶ πρῶτον μὲν τὸ τεῖχος ἀνεδείματο τῆς πατρίδος ὑπὸ Πομπηίου κατεστραμμένον καὶ τοὺς ἀνὰ τὴν χώραν θορύβους ἐπιὼν κατέστελλεν , ἀπειλητὴς ἅμα καὶ σύμβουλος ὢν ἑκάστοις , ὅτι τὰ μὲν Ὑρκανοῦ φρονοῦντες ἐν ὄλβῳ καὶ καθ’ ἡσυχίαν βιώσονται τῶν τε ἰδίων κτημάτων καὶ κοινῆς εἰρήνης ἀπολαύοντες ·
[202] εἰ δὲ πείθοιντο ταῖς ψυχραῖς ἐλπίσιν τῶν νεωτερίζειν ἐπὶ κέρδεσιν οἰκείοις ἐθελόντων , ὡς αὐτόν τε πειράσουσιν ἀντὶ κηδεμόνος δεσπότην καὶ Ὑρκανὸν ἀντὶ βασιλέως τύραννον , Ῥωμαίους γε μὴν καὶ Καίσαρα πολεμίους ἀνθ’ ἡγεμόνων καὶ φίλων · οὐ γὰρ ἀνέξεσθαι μετακινούμενον ἐκ τῆς ἀρχῆς ὃν αὐτοὶ κατέστησαν .
[203] ἅμα δὲ ταῦτα λέγων καὶ δι’ αὑτοῦ καθίστατο τὴν χώραν ὁρῶν τὸν Ὑρκανὸν νωθῆ τε καὶ βασιλείας ἀτονώτερον . Φασάηλον μὲν δὴ τῶν παίδων τὸν πρεσβύτατον Ἱεροσολύμων καὶ τῶν πέριξ στρατηγὸν καθίστησιν , τὸν δὲ μετ’ αὐτὸν Ἡρώδην ἐπὶ τοῖς ἴσοις ἔστειλεν εἰς Γαλιλαίαν κομιδῇ νέον .

201 After escorting Caesar from Syria Antipater returned to Judea and his first act was to rebuild the wall of his ancestral city which Pompey had destroyed and then went to quell the disturbances around the country. With a mixture of threat and persuasion he told them all that if they submitted to Hyrcanus they would live happily and peaceably and enjoy their possessions in peaceful calm,
202 but if they heeded those who were stirring things up in hope of profit, they would find him a despot rather than a procurator, and Hyrcanus a tyrant instead of a king, and the Romans and Caesar as enemies instead of their leaders and friends, for they would not allow the man they had set up as ruler to be deposed .
203 With these words he settled matters on his own, seeing that Hyrcanus was inactive and unfit to manage the affairs of the kingdom. He made his eldest son, Phasael, ruler of Jerusalem and the district around it and sent his next son, Herod, though still young, with similar authority into Galilee .

[204] δὲ ὢν φύσει δραστήριος ὕλην εὐθέως εὑρίσκει τῷ φρονήματι . καταλαβὼν οὖν Ἐζεκίαν τὸν ἀρχιλῃστὴν τὰ προσεχῆ τῇ Συρίαι κατατρέχοντα μετὰ μεγίστου στίφους αὐτόν τε συλλαβὼν ἀποκτείνει καὶ πολλοὺς τῶν λῃστῶν .
[205] δὴ μάλιστα τοῖς Σύροις ἡγεῖτο κεχαρισμένον · ὑμνεῖτο γοῦν ἀνά τε τὰς κώμας καὶ ἐν ταῖς πόλεσιν Ἡρώδης ὡς εἰρήνην αὐτοῖς καὶ τὰς κτήσεις ἀνασεσωκώς . γίνεται δ’ ἐκ τούτου καὶ Σέξτῳ Καίσαρι γνώριμος ὄντι συγγενεῖ τοῦ μεγάλου Καίσαρος καὶ διοικοῦντι τὴν Συρίαν .
[206] πρὸς δὲ τὸν ἀδελφὸν εὐδοκιμοῦντα καὶ Φασάηλος ἐφιλοτιμεῖτο τὴν ἀγαθὴν ἔριν τοὺς ἐν τοῖς Ἱεροσολύμοις εὐνουστέρους καθιστάμενος καὶ δι’ αὑτοῦ μὲν ἔχων τὴν πόλιν μηδὲν δὲ ἀπειροκάλως εἰς τὴν ἐξουσίαν ἐξυβρίζων . ἐντεῦθεν Ἀντιπάτρῳ θεραπεία τε ἦν ἐκ τοῦ ἔθνους βασιλικὴ καὶ τιμαὶ παρὰ πάντων ὡς δεσπότῃ τῶν ὅλων · οὐ μὴν αὐτὸς τῆς πρὸς Ὑρκανὸν εὐνοίας πίστεώς τι μετεκίνησεν .

204 Active by nature, the latter soon found material to work upon. Finding that Hezekias, the brigand chief, was devastating the neighbouring parts of Syria with a large band, he caught him and killed him and many of the brigands .
205 This was warmly welcomed by the Syrians, so that hymns were sung in the villages and cities in praise of Herod, for winning peace and saving their possessions for them. At that time he made the acquaintance of Sextus Caesar, ruler of Syria and a relative of the great Caesar .
206 His brother's reputation prompted Phasael to emulate him and he gained favour with the people of Jerusalem by his management of the city affairs and did not offend them by any abuse of his power .
207 But though the nation honoured Antipater like a king and treated him like those an absolute lord, he never lessened his goodwill and fidelity to Hyrcanus .

[208] Ἀμήχανον δ’ ἐν εὐπραγίαις φθόνον διαφυγεῖν · Ὑρκανὸς γοῦν ἤδη μὲν καὶ καθ’ ἑαυτὸν ἡσυχῆ πρὸς τὸ κλέος τῶν νεανίσκων ἐδάκνετο , μάλιστα δὲ ἐλύπει τὰ Ἡρώδου κατορθώματα καὶ κήρυκες ἐπάλληλοι τῆς καθ’ ἕκαστον εὐδοξίας προστρέχοντες πολλοὶ [ δὲ ] τῶν ἐν τοῖς βασιλείοις βασκάνων ἠρέθιζον , οἷς τὸ τῶν παίδων τὸ Ἀντιπάτρου σωφρονικὸν προσίστατο ,
[209] λέγοντες ὡς Ἀντιπάτρῳ καὶ τοῖς υἱοῖς αὐτοῦ‎ παραχωρήσας τῶν πραγμάτων καθέζοιτο τοὔνομα μόνον βασιλέως ἔχων ἔρημον ἐξουσίας . καὶ μέχρι τοῦ πλανηθήσεται καθ’ ἑαυτοῦ βασιλεῖς ἐπιτρέφων ; οὐδὲ γὰρ εἰρωνεύεσθαι τὴν ἐπιτροπὴν αὐτοὺς ἔτι , φανεροὺς δὲ εἶναι δεσπότας παρωσαμένους ἐκεῖνον , εἴ γε μήτε ἐντολὰς δόντος μήτε ἐπιστείλαντος αὐτοῦ‎ τοσούτους παρὰ τὸν τῶν Ἰουδαίων νόμον ἀνήιρηκεν Ἡρώδης · ὅν , εἰ μὴ βασιλεύς ἐστιν ἀλλ’ ἔτι ἰδιώτης , δεῖν ἐπὶ δίκην ἥκειν ἀποδώσοντα λόγον αὐτῷ τε καὶ τοῖς πατρίοις νόμοις , οἳ κτείνειν ἀκρίτους οὐκ ἐφιᾶσιν .

208 Even amid prosperity he could not keep envy at bay, for the lustre of the young men secretly irritated Hyrcanus. The achievements of Herod grieved him especially, with a succession of messengers coming to sing his praises and many in the palace stoked his envy, annoyed by the prudence either of the young men, or of Antipater .
209 These said that by leaving matters to Antipater and his sons, he himself had merely the title of king, without its authority and asked how long he would make the mistake of rearing kings against himself, since they did not hide their sovereignty but were plainly lording it and supplanting him. For example, contrary to Jewish law Herod had killed so many without his orders or permission and should be brought to trial, not as a king but as a private citizen, to answer for it before him and the laws of his country, which do not allow anyone to be killed, untried .

[210] Τούτοις κατὰ μικρὸν Ὑρκανὸς ἐξεκαίετο καὶ τὴν ὀργὴν τελευταῖον ἐκρήξας ἐκάλει κριθησόμενον τὸν Ἡρώδην . δὲ καὶ τοῦ πατρὸς παραινοῦντος καὶ τῶν πραγμάτων διδόντων παρρησίαν ἀνήιει φρουραῖς διαλαβόντες πρότερον τὴν Γαλιλαίαν . ἤιει δὲ μετὰ καρτεροῦ στίφους , ὡς μήτε καταλύειν δόξειεν Ὑρκανὸν λαμπρὰν ἄγων δύναμιν μήτε γυμνὸς ἐμπέσοι τῷ φθόνῳ .
[211] Σέξτος δὲ Καῖσαρ δείσας περὶ τῷ νεανίαι , μή τι παρὰ τοῖς ἐχθροῖς ἀποληφθεὶς πάθῃ , πέμπει πρὸς Ὑρκανὸν τοὺς παραγγελοῦντας διαρρήδην ἀπολύειν Ἡρώδην τῆς φονικῆς δίκης . δὲ καὶ ἄλλως ὡρμημένος , ἠγάπα γὰρ Ἡρώδην , ἀποψηφίζεται .

210 Little by little these notions burned into Hyrcanus until finally his anger flared and he summoned Herod to trial. As soon as matters allowed it, at his father's advice he placed garrisons in Galilee and went up with a troop of soldiers, not so many as would make him seem intent on overthrowing Hyrcanus, yet not so few as to expose him to those who envied him .
211 Sextus Caesar was still afraid that the young man might be taken by his enemies and punished, so he sent some to expressly tell Hyrcanus to acquit Herod of the capital charge, and he did so, as he was inclined to do anyway, out of affection for Herod .

[212] Καὶ ὃς ὑπολαμβάνων ἄκοντος τοῦ βασιλέως διαφυγεῖν εἰς Δαμασκὸν ἀνεχώρησεν πρὸς Σέξτον παρασκευαζόμενος οὐδὲ αὖθις ὑπακοῦσαι καλοῦντι . καὶ πάλιν οἱ πονηροὶ παρώξυνον τὸν Ὑρκανὸν κατ’ ὀργήν τε οἴχεσθαι τὸν Ἡρώδην λέγοντες καὶ παρεσκευασμένον κατ’ αὐτοῦ‎ · πιστεύων δ’ βασιλεὺς οὐκ εἶχεν τι χρὴ δρᾶν .
[213] ὡς ἑώρα μείζονα τὸν διάφορον . ἐπεὶ δὲ ὑπὸ Σέξτου Καίσαρος στρατηγὸς ἀνεδείχθη κοίλης Συρίας καὶ Σαμαρείας οὐ μόνον τε κατ’ εὔνοιαν τὴν ἐκ τοῦ ἔθνους ἀλλὰ καὶ δυνάμει φοβερὸς ἦν . εἰς ἔσχατον δέους κατέπεσεν Ὑρκανός , ὅσον οὔπω προσδοκῶν ἐπ’ αὐτὸν ὁρμήσειν μετὰ στρατιᾶς .

212 Thinking that he had escaped against the wishes of the king, Herod retreated to Sextus in Damascus, intending to disobey if he were summoned again. Malicious people upset Hyrcanus by saying that Herod had left in anger and was preparing to make war on him and believing it, the king did not know what to do, seeing that his opponent was stronger than himself .
213 Ever since Sextus Caesar had made him general of Coelesyria and Samaria he was formidable, not just because of the nation's support of him, but for his military force, so Hyrcanus was extremely afraid and expected him to march against him soon with an army .

[214] Καὶ οὐ διήμαρτεν τῆς οἰήσεως · γὰρ Ἡρώδης κατ’ ὀργὴν τῆς περὶ τὴν δίκην ἀπειλῆς στρατιὰν ἀθροίσας ἐπὶ Ἱεροσολύμων ἦγεν καταλύσων τὸν Ὑρκανόν . κἂν ἔφθη τοῦτο ποιήσας , εἰ μὴ προεξελθόντες τε πατὴρ καὶ ἀδελφὸς ἔκλασαν αὐτοῦ‎ τὴν ὁρμὴν παρακαλοῦντες καὶ αὐτὸν ἀπειλῇ καὶ ἀνατάσει μόνῃ μετρῆσαι τὴν ἄμυναν , φείσασθαι δὲ τοῦ βασιλέως , ὑφ’ οὗ μέχρι τοσαύτης δυνάμεως προῆλθεν · δεῖν τε , εἰ κληθεὶς ἐπὶ δίκην παρώξυνται , καὶ περὶ τῆς ἀφέσεως εὐχαριστεῖν καὶ μὴ πρὸς μὲν τὸ σκυθρωπὸν ἀπαντᾶν , περὶ δὲ τῆς σωτηρίας ἀχάριστον εἶναι .
[215] εἰ δὲ δὴ λογιστέον εἴη καὶ πολέμου ῥοπὰς βραβεύεσθαι θεῷ , πλέον εἶναι τῆς στρατείας τὸ ἄδικον . διὸ δὴ καὶ περὶ τῆς νίκης οὐ χρὴ κατὰ πᾶν εὔελπιν εἶναι , μέλλοντά γε συμβαλεῖν βασιλεῖ καὶ συντρόφῳ καὶ πολλάκις μὲν εὐεργέτῃ , χαλεπῷ δὲ οὐδέποτε , πλὴν ὅσον πονηροῖς συμβούλοις χρώμενος ἐπισείσειεν αὐτῷ σκιὰν ἀδικήματος . πείθεται τούτοις Ἡρώδης ὑπολαβὼν εἰς τὰς ἐλπίδας αὔταρκες εἶναι καὶ τὸ τὴν ἰσχὺν ἐπιδείξασθαι τῷ ἔθνει .

214 In this he was not mistaken, for angry at his threat to put him on trial, Herod turned his army towards Jerusalem to expel Hyrcanus and would have done so if his father and brother had not gone out together and calmed his fury by urging him to carry his revenge no further than threats and gestures, but to spare the king, under whom he had reached such power, and that he should not be so angry about his trial as to forget to be thankful for his acquittal, or dwell so much on misfortune as to be ungrateful for his safety .
215 If we reckon that God determines the outcome of war, an unjust cause has more effect than an army, so he ought not to be entirely confident of success if he fought against his king, who had helped him and had often been his benefactor, never treating him severely, and had heeded his evil counsellors only to the point of bringing a taint of injustice upon him. Herod was persuaded by these arguments and thought that for his future hopes he had already sufficiently shown his power to the nation .

[216] Κἀν τούτῳ γίνεται περὶ Ἀπάμειαν ταραχὴ Ῥωμαίων καὶ πόλεμος ἐμφύλιος , Καικιλίου μὲν Βάσσου διὰ τὴν εἰς Πομπήιον εὔνοιαν δολοφονήσαντος Σέξτον Καίσαρα καὶ τὴν ἐκείνου δύναμιν παραλαβόντος , τῶν δ’ ἄλλων Καίσαρος στρατηγῶν ἐπὶ τιμωρίαι τοῦ φόνου μετὰ δυνάμεως συνελθόντων .
[217] οἷς καὶ διὰ τὸν ἀνῃρημένον καὶ διὰ τὸν περιόντα Καίσαρα φίλους ὄντας ἀμφοτέρους Ἀντίπατρος διὰ τῶν παίδων ἔπεμψεν συμμαχίαν . μηκυνομένου δὲ τοῦ πολέμου Μοῦρκος μὲν ἀπὸ τῆς Ἰταλίας Σέξτου παραγίνεται διάδοχος ,

216 Meanwhile the Romans around Apamia were disturbed and there was a civil war caused by the treacherous murder of Sextus Caesar by Cecilius Bassus, which he did for Pompey's sake and took over his forces, but the rest of Caesar's officers attacked Bassus with all their force, to punish him for the murder .
217 Antipater sent them help through his sons, for the sake of the one who was murdered and of the Caesar who was still alive, both of whom were his friends, and as this war dragged on, Mourcus came from Italy as successor to Antistius .
Chapter 11
Cassius makes Herod ruler of Syria. Antipater's murder is avenged by Herod

[218] συνίσταται δὲ Ῥωμαίοις κατὰ τοῦτον τὸν καιρὸν μέγας πόλεμος Κασσίου καὶ Βρούτου κτεινάντων δόλῳ Καίσαρα κατασχόντα τὴν ἀρχὴν ἐπ’ ἔτη τρία καὶ μῆνας ἑπτά . μεγίστου δ’ ἐπὶ τῷ φόνῳ γενομένου κινήματος καὶ διαστασιασθέντων τῶν δυνατῶν ἕκαστος ἐλπίσιν οἰκείαις ἐχώρει πρὸς συμφέρειν ὑπελάμβανεν , καὶ δὴ καὶ Κάσσιος εἰς Συρίαν καταληψόμενος τὰς περὶ Ἀπάμειαν δυνάμεις .
[219] ἔνθα Βάσσῳ τε Μοῦρκον καὶ τὰ διεστῶτα τάγματα διαλλάξας ἐλευθεροῖ μὲν Ἀπάμειαν τῆς πολιορκίας , ἡγούμενος δ’ αὐτὸς τῆς στρατιᾶς ἐπήιει φορολογῶν τὰς πόλεις καὶ παρὰ δύναμιν τὰς εἰσπράξεις ποιούμενος .

218 At this time a major war arose among the Romans after the treacherous murder of Caesar by Cassius and Brutus, when he had held power for three years and seven months. This murder caused widespread upheaval and the influential men were sharply divided, each joining the party offering the best hopes of promotion, and Cassius came to Syria, to take command of the forces at Apamia .
219 There he reconciled Bassus and Murcus and their opposing legions, and raising the siege of Apamia, he took command of the army and went about exacting larger amounts of tax from the cities than they could bear .

[220] Κελευσθὲν δὲ καὶ Ἰουδαίοις εἰσενεγκεῖν ἑπτακόσια τάλαντα δείσας Ἀντίπατρος τὴν ἀπειλὴν τοῦ Κασσίου τοῖς τε υἱοῖς διεῖλεν εἰσπράττειν τὰ χρήματα καί τισιν ἄλλοις τῶν ἐπιτηδείων κατὰ τάχος , ἐν οἷς καὶ Μαλίχῳ τινὶ τῶν διαφόρων · οὕτως ἤπειγεν ἀνάγκη .
[221] πρῶτος δ’ ἀπεμειλίξατο Κάσσιον Ἡρώδης τὴν ἑαυτοῦ μοῖραν ἐκ τῆς Γαλιλαίας κομίσας ἑκατὸν τάλαντα καὶ διὰ τοῦτο ἐν τοῖς μάλιστα Φίλος ἦν . τοὺς δὲ λοιποὺς εἰς βραδυτῆτα κακίσας αὐταῖς ἐθυμοῦτο ταῖς πόλεσιν .
[222] Γόφνα γοῦν καὶ Ἀμμαοῦν καὶ δύο ἑτέρας τῶν ταπεινοτέρων ἐξανδραποδισάμενος ἐχώρει μὲν ὡς καὶ Μάλιχον ἀναιρήσων , ὅτι μὴ σπεύσας εἰσέπραξεν , ἐπέσχεν δὲ τὴν τούτου καὶ τὴν τῶν ἄλλων πόλεων ἀπώλειαν Ἀντίπατρος ταχέως ἑκατὸν ταλάντοις θεραπεύσας Κάσσιον .

220 He ordered the Jews to bring in seven hundred talents, and dreading the threats of Cassius, Antipater divided the raising of this sum among his sons and some others, needing it done quickly, and among them he required the hostile Malichus to do the necessary .
221 First of all Herod calmed the passion of Cassius by bringing his share from Galilee, a hundred talents, for which he highly favoured him, while insulting the rest for being tardy, and vented his anger on the cities .
222 He captured Gophna and Emmaus and two others of lesser note, and seemed ready to kill Malichus for not being quicker in exacting his tax. Antipater prevented the ruin of this man and of the other cities and won favour with Cassius by instantly bringing in a hundred talents .

[223] Οὐ μὴν Μάλιχος ἀναχωρήσαντος Κασσίου τῆς χάριτος ἀπεμνημόνευσεν Ἀντιπάτρῳ , κατὰ δὲ τοῦ πολλάκις σωτῆρος ἐπιβουλὴν ἐνεσκευάζετο σπεύδων ἀνελεῖν τὸν ἐμπόδιον αὐτοῦ‎ τοῖς ἀδικήμασιν Ἀντίπατρος δὲ τήν τε ἰσχὺν καὶ τὸ πανοῦργον τἀνδρὸς ὑποδείσας διαβαίνει τὸν Ἰορδάνην στρατὸν ἀθροίσων εἰς τὴν τῆς ἐπιβουλῆς ἄμυναν .
[224] φωραθεὶς δὲ Μάλιχος ἀναιδείᾳ τῶν Ἀντιπάτρου παίδων περιγίνεται · τόν τε γὰρ Ἱεροσολύμων φρουρὸν Φασάηλον καὶ Ἡρώδην πεπιστευμένον τὰ ὅπλα πολλαῖς ἀπολογίαις καὶ ὅρκοις ἐκγοητεύσας διαλλακτὰς αὐτῷ πρὸς τὸν πατέρα πείθει γίνεσθαι . πάλιν γοῦν ὑπ’ Ἀντιπάτρου σώζεται πείσαντος Μοῦρκον τὸν τότε στρατηγοῦντα Συρίας , ὃς ὥρμητο κτεῖναι Μάλιχον ἐφ’ οἷς ἐνεωτέρισεν .

3 .
222 But once Cassius was gone Malichus forgot the favour Antipater had done him and frequently schemed to get rid of the one who had saved him, because he was a hindrance to his misdeeds. Antipater was so afraid of the man's power and cunning that he went across the Jordan to raise an army and guard against his treachery .
224 When Malichus' plot was found out, he boldly duped Antipater's sons and by many excuses and oaths tricked Phasael, who was in command of Jerusalem and Herod who was entrusted with the arsenal, persuading them to help him be reconciled with his father. So he was again saved by Antipater, who talked Mourcus, the then ruler of Syria, out of his resolve to execute Malichus for attempted rebellion .

[225] Συστάντος δὲ τοῦ πρὸς Κάσσιον καὶ Βροῦτον πολέμου Καίσαρί τε τῷ νέῳ καὶ Ἀντωνίῳ Κάσσιος καὶ Μοῦρκος στρατιὰν ἀθροίσαντες ἐκ τῆς Συρίας , ἐπειδὴ μέγα μέρος εἰς τὰς χρείας Ἡρώδης ἔδοξε , τότε μὲν αὐτὸν Συρίας ἁπάσης ἐπιμελητὴν καθιστᾶσιν δύναμιν πεζήν τε καὶ ἱππικὴν δόντες , μετὰ δὲ τὴν τοῦ πολέμου κατάλυσιν ἀποδείξειν Κάσσιος ὑπέσχετο καὶ Ἰουδαίας βασιλέα .
[226] συνέβη δ’ Ἀντιπάτρῳ τήν τε ἰσχὺν τοῦ παιδὸς καὶ τὴν ἐλπίδα αἰτίαν ἀπωλείας γενέσθαι · ταῦτα γὰρ δείσας Μάλιχος διαφθείρει τινὰ τῶν βασιλικῶν οἰνοχόων χρήμασιν δοῦναι φάρμακον Ἀντιπάτρῳ . καὶ μὲν ἀγώνισμα τῆς Μαλίχου παρανομίας γενόμενος μετὰ τὸ συμπόσιον θνήσκει τά τε ἄλλα δραστήριος ἀνὴρ ἐν ἀφηγήσει πραγμάτων καὶ τὴν ἀρχὴν ἀνακτησάμενός τε Ὑρκανῷ καὶ διαφυλάξας .

225 During the war of Cassius and Brutus against the younger Caesar and Antony, Cassius and Marcus Brutus gathered an army from Syria, and because Herod was likely to play a big part in providing essentials, they made him procurator of all Syria and gave him an army of both infantry and cavalry, and Cassius promised to make him king of Judea, after the war was over .
226 But the power and the hopes of his son became the cause of Antipater's ruin, for being anxious about this, Malichus bribed one of the king's cup-bearers to give Antipater a poisoned drink, so he was sacrificed to Malichus's wickedness and died at a feast. He had been most active in the management of affairs, and was vital in regaining and retaining power for Hyrcanus .

[227] Μάλιχος δὲ καθ’ ὑπόνοιαν τῆς φαρμακείας ὀργιζόμενον τὸ πλῆθος ἀρνούμενος ἔπειθεν καὶ δυνατώτερον ἑαυτὸν κατεσκεύαζεν ὁπλίτας συγκροτῶν · οὐ γὰρ ἠρεμήσειν Ἡρώδην ὑπελάμβανεν , ὃς δὴ καὶ παρῆν αὐτίκα στρατὸν ἄγων ἐπὶ τιμωρίαι τοῦ πατρός .
[228] Φασαήλου δὲ τἀδελφοῦ συμβουλεύσαντος αὐτῷ μὴ φανερῶς τὸν ἄνδρα μετιέναι , διαστασιάσειν γὰρ τὸ πλῆθος , τότε μὲν ἀπολογούμενόν τε προσίεται τὸν Μάλιχον καὶ τῆς ὑπονοίας ἀπολύειν ὡμολόγει , λαμπρὰν δὲ πομπὴν ἐπὶ τῷ πατρὶ κηδείας ἐτέλεσεν .

227 Suspected of poisoning Antipater and seeing the people's anger at him, Malichus denied it and placated them. But not expecting Herod to remain at peace, he wanted to strengthen his position and raised soldiers, and indeed the latter soon came against him with an army, to revenge his father's death .
228 Still, advised by his brother Phasael not to execute him publicly in case the people should rebel, he accepted Malichus's apology and professed to lift the suspicion from him and then made a splendid funeral for his father .

[229] Τραπεὶς δ’ ἐπὶ Σαμάρειαν στάσει τεταραγμένην κατεστήσατο τὴν πόλιν · ἔπειτα καθ’ ἑορτὴν ὑπέστρεφεν εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα τοὺς ὁπλίτας ἄγων . καὶ πέμπων Ὑρκανός , ἐνῆγεν γὰρ δεδοικὼς τὴν ἔφοδον Μάλιχος , ἐκώλυεν τοὺς ἀλλοφύλους εἰσαγαγεῖν ἐφ’ ἁγνεύοντας τοὺς ἐπιχωρίους . δὲ τῆς προφάσεως καταφρονήσας καὶ τοῦ προστάσσοντος εἰσέρχεται διὰ νυκτός .
[230] καὶ πάλιν Μάλιχος προσιὼν ἔκλαιεν Ἀντίπατρον · ἀνθυπεκρίνετο δὲ μόλις Ἡρώδης τὸν θυμὸν ἐπέχων καὶ Κασσίῳ δι’ ἐπιστολῶν τὴν τοῦ πατρὸς ἀναίρεσιν ἀπωδύρετο μισοῦντι καὶ ἄλλως Μάλιχον . δ’ αὐτῷ μετιέναι τὸν φονέα τοῦ πατρὸς ἀντεπιστείλας καὶ τοῖς ὑφ’ ἑαυτὸν χιλιάρχοις λάθρα προσέταξεν Ἡρώδῃ βοηθεῖν εἰς πρᾶξιν δικαίαν .

229 Herod went to quell an uprising in Samaria, and settled the city in peace before returning with his infantry to Jerusalem for the festival. Then Hyrcanus, instigated by Malichus whom he feared, forbade them to let foreigners mingle with the locals during their purifications, but scorning both this pretext and the one who had made it, Herod came in by night .
230 When Malichus came to sympathise about Antipater, Herod pretended to believe him, though he found it hard to contain his anger. He did, however, complain of his father's murder in his letters to Cassius, who also hated Malichus for other reasons. Cassius sent back word that he would avenge his father's death for him and secretly ordered his tribunes to help Herod to execute justice. .

[231] Καὶ ἐπειδὴ Λαοδίκειαν ἑλόντος αὐτοῦ‎ συνῇσαν οἱ πανταχόθεν δυνατοὶ δωρεάς τε καὶ στεφάνους φέροντες , Ἡρώδης μὲν τοῦτον τῇ τιμωρίαι τὸν καιρὸν ἀφώρισεν , Μάλιχος δὲ ὑποπτεύσας , ὡς ἐν Τύρῳ γίνεται , τόν τε υἱὸν ὁμηρεύοντα παρὰ τοῖς Τυρίοις ὑπεξαγαγεῖν ἔγνω λάθρα καὶ αὐτὸς εἰς τὴν Ἰουδαίαν ἀποδρᾶναι παρεσκευάζετο ·
[232] παρώξυνεν δ’ αὐτὸν τῆς σωτηρίας ἀπόγνωσις ἐνθυμεῖσθαι καὶ μείζονα · τό τε γὰρ ἔθνος ἐπαναστήσειν Ῥωμαίοις ἤλπισεν Κασσίου τῷ πρὸς Ἀντώνιον πολέμῳ περισπωμένου καὶ βασιλεύσειν αὐτὸς Ὑρκανὸν καταλύσας εὐμαρῶς .

231 When he took Laodicea and the leaders flocked to him from all quarters bearing gifts and crowns, Herod took his opportunity to strike at Malichus. Suspecting this while he was in Tyre, Malichus decided to secretly remove his son from the Tyrians, where he was held hostage, while he himself got ready to escape into Judea .
232 His desperate danger spurred him to aim for higher things, for he hoped to rouse the nation to revolt from the Romans while Cassius was busy with the war against Antony, and that he could easily depose Hyrcanus and become king himself .

[233] Ἐπεγέλα δ’ ἄρα τὸ χρεὼν αὐτοῦ‎ ταῖς ἐλπίσιν . γοῦν Ἡρώδης προϊδόμενος αὐτοῦ‎ τὴν ὁρμὴν τόν τε Ὑρκανὸν κἀκεῖνον ἐπὶ δεῖπνον ἐκάλει , παρεστῶτας ἔπειτα τῶν οἰκετῶν τινας πρὸς αὑτὸν εἰσέπεμψεν ὡς ἐπὶ τὴν τοῦ δείπνου παρασκευήν , τῷ δὲ ὄντι προειπεῖν τοῖς χιλιάρχοις ἐξελθεῖν ἐπὶ τὴν ἐνέδραν .
[234] κἀκεῖνοι τῶν Κασσίου προσταγμάτων ἀναμνησθέντες ἐπὶ τὸν πρὸ τῆς πόλεως αἰγιαλὸν ἐξήιεσαν ξιφήρεις , ἔνθα περιστάντες τὸν Μάλιχον πολλοῖς τραύμασιν ἀναιροῦσιν . Ὑρκανὸς δὲ παραχρῆμα μὲν λυθεὶς ὑπ’ ἐκπλήξεως ἔπεσεν , μόλις δὲ ἀνενεγκὼν Ἡρώδην διηρώτα , τίς κτείνας εἴη Μάλιχον .
[235] ἀποκριναμένου δέ τινος τῶν χιλιάρχων « τὸ Κασσίου πρόσταγμα» , « Κάσσιος ἄρα , ἔφη , κἀμὲ καὶ τὴν πατρίδα μου σώζει τὸν ἀμφοτέρων ἐπίβουλον ἀνελώνεἴτε δὲ φρονῶν Ὑρκανὸς οὕτως εἴθ’ ὑπὸ δέους ὁμόσε τῇ πράξει χωρῶν εἶπεν , ἄδηλον ἦν . ἀλλὰ γὰρ Μάλιχον μὲν οὕτως Ἡρώδης μετῆλθεν .

233 But fate mocked his hopes, for Herod foresaw his intent and invited him and Hyrcanus to a supper and then sent out one of his servants as though to prepare things for supper, but in reality to tell the tribunes to be ready for the ambush .
234 Remembering Cassius' orders, they went down sword in hand from the city to the shore, where they surrounded Malichus and killed him with many wounds. Hyrcanus fainted at the sudden shock and fell down,and had barely revived when he asked Herod who had killed Malichus .
235 When one of the tribunes replied that it was done at the command of Cassius, he said, "Then, by removing one who was plotting against me and my country, Cassius has saved us both ." Whether or not Hyrcanus really thought this, or if it was fear that made him commend the deed, that was how Herod took his revenge on Malichus .
Chapter 12
Mark Antony makes Phasael and Herod tetrarchs, despite a Jewish deputation opposing their rule

[236] Κασσίου δὲ ἀναχωρήσαντος ἐκ Συρίας πάλιν στάσις ἐν Ἱεροσολύμοις γίνεται Ἕλικος μετὰ στρατιᾶς ἐπαναστάντος Φασαήλῳ καὶ κατὰ τὴν ὑπὲρ Μαλίχου τιμωρίαν ἀμύνεσθαι θέλοντος Ἡρώδην εἰς τὸν ἀδελφόν . Ἡρώδης δὲ ἔτυχεν μὲν ὢν παρὰ Φαβίῳ τῷ στρατηγῷ κατὰ Δαμασκόν , ὡρμημένος δὲ βοηθεῖν ὑπὸ νόσου κατείχετο .
[237] κἀν τούτῳ Φασάηλος καθ’ ἑαυτὸν Ἕλικος περιγενόμενος Ὑρκανὸν ὠνείδιζεν εἰς ἀχαριστίαν ὧν τε Ἕλικι συμπράξειεν , καὶ ὅτι περιορώιη τὸν ἀδελφὸν τὸν Μαλίχου τὰ φρούρια καταλαμβάνοντα · πολλὰ γὰρ δὴ κατείληπτο , καὶ τὸ πάντων ὀχυρώτατον Μασάδαν .

236 After Cassius left Syria, another rebellion arose in Jerusalem, where Helix attacked Phasael with an army, to take revenge on Herod for the death of Malichus by attacking his brother. At the time, Herod happened to be with Fabius, the ruler of Damascus and as he was going to his brother's help, he was detained by sickness .
237 Meanwhile, Phasael defeated Helix by himself and reproached Hyrcanus for ingratitude, both for the help he had given Malichus and for ignoring Malichus's brother after he gained possession of the fortresses, for already he held many of them, among them the strongest of them all, Masada .

[238] Οὐ μὴν αὐτῷ τι πρὸς τὴν Ἡρώδου βίαν ἤρκεσεν , ὃς ἀναρρωσθεὶς τά τε ἄλλα παραλαμβάνει κἀκεῖνον ἐκ τῆς Μασάδας ἱκέτην ἀφῆκεν . ἐξήλασεν δὲ καὶ ἐκ τῆς Γαλιλαίας Μαρίωνα τὸν Τυρίων τύραννον ἤδη τρία κατεσχηκότα τῶν ἐρυμάτων , τοὺς δὲ ληφθέντας Τυρίους ἔσωσεν μὲν πάντας , ἦσαν δ’ οὓς καὶ δωρησάμενος ἀπέπεμψεν εὔνοιαν ἑαυτῷ παρὰ τῆς πόλεως καὶ τῷ τυράννῳ μῖσος παρασκευαζόμενος .
[239] δὲ Μαρίων ἠξίωτο μὲν τῆς τυραννίδος ὑπὸ Κασσίου τυραννίσιν πᾶσαν διαλαβόντος τὴν Συρίαν , κατὰ δὲ τὸ πρὸς Ἡρώδην ἔχθος συγκατήγαγεν Ἀντίγονον τὸν Ἀριστοβούλου , καὶ τὸ πλέον διὰ Φάβιον , ὃν Ἀντίγονος χρήμασιν προσποιησάμενος βοηθὸν εἶχεν τῆς καθόδου · χορηγὸς δ’ ἦν ἁπάντων κηδεστὴς Πτολεμαῖος Ἀντιγόνῳ .

238 But he could not withstand the force of Herod, who, as soon as he was recovered, took the other fortresses again and drove him from Masada as a supplicant. He also expelled from Galilee Marion, the tyrant of the Tyrians, when he had already captured three strongholds, though he had let live the Tyrians whom he had caught, even giving gifts to some of them before senging them away. By this he earned from the city goodwill towards himself and hatred towards the tyrant .
239 Marion's regime was due to Cassius, who appointed tyrants over all of Syria, and, moved by hatred for Herod, had helped Antigonus, son of Aristobulus. In this he was prompted by Fabius, whom Antigonus had paid to help in his restoration, while the expenses of his exile were paid by his relative, Ptolemy .

[240] Πρὸς οὓς Ἡρώδης ἀντιπαραταξάμενος ἐπὶ τῶν ἐμβολῶν τῆς Ἰουδαίας κρατεῖ τῇ μάχῃ καὶ τὸν Ἀντίγονον ἐξελάσας ὑπέστρεψεν εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα πᾶσιν ἀγαπητὸς ὢν ἐπὶ τῷ κατορθώματι · καὶ γὰρ οἱ μὴ προσέχοντες πάλαι τότε ὠικείωντο διὰ τὴν πρὸς Ὑρκανὸν ἐπιγαμίαν αὐτῷ .
[241] πρότερον μὲν γὰρ ἦκτο γυναῖκα τῶν ἐπιχωρίων οὐκ ἄσημον , Δωρὶς ἐκαλεῖτο , ἐξ ἧς ἐγέννησεν Ἀντίπατρον , τότε δὲ γήμας τὴν Ἀλεξάνδρου τοῦ Ἀριστοβούλου θυγατέρα , θυγατριδῆν δὲ Ὑρκανοῦ Μαριάμην οἰκεῖος τῷ βασιλεῖ γίνεται .

240 Herod resisted them in the highways of Judea and won, and drove Antigonus off and returned to Jerusalem, beloved by all for his splendid exploit. Those who previously did not favour him joined him now, because of his marriage into the family of Hyrcanus .
241 Whereas he had formerly married a wife of noble blood called Doris from his own district, by whom he had a son, Antipater, now he married Mariamne, a daughter of Alexander the son of Aristobulus, and a granddaughter of Hyrcanus, and had thereby become related to the king .

[242] Ἐπεὶ δὲ Κάσσιον περὶ Φιλίππους ἀνελόντες ἀνεχώρησαν εἰς μὲν Ἰταλίαν Καῖσαρ ἐπὶ δὲ τῆς Ἀσίας Ἀντώνιος , πρεσβευομένων τῶν ἄλλων πόλεων πρὸς Ἀντώνιον εἰς Βιθυνίαν ἧκον καὶ Ἰουδαίων οἱ δυνατοὶ κατηγοροῦντες Φασαήλου καὶ Ἡρώδου , βίαι μὲν αὐτοὺς κρατεῖν τῶν πραγμάτων , ὄνομα δὲ μόνον περιεῖναι Ὑρκανῷ τίμιον . πρὸς παρὼν Ἡρώδης καὶ τεθεραπευκὼς οὐκ ὀλίγοις Ἀντώνιον χρήμασιν οὕτως διέθηκεν , ὡς μηδὲ λόγου τῶν ἐχθρῶν ἀνασχέσθαι .

242 But after killing Cassius near Philippi, Caesar went back to Italy and Antony to Asia; then along with other cities which sent envoys to Antony to Bithynia, the great men of the Jews also came to accuse Phasael and Herod of holding power by force, and Hyrcanus of holding only an honourary title. Herod came in person, and befriended Antony by giving him large sums of money, he making him unwilling to hear any hostile words against him, so for the moment his enemies were put to silence .

[243] καὶ τότε μὲν οὕτως διελύθησαν , αὖθις δὲ οἱ ἐν τέλει Ἰουδαίων ἑκατὸν ἄνδρες ἧκον εἰς τὴν πρὸς Ἀντιόχειαν Δάφνην ἐπ’ Ἀντώνιον ἤδη τῷ Κλεοπάτρας ἔρωτι δεδουλωμένον · οἳ προστησάμενοι τοὺς ἀξιώματι καὶ λόγῳ σφῶν δυνατωτάτους κατηγόρουν τῶν ἀδελφῶν . ὑπήντα δὲ Μεσσάλας ἀπολογούμενος συμπαρεστῶτος Ὑρκανοῦ διὰ τὸ κῆδος .
[244] καὶ Ἀντώνιος ἀκούσας ἑκατέρων Ὑρκανοῦ διεπυνθάνετο τοὺς ἐπιτηδειοτέρους ὄντας ἄρχειν · τοῦ δὲ τοὺς περὶ τὸν Ἡρώδην προκρίνοντος , ἡσθείς , ἦν γὰρ δὴ καὶ ξένος αὐτοῖς πατρῷος δεχθεὶς ὑπ’ Ἀντιπάτρου φιλοφρόνως ὅτε εἰς τὴν Ἰουδαίαν σὺν Γαβινίῳ παρέβαλλεν , τετράρχας ἀποδείκνυσιν τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς πᾶσαν διοικεῖν τὴν Ἰουδαίαν ἐπιτρέπων .

243 Later, however, a hundred of the leading Jews came to Daphne near Antioch, to meet Antony, who was already in thrall to his love for Cleopatra, and putting forward their most noble and eloquent speakers, made their accusations against the brothers. But Messala faced them for the defence while Hyrcanus stood beside him, because of his connection by marriage .
244 When Antony had heard both sides and asked Hyrcanus which party was most fit to govern, he replied in favour of Herod. This pleased Antony, for he had formerly been warmly welcomed by his father Antipater, when campaigning with Gabinius in Judea. So he appointed the brothers tetrarchs and entrusted them with ruling Judea .

[245] Προσαγανακτούντων δὲ τῶν πρέσβεων πεντεκαίδεκα μὲν συλλαβὼν εἵργνυσιν , οὓς καὶ ἀνελεῖν ὥρμησεν , τοὺς δὲ λοιποὺς μεθ’ ὕβρεως ἀπήλασεν . πρὸς μείζων ἐν τοῖς Ἱεροσολύμοις γίνεται ταραχή · χιλίους γοῦν πάλιν ἔπεμψαν πρέσβεις εἰς Τύρον , ἔνθα διέτριβεν Ἀντώνιος ἐπὶ Ἱεροσολύμων ὡρμημένος . ἐπὶ τούτους κεκραγότας ἐκπέμπει τὸν ἄρχοντα τῶν Τυρίων κολάζειν προστάξας οὓς ἂν λάβῃ , συγκατασκευάζειν δὲ τὴν ἀρχὴν τοῖς ὑπ’ αὐτοῦ‎ κατασταθεῖσιν τετράρχαις .

245 But when the envoys were angry at this procedure, Antony took and jailed fifteen of them and was prepared to execute them, and the rest he drove away in disgrace. This caused still further rioting in Jerusalem. Again they sent a thousand envoys to Tyre, where Antony had paused during his march to Jerusalem. He sent out the ruler of Tyre against these complainants to punish all of them he could catch and to support the rule of the tetrarchs appointed by him .

[246] Πρὸ δὲ τούτου πολλὰ παρήινει προελθὼν ἐπὶ τὸν αἰγιαλὸν Ἡρώδης σὺν Ὑρκανῷ μήθ’ ἑαυτοῖς ἀπωλείας αἰτίους μήτε τῇ πατρίδι πολέμου γίνεσθαι φιλονεικοῦντας ἀκρίτως . τῶν δὲ ἔτι μᾶλλον ἀγανακτούντων Ἀντώνιος ἐκπέμψας ὁπλίτας πολλοὺς μὲν ἀπέκτεινεν , πολλοὺς δὲ ἔτρωσεν · ὧν οἵ τε πεσόντες ταφῆς καὶ οἱ τραυματίαι θεραπείας ἠξιώθησαν ὑπὸ Ὑρκανοῦ .
[247] οὐ μὴν οἱ διαφυγόντες ἠρέμουν , ἀλλὰ τὰ κατὰ τὴν πόλιν συνταράσσοντες παρώξυναν Ἀντώνιον ὥστε καὶ τοὺς δεσμώτας ἀποκτεῖναι .

246 Before this Herod and Hyrcanus went to the sea-shore and implored these envoys not to destroy themselves, or bring war on their native land, by ill-judged quarrels. However, as they grew still more embittered, Antony sent troops and killed or wounded many .
247 Although the dead were buried by Hyrcanus, and he had the wounded cared for, even still those who escaped would not be silent but stirred up the city so much that it provoked Antony into killing the prisoners .
Chapter 13
Parthians restore Antigonus' rule in Judea. Hyrcanus is mutilated, Herod's brother is killed, and himself put to flight.

[248] μετὰ δὲ ἔτη δύο Βαζαφράνου τοῦ Πάρθων σατράπου σὺν Πακόρῳ τῷ βασιλέως υἱῷ Συρίαν κατασχόντος Λυσανίας ἀναδεδεγμένος ἤδη τὴν ἀρχὴν τοῦ πατρὸς τελευτήσαντος , Πτολεμαῖος δ’ ἦν οὗτος Μενναίου , πείθει τὸν σατράπην ὑποσχέσει χιλίων ταλάντων καὶ πεντακοσίων γυναικῶν καταγαγεῖν ἐπὶ τὰ βασίλεια τὸν Ἀντίγονον , καταλῦσαι δὲ τὸν Ὑρκανόν .
[249] τούτοις ὑπαχθεὶς Πάκορος αὐτὸς μὲν ἤιει κατὰ τὴν παράλιον , Βαζαφράνην δὲ διὰ τῆς μεσογείου προσέταξεν ἐμβαλεῖν . τῶν δ’ ἐπιθαλαττίων Τύριοι Πάκορον οὐκ ἐδέξαντο καίτοι Πτολεμαιῶν καὶ Σιδωνίων δεδεγμένων . δ’ οἰνοχόῳ τινὶ τῶν βασιλικῶν ὁμωνύμῳ μοῖραν τῆς ἵππου παραδοὺς προεμβαλεῖν ἐκέλευσεν εἰς τὴν Ἰουδαίαν κατασκεψόμενόν τε τὰ τῶν πολεμίων καὶ πρὸς δέοι βοηθήσοντα Ἀντιγόνῳ .

248 Two years later, the Parthian satrap Barzapharnes and Pacorus, the king's son, occupied Syria, and Lysanias, who had taken over after the death of his father Ptolemy, the son of Mennaeus, persuaded the satrap, by a promise of a thousand talents and five hundred women, to restore Antigonus to his kingdom and to depose Hyrcanus .
249 Prompted by this, Pacorus marched down along the coastal route, commanding Barzapharnes to march through the interior. Of the coastal towns, the Tyrians would not receive Pacorus, but those of Ptolemais and Sidon did receive him, so he left a troop of his cavalry to a cup-bearer of the same name as himself, belonging to the royal family, with orders to proceed into Judea, to gain information about the enemy and to help Antigonus as required .

[250] Τῶν δὲ λῃζομένων τὸν Κάρμηλον πολλοὶ Ἰουδαῖοι συνδραμόντες πρὸς Ἀντίγονον προθύμους ἑαυτοὺς ἐπὶ τὴν εἰσβολὴν παρεῖχον . δὲ αὐτοὺς ἐπὶ τὸν καλούμενον Δρυμὸν προέπεμψεν τὸ χωρίον καταλαβεῖν · ἐν ὧι γενομένης συμβολῆς ὠσάμενοι τοὺς πολεμίους καὶ διώξαντες ἐπὶ Ἱεροσολύμων ἔθεον γενόμενοί τε πλείους μέχρι τῶν βασιλείων προῆλθον .
[251] Ὑρκανοῦ δὲ καὶ Φασαήλου δεξαμένων αὐτοὺς καρτερῷ στίφει μάχη κατὰ τὴν ἀγορὰν συρρήγνυται , καθ’ ἣν τρεψάμενοι τοὺς πολεμίους οἱ περὶ Ἡρώδην κατακλείουσιν εἰς τὸ ἱερὸν καὶ φρουροὺς αὐτῶν ἄνδρας ἑξήκοντα ταῖς πλησίον οἰκίαις ἐγκατέστησαν .
[252] τούτους μὲν στασιάζων πρὸς τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς λαὸς ἐπελθὼν ἐμπίπρησιν , Ἡρώδης δὲ τοῦ δήμου πολλοὺς κατ’ ὀργὴν τῶν ἀπολωλότων ἀναιρεῖ συμβαλών , καὶ καθ’ ἡμέραν ἐπεκθεόντων ἀλλήλοις κατὰ λόχους φόνος ἦν ἀδιάλειπτος .

250 As these were ravaging Carmel, many of the Jews hurried to join Antigonus, prepared to invade the country, so he sent them ahead to a place called Coppice, to seize it. A battle was fought there and they routed the enemy and pursued them as far as Jerusalem, and with their numbers constantly growing, they reached the royal palace .
251 As Hyrcanus and Phasael were ready for them with a strong group of men, a battle ensued in the marketplace, where the Herodian side defeated the enemy and shut them up in the temple and set sixty men in the adjoining houses to keep guard over them .
252 But the people who were opposed to the brothers entered and burned the guards, and Herod, in his rage at losing them, attacked and killed many of the people, until each side in turn ambushed the other by turns on a daily basis, and there was no end of slaughter .

[253] Ἐνστάσης δ’ ἑορτῆς , πεντηκοστὴ καλεῖται , τά τε περὶ τὸ ἱερὸν πάντα καὶ πόλις ὅλη πλήθους τῶν ἀπὸ τῆς χώρας ἀναπίμπλαται τὸ πλέον ὁπλιτῶν . καὶ Φασάηλος μὲν τὸ τεῖχος , Ἡρώδης δ’ οὐ μετὰ πολλῶν ἐφρούρει τὰ βασίλεια · καὶ τοῖς πολεμίοις ἐπεκδραμὼν ἀσυντάκτοις κατὰ τὸ προάστειον πλείστους μὲν ἀναιρεῖ , τρέπεται δὲ πάντας καὶ τοὺς μὲν εἰς τὴν πόλιν , τοὺς δὲ εἰς τὸ ἱερόν , τοὺς δὲ εἰς τὸ ἔξω χαράκωμα ἐγκλείει .
[254] κἀν τούτῳ διαλλακτὴν μὲν Ἀντίγονος παρακαλεῖ Πάκορον εἰσαφεῖναι , Φασάηλος δὲ πεισθεὶς τῇ τε πόλει καὶ ξενίαι τὸν Πάρθον εἰσδέχεται μετὰ πεντακοσίων ἱππέων , προφάσει μὲν ἥκοντα τοῦ παῦσαι τὴν στάσιν .
[255] τὸ δὲ ἀληθὲς Ἀντιγόνῳ βοηθόν . τὸν γοῦν Φασάηλον ἐνεδρεύων ἀνέπεισεν πρὸς Βαζαφράνην πρεσβεύσασθαι περὶ καταλύσεως , καίτοι γε πολλὰ ἀποτρέποντος Ἡρώδου καὶ παραινοῦντος ἀναιρεῖν τὸν ἐπίβουλον , ἀλλὰ μὴ ταῖς ἐπιβουλαῖς ἑαυτὸν ἐκδιδόναι , φύσει γὰρ ἀπίστους εἶναι τοὺς βαρβάρους , ἔξεισιν Ὑρκανὸν παραλαβών , καὶ Πάκορος , ὡς ἧττον ὑποπτεύοιτο , καταλιπὼν παρ’ Ἡρώδῃ τινὰς τῶν καλουμένων Ἐλευθέρων ἱππέων τοῖς λοιποῖς προέπεμψεν Φασάηλον .

253 When the feast called Pentecost was near, the whole area around the temple and the city itself was thronged with people up from the country, many of them armed. Phasael was guarding the wall and Herod, with a small force, was guarding the royal palace, and when he made an attack on his disorganised enemies, on the north quarter of the city, he killed many and put them all to flight, and shut up some of them within the city and others within the outer fort .
254 Meanwhile Antigonus asked to have Pacorus accepted as a mediator between them, and Phasael agreed to admit the Parthian into the city with five hundred cavalry, purportedly to bring the civil strife to an end, but in fact he came to help Antigonus .
255 This man tricked Phasael into going on an embassy to Barzapharnes to resolve the issue, though Herod tried hard to dissuade him, urging him to kill the conspirator and not risk the traps set for him, since the barbarians are treacherous by nature. But Pacorus came out, bringing Hyrcanus with him so as to be less suspected, and left in Herod's charge some of his cavalry, called the Freemen, and with the rest went off with Phasael .

[256] ὡς δ’ ἐγένοντο κατὰ τὴν Γαλιλαίαν , τοὺς μὲν ἐπιχωρίους ἀφεστῶτας κἀν τοῖς ὅπλοις ὄντας καταλαμβάνουσιν , τῷ σατράπῃ δὲ ἐνετύγχανον πανούργῳ σφόδρα καὶ ταῖς φιλοφρονήσεσιν τὴν ἐπιβουλὴν καλύπτοντι · δῶρα γοῦν δοὺς αὐτοῖς ἔπειτα ἀναχωροῦντας ἐλόχα .
[257] τοῖς δ’ αἴσθησις γίνεται τῆς ἐπιβουλῆς καταχθεῖσιν εἴς τι τῶν παραθαλασσίων χωρίων , καλεῖται Ἐκδίππων · ἐκεῖ γὰρ τήν τε ὑπόσχεσιν τῶν χιλίων ἤκουσαν ταλάντων καὶ ὡς Ἀντίγονος τὰς πλείστας τῶν παρ’ αὐτοῖς γυναικῶν ἐν ταῖς πεντακοσίαις καθοσιώσειεν Πάρθοις ,
[258] ὅτι τε προλοχίζοιντο μὲν αὐτοῖς αἱ νύκτες ὑπὸ τῶν βαρβάρων ἀεί , πάλαι δ’ ἂν καὶ συνελήφθησαν , εἰ μὴ περιέμενον ἐν Ἱεροσολύμοις Ἡρώδην πρότερον λαβεῖν , ὡς μὴ προπυθόμενος τὰ κατ’ αὐτοὺς φυλάξαιτο . ταῦτ’ οὐκέτι λόγος ἦν μόνον , ἀλλὰ καὶ φυλακὰς ἤδη πόρρωθεν ἑαυτῶν ἔβλεπον .

256 But when they reached Galilee, they found the local people in armed revolt and when these came to the satrap he cunningly concealed his intentions and received them graciously. First he gave them gifts and then set an ambush for them as they went away .
257 They became aware of the trap when they reached one of the coastal towns named Ecdippon, for where they heard of the promise of a thousand talents and how among the five hundred women Antigonus had promised to the Parthians, most of their wives were included .
258 They also noted how the barbarians regularly set traps for them by night, and would have already seized them if they were not waiting for Herod to be first captured in Jerusalem, so as not to alert him of treachery. And this was no mere hersay, for they saw the sentries already not far from them .

[259] Οὐ μὴν Φασάηλος καίτοι πολλὰ παραινοῦντος Ὀφελλίου φεύγειν , πέπυστο γὰρ οὗτος παρὰ Σαραμάλλα τοῦ πλουσιωτάτου τότε Σύρων τὴν σύνταξιν τῆς ἐπιβουλῆς ὅλην , καταλιπεῖν Ὑρκανὸν ὑπέμεινεν , ἀλλὰ τῷ σατράπῃ προσελθὼν ἄντικρυς ὠνείδιζεν τὴν ἐπιβουλὴν καὶ μάλισθ’ ὅτι γένοιτο τοιοῦτος χρημάτων ἕνεκεν · πλείω γε μὴν αὐτὸς ὑπὲρ σωτηρίας δώσειν ὧν Ἀντίγονος ὑπὲρ βασιλείας ὑπέσχετο .
[260] πρὸς ταῦτα πανούργως Πάρθος